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r SU*SL 


rerslty of Michigan 
Ar l Vigan 








£ ottbon : 




The Council of the Royal Colonial Institute are not responsible in any 
way for the opinions expressed by the Authors of the several Papers 
inserted in this Volume. 

Members on changing their addresses are particularly requested to notify 
the change to the Honorary Secretary, in order that delay in forwarding 
the Transactions and other communications may be avoided as much as 

Honorary Secretary. 

Royal Colonial Institute, 
15, Strand, W.O. 

22nd July, 1882. 


COUNC IL OF 18 82-83 . 


G.C.B., G.C.8.I., G.C.M.G. 







i lis I Al FORD H. NORTH COTE, Bart.,G.C.B.. MP 
rcHOLSON, Babt. 

\LT, G.C.M.G. 


BOMB MapLeay, K. C.M.G 


Jacob Montbtiobe, Esq. 

John Rae, Esq., M.D.. F.R.S. 

Alexander Rotnoton, Esv. 

8. W. Silver, Esq. 

8ib CiiABLRS E. F. Stirling, Babt. 

H. B. T. Stbakowats. Esq. 

J. Duncan TnoKBOw^ Esq. 

Sib R. R. Torrkns. KC.M.G. 

Willi ax Walker, Esq. 

J. DsirNiBTOUN Wnon, Esq. 

J auks A. Youl, Esq., C.MG. 

fit* nrsHT Bahklt. G r. AT 1: . K i'.I:. 




I "ODE. 

Oevkbal Sib H. C. B. Daubebst, 

II W Fekblawd, E»q. 
Abtbub Hodosox, Esq., C.M.G. 

• IWRPAIN, Esq. 
P. P. LaSIUXBBE, Esq. 
Majoe-Gensbal R. W. Lowbt, C.B. 
Nktiiji Lubbock, Eso, 


Lo»» KiTirAtBD. I SiaJomr Roes, Babt., G.C.M.G. | Junta Sbaright, Es*. 


W, C Sabgbaust, Esq., C.M.G. Frederick Youxo, Esq. 


J. S. O'Hallorax, Eso. 


Maubititts: A. de Bouctterville, 

Eso., Port Loots. 
Natal, John Goodlhtb, Esq. .Durban. 
New South Walks i Dr. Geo bob 

bennett, sydnbt. 
New Zealand, North Island : A. F. 
looms, Esa., Fielding, near 
New Zealand, South Island : C. C. 
Bowes, Eso., Midpleton, Cm 


South Australia: 8amubl Daven- 
port, Eso., Adelaide. 

Victoria: H. H. Hatter, Esa., 
C.M.G., Melbourne. 

Guiana: W. H. Campbell, 
Em., LL.D.. Geoboktowx. 
Caxa:ia : E. A. Pkknticb, Eso., Mon- 

I Sood Hope, Eastern Pro- 
's: Dr. W. Gutbos Atkeb- 
stuxe, M.L.A., Gtiauaxstown. 
Cati -e, Geiqualaxd 

Wbwt: C. M. Bot.t, Eso. 
Cats o» Good Hope, Western Pro- 
vtsce : Thomas Watson, Esq. , Gate. 

J axasca, Roeert Russell, Esq., LL.B. 

The Leeward Islands: W. H. 

Whthak, Esq., Antioua. 

Western Australia: Jakes M°Esiaox, Eso., J. P., G\:ru>v<na>. 

Q '1 

v> A < ' ' 






" To provide a place of meeting for all Gentlemen connected 
with the Colonies and British India, and others taking an interest 
in Colonial and Indian affairs ; to establish a Reading Room and 
Library, in which recent and authentic intelligence upon Colonial 
and Indian subjects may be constantly available, and a Museum for 
■ I lection and exhibition of Colonial and Indian productions; 
to facilitate interchange of experiences amongst persons representing 
all the Dependencies of Great Britain ; to afford opportunities for 
the reading of Papers, and for holding Discussions upon Colonial 
and Indian subjects generally ; and to undertake scientific, literary, 
and statistical investigations in connection with the British Empire. 
But no Paper shall be read, or any Discussion be permitted to take 
place, tending to give to the Institute a party character." (Rule L) 

There are two classes of Fellows, Resident and Non-Resident, 
both elected by the Council on the nomination of two Fellows, 
one of whom at least must sign on personal knowledge. The 
former pay an entrance fee of £3, and an annual subscription 
of £2; the latter £1 Is. a year. Every Non-Resident Fellow 
ele< ted on and after \M JoMMfy, 1883, will be required to pay an 
entrance fee of £1 Is. Resident Fellows can become Life Members 
on payment of £20, or after five years' annual subscription on pay- 
ment of £15 ; and Non-Resident Fellows on payment of £10. 

Privileges of Fellows whose Subscriptions are not in Arrear. 

Use of Rooms, Papers, and Library. All Fellows, whether 
residing in England or the Colonies, have a report of each Meeting, 
and the Annual Volume of Proceedings forwarded to them. 

To be present atthe Evening Meetings, and to introduce one visitor. 

To be present at the Annual Conversazione, and to introduce a lady. 

For Fellows requiring the use of a Club an arrangement has 
been made with the Natioual Club, No. 1, Whitehall Gardens, by 
which, on the recommendation of the Honorary Secretary, they can 
be admitted to all the advantages of the Club on payment of £8 8s. 
without entrance fee, for one year, £5 6s. for half a year, or £4 4s. 
for three months. 

Tlit- support of all British subjects, whether residing in the 
United Kingdom or the Colonies — for the Institute is intended for 
both — is earnestly desired in promoting the great objects of extend- 
ing knowledge respecting the various portions of the Empire, and 
iu promoting the cause of its permanent unity. 

Contributions to the Library will be thankfully received. 


Honorary Secretary. 




ta a( the Royal Colonial Institute 

Lint of Fellows 

First Ordinary General Meeting : England's Colonial Granaries. By 

Robert G. Webster. Esq 

i Ordinary General Meeting : Sierra Leone — Past, Present, and 

r utiire. By the Hon. T. Risely Griffith, Colonial Secretary, of 

Sierra Leone 

Third Ordinary General Meeting : Natal in its Relation to South 

Africa By James R. Saunders, Esq.. M.L.C., Natal 

Fourih Ordinary General Meeting : The Progress of Canada, and the 

Development of the Great North-West. By Lieut.-Colonel T. 

Hunter Grant, of Quebec 

Special General Meeting 

Attempt on the Life of Her Majesty, 2nd March, 1882 : Address to the 


Fifth Ordinary General Meeting : The Commercial Advantages of Fed- 
eration. By William J. Harris, Esq., F.S.S 

Sixth Ordinary General Meeting: Mauritius. By Henry J. .I.mrdain. 


Seventh Ordinary General Meeting : The Northern Territory of South 

Australia. By Thomas Harry, Esq. 

Eighth Ordinary General Meeting : Imperial Defence in our Time. 

By George Baden-Powell, Esq., M. A. 


Annual General Meeting 

List of Donors 

Statement of Receipts and Payments 

General Index 

Index of Speakers 

Lilt of Papers published in previous Volumes 








10 1W» 




IS 1868 



■0 MM 


Abraham, Augustus B., Reform Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

A'Deanb, John, 40, Devonshire Street, Portland Place, W. 

Adderley, Augustus J., Davenport, Bridgnorth, Salop. 

AiTKKN, Alexander M., 3, Temple Gardens, E. 0. 

AncHisoN, David, 5, Pembridge Square, Bay/neater, W. 

Alcock, Colonel T. St. L„ 22, Somerset Street, Portman Square, W. 

Alexander, James, Jun., 14, Astxcood Road, South Kensington, S.W. 

AXIflK, Charles H., 1, West HOI, Highgate, N. 

Aixpokt, W. M., Coombe Lodge, Camberwell, S.E. 

Akdirso.n, A. W., Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 

f AUDBBJSON, Edward R., care of Measrs. VargilU, Joachim Sf Co., 1, 
Great Winchester Street, E.C. 

Akdkmom, W. J., 34, Wfithoume Terrace, W. 

Archer, Tuoma* (Agent- Qenoral fur (jaeoaalaad), 1, Westminster Cham- 
ber*, S.H'. 

Arjhtthxot, Libut.-Colonel G., R.A., 6, Belgrave Place, S.W. ; and 
Carlton Club, 3. W. 

Argyll, His Grace the Duke or, K.T., Argyll Lodge, Campdcn Hill, 
Kensington, W. 

Armitaoe, Frank L. 

Armytage, G bo roe, 59, Queen's Gate, S.W. 

Arney, Sib Gkorqe A., 17, Devrmshire Place, Portland Place, W. 

Asolit, Hon. Evelyn, M.P., 61, Cadogan Place, S.W. ; and 2,Hare Court, 
Temple, E.C. 

Asuwooo, John, oare of Messrs. Cox t Go., Craig's Court, Charing Cross 

Atkinson, Charles E., Algoa Lodge, Ssekenham, Ktnt. 

Attlei, He.nbi, 10, Billiter Square, E.C. 

Baococe, Philip, 4, Aldrxdge R<x>d, Baymniter, W. 

v -Powell, Oeoboe, M.A., F.BJLS., F.8.8., 8, St. George's Place 
Park Corner, 8. W. 


Year of 

25 1880 

30 1878 

35 1879 




4> 18S1 



50 1868 



55 1881 

60 1878 


65 1878 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

Baillib, Thomas, The Australian Land and Mortgage Company, 123 

Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. 
t Bailward, A. W., Horsington Manor, Wincanton, Somerset. 
Bate, John, 12, Kensington Square, W. 
Balfovr, John, 13, Queen'* Oate Place, 8.W. 
t Banks, Edwin Hodge, High Moor, Wigton, Cumberland. 
Banner, Edward G., 11, Billiter Square, E.C. 
Barclay, Colvillk A. D., C.M.G., 34, Avenue Montaigne, Parte. 
Barclay, Sik David W., Bt., 42, Holland Road, Kensington, W. 
Darkly, Sir Henbt, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 1, Bina Gardens, South Kensing- 
ton, S.W. 
Barb, E. G., 76, Holland Park, Kensington, W. 
Bbalet, Samuel, 7, Linden Gardens, Notting Hill, W. 
Beaumont, Joseph, 2, Terrace House, Richmond, S.W. 
BEDlNQfELD, Felix, C.M.G., Pilgrim, Lymington, Hants. 
Beeton, H. C, 2, Adameon Road, Bouth Hampstiad, N.W. 
Bell, D. W., 14, Milton Street, B.C. 
Bkll, John, 13, Fenchurch Avenue, E.C. 
Bell, KobebtBbucb, O.K., 1, Victoria Street, Westminster, 8.W.; and 203, 

St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Benjamin, Hyam, 2a, Mansfield Street, W. 

Benjamin, Loris Alfred, 39, Warrington Orescent, Maida Vale, W. 
Bennett, C. F., 65, Queen's Square, Bristol. 
Bevan, William Armine, 34, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park, W., and 

95, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. 
Birch, A. N., C.M.tJ., Bank 0/ England, Burlington Gardens, W. 
BiHcnnrr, Charles, 23, Westbourne Square, W. 
Blachpord, The RionT Hon. Lord, K.C.M.G., Athenenmt Club, S.W. ; 

and Blacl\ford, Ivybridge, Devon. 
Blaine, D. P., 2, Suffolk Lane, Cannon Street, E.C. 
Blaine, Henry, Knysna Lodge, Ewell Road, Surbiton. 
Blyth, Sir Arthur, K.C.M.G. (Agent-General for Sooth Australia), 8, 

Victoria Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 
Bois, Henry, 14, Broadwater Down, Tunbridge Welle. 
Bollino, FRANCIS, 2, Laurence Fount ney Hill, E.C. 
Bo.NwicK, James, care of Mrs. Beddow, Stanbourne Villa, Florence Road, 

Ealing, W. 
BooLNoia, Charles, 19, Russell Road, Kensington, W. 
f- Boulton, Harold E., B.A., Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts. 
f Boclton, 8. B., Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts. 
Bourne, C. W., Eagle House, Eltham, 8JB, 
Bourne, Henry, RosemowU, Mead Vale, Redhill, Surrey. 
Bourne, Stephen, F.S.S., Statistical Department, Her Majesty's Customs 

Thames street, E.C; and Wallington, Surrey. 
Bodtcher, Emanuel, 12, Oxford Square, Hyde Park, W. 
Botd, James B., Devonshire Club, St. James's Street, 8. W. 
Boyle, Lionel B. C, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, S.W.; and Army 

and Navy Club. 
Brand, William, 109, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
Brassiy, Sir Thomas, K.C.B., M.P., 24, Park Lane, W. 

Resident Fellows. 


Btu, John Geobci, 69, Gresham Street, E.C. 

Bridges, Commander Walter Botd, B.N., H.M.S. "Ganges," Falmouth; 

United Service Club, S.W. 
Ba.ic.os, Sib T. Guuav, Bart., Brooke's Club, St. Jatmn's Street, S.W. 
BaiGos, Thomas, Bela House, Alleyn Fork, West Dulwiih, i'Jt. 
Broad, Charles Henry, Cuttle View, Wcybndge. Surrey. 
Bboooen, James, Seabank House, Purthcauil, near Bridgend, Glamorgan 

Brooks, Henri, Grove Huum ; 40, Highbury Grove, N. 

t Broom, Herbert, 9, Hyde Park Square, W. ; and St. Peter's Chamber*, 

t Brookes T. W". (Into M.L.C., Bengal), The Orange, Nightitujate Lane, 

Claplunn, -S 11. 
Brown, a M . \l.L>., 29, Keppel Street, RumcU BgiMrft W.Q. 
Brown, Charles, 24H, Wool Exchange, Coleman Street, E C. 
Brown, J. B., F.R.G.S., 80, Cannon Street, E.C, a,id Brumley, Kent. 
Brown, Thomas, 51, Cochrane Street, Glasgow. 
Browne. Hi.tcuinson U., J. P., Uuor Clone, Uinfield, Berk*. 
Browne, Lennox, F.B.I .'.S.E., 3rt, Wvymimth Street, Portland Place, W. 
Browne, Colonel Sir T. Gore, K.C.M.U., C.B.,7, Kens\ngton Square, W. 
Browne, W. J., St StfpktM ft Huum, 74, Gloucester Hood, & W, ; and Buck- 

land >'»l.'n e , Mighampton, North Devon. 
Bbowxim., S. B.) 18, ' . iBa*, Bayswater, W. 

Bruce. J., 26, A I t, S.W. 

A. B., 49, Thurlot Square, S.W. 
BOOKOmua and Cua.ndos, His Grace the Dueeoj, G.C.3.I., Athenaum 

club, a >r. 

Mituu.r., Kaieteur, Hollington Park, St. Leonard' s-on. Sea. 
Bvrukab. Edward J., 32, Great St. Helen's, E.C. 
Burton, VV. H . 4flMimt fJMfSsfi Q§sts\MU ENrWt, Hanover Square, W. 

i BoM, Viscount, K.C.M.G., 65, Pnnces Gate, S.W. 
BVTCMAHr, KoUERT fl.,0, Petersham Terrace, B.W. 
BrXTOM, Bin T. Fowell, Bart., 14, Uruevenor Crescent, S.W. 

Cadpt, Pascob, Holly Lodge, Elmer's End, Kent. 

Cairo, R. Henry son, 6, Petersham Terrace, South Kensington, 8. W. 

t Campbell, Allan. It, Satv m Ftac*, B.W. 

Campbell, I House, Faringdtm, Berks. 

Campbell, Koreht, Univn Bank of 

OirIBEJII I'WITTrtH. A. B , F.H.S,, r'.U.G.S., bs\s% George's 8q 

ft ir. 
Cabdwell, The Right Hon. Viscount, 74, Eaton Square, 8.W. 
CaBOIll, Edward Bowks, 1, i/'rvuf II (mthmtsW street, E.C. 
Cabgill, W. W., Lancaster !. Kensington, W. 

CaRLEToN High. Kant Ella. Cintra Park, Upper Norwood. 
t Cablinoford, The Right Hon. Lord, K.P., 4, Hamilton Plocr, W. 
Carnarvon, Tub Kk.hi Uon. the Earl or, 48, Portman Squa' 
CARrRKiru, Major C., El, Army ami Navy Club, Pall Hall, S.W. 
Cabtbb, Robert F., 19, Addle Street, E.C. 

x Royal Colonial Institute. 



1876 Cabvill, P. G., J.P., Benvenue, Rosstrevor, Co. Doim ; 23, Park Crescent ; 

and Reform Club, S. W. 
1881 Chambers, Arthur W., 10, Addiion Gardens, Kensington, W. 

1879 Chambers, Sib George H., 4, Mincing Lane, E.C. 

no 1877 Champion, Major P. E,, R.M.L.I., Longley House, Rochester. 
1872 Chesson, F. W., 5, Tite Street, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

1880 Chevalier, N., 5, Porchester Thrace, W. 

1870 Chadwick, Qsbert, C.E., Park Cottage, East Sheen, Mortlake, S.W. 

1868 Childebs, The Bight Hon. Hugh, C.E., M.P., 117, Piccadilly, W. 

115 1873 Chown, T. C, Thairh-'d Hmse Club, St. James's Street, 8.W. 

1868 Cubistian, H.E.H. the Prince, K.G., Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Qreat 


1869 Churchill, Lord Alfred Spencer, 16, Rutland Qate, S.W. 

1881 Churchill, Charles, Weybridge Park, Surrey. 
1872 Clark, Charles, 20, Belmont Park, Zee, Kent. 

120 1868 Clark, Major-Gbneral Sir Andrew, R.E., K.C.M.G., C.B., Inspector- 
General of Fortifications, War Office ; and United Service Club, S.W. 

1875 tCLARKK, HYDE, D.C.L., 82, St. George's Square, S.W. 

1881 Clarkson, David, 28, 20, A 30, Paternoster Row, E.C. 

1877 Clench, Frederick, M.I.M.E. {Messrs. Robey fy Co.), Lincoln. 

1882 Clerihew, Geokoe, M.D., 43, Addison Gardens, North, W. 

125 1868 Clifford, Sib Charles, Hathertim Hall, Cannock, Staffordshire. 
1882 Clifford, George Hugh, Halherton Hall, Cannock, Staffordshire. 

1881 Cobb, Alfred B., 34, Great St. Helen's, E.C. 

1879 Cocks, Reginald T., 29, Stanhope Gardens, Queen's Gate, 8. W. 

1879 Cody, Bryan A. 

130 1881 Collet, Charles C., 4, Lombard Court, E.C. 

1882 tCoLLUM, Rev. Hugh Robert, M.B.I.A., F.S.B., The Vicarage, Leigh, 

Tunbiidge, Kent. 
1882 Colmes, Joseph G., Secretary to High Commissioner for Canada, 

9, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, 8.W. 
1872 Colomb, Captain J. C. R., R.M.A., Droumquinna, Kenmare, Co. Kerry, 

Ireland ; and Junior United Service Club, Charles Street, S.W. 
1869 Colhurst, J. B., 38, Elgin Road, Kensington Park, W. 
135 1880 CoKBERMERE, The Right Hon. Viscount, Combermere Abbey, Whit. 

church, Salop; and Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1881 Connolly, R. M., Burton Lodge, Portingscale Road, Putney, S.W. 

1876 Coode.Sir 3onx,35,Norfolk Square,W.; and2,Wt>xtminster Chambers, S.W. 
18H0 Coode, J. Charles, C.E., Mecklenburgh Lodge, Grange Road, Ealing, W. 
1874 tCooDE, M. P. (SecundeTahacl. Madras Presidency, India). 

'4° 1882 Cooper, Charles James, 58, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

1874 Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., K.O.M.G., 6, De Vere Gardens, Kensington 

Palace, W. 
1879 Cooper, Edward, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

1882 Cork, Nathaniel, Manager Commercial Bonk of Sydney, 39, Lombard 

Street, E.C. 
1874 *Corvo, H. E. Sur Joao Andraba, Portugal. 
id<; 1874 Cosens, Fkbderick W., 16, Wtitr lam*, xVwr Street, E.C. 

IS72 Cranbrook, The Right Hon. Viscount, G.C.S.I., 17, Grosvmor Crescent, 


) IBM 



| 1^77 












5 IWl 




Cowax, Ja*bs, M.P., 100, 8(. OtorgSe Square, 8.W. ; and 35, Royal 

Terrace, > -V.B. 

tCRAWSBAY, Gbohok, 6, Adelphi Terrace, Strand, W.C. 
CtuwroBU, J. Cootts, Overton Howte, Strathaven, Lanark, NJt.; nn.l 

Pan mm, s.w. 

i'.wii.L. i'.ii.inbl Alexander AKO0S, Wool Exchange, E.G.; and Beech 

Cbomman, Colonel W., R.E., C.M.Q.. 30, Harcourt Terrace, Reddig 

.Square, S.W. ; ami Junior Vnited Service Club. 
OSOWB, WH. L.BBDBAM, 24, C-ritwaU Ro" 

Ci, George, Juni-.r jthnmtm I liUy, TF. 

Ccbue, Sib Donald, K.C.M.G., M.l'., 18, //yds ft»rt Plaoc, W. 

Cl-ruey, Eliott S., M.I.O.E., 7, Sumner IVraat, Qiuluw Sguarn, S.TT. 
tCraxis, Spencer, II., Tulleridge Home, HerU. 

Dalt, Jambs E., 69, Moorgate Street, E.C. 

DaLOETT, P. Gonnerman, 16, //y<t« Pari Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

m, P. n., 7, Hm d rwo n Strwt, E.G. 
Dabht, H. J. B., 21, Maddox Street, Hanover Square, W. 

mry, General Sib H.C.B., K.C.B., .'16, BlrtOI Viae.-, S.W. 
Davis, Steimrt 8., Spencer House, ffitpWIftlH Road, Bournemouth. 
D\w», Philip D., 4, Sccjord place, S.W. 

Davison, Charles F., M.A., 14, 0>h>t,\ t;„r.l, ■„.<, Setting EKB, B r . 
Dav»on, Jamb* W., Kuvhfort L<xhje, Taunton. 
Dears, F. D., 19. 

Dears, Henry Brut-ton, 10, QoUmcm Sbwbb, £.<'. 
I'i. CuLtAB, Uenby A., 24, Patina Guldens Terrace, W. 
Delmbos, Edwabd T., 17, St. Helen* I'la.-r, E.G. 
Denbigh, The Right Hon. the Earl or, 2, Cromwell House*, South 

Kensington, S. W. 
Db Parr, Altred, 88, Kensington Oardens Square, W. 
DB Fou Tieel, Jobs, 3, Argyle Road, W, 
DlVERELL, W. T., City Liberal Club, Walbrook, F .< '. 
DtBLBT, Gborgb, 19, Bury Street, St. Mary Ate, i\i '. 

■- Charles S., Queensland Qovornmvnt Office, 1, Westminster 

a. iv, 

v, Jamb*, Palace Home, Croydon, <i»<I 26, Afu** Sfrtrct, Cfcaup»wi«, 

Dodoson, William Oliver, Kmmv House, Sevenoaki. 
Domett, Alfred, C.M.G., 32, St. Gburles Square, Sort h Kensington, W. 
Domtu.1.1, LiEi:r,-Gr-\ERAL J. W., K.A., United Strife Club, Pall Mall, 


isox, Alexander, Kenmure, Kenley, Surrey., Uarbt Walter, C.E., 10, Holies Street, Merrion Square, 

DovnLAB, Henry, care of Messrs. HtnckeU, Du Buisson, and Co., 18, 

La urenee Pountney Lam*, I 
DoPola*. 8rr.wunt, n, i hi mrver Square, W. 

Do«NALX, E. Beaucuamp, Barley, Etwick, Eteter. 



Year of 


J 85 







































220 1876 




Royal Colonial Institute. 

Doyle, General Sib Hastings, K.C.M.G., 18, Bolton Street, W. 

Du Cane, Sib Charles, K.C.M.G., 16, Pont Street, Belgrave Square S.W.; 

and Braxted Park, Witham, Essex, 
tDociB, The Right Hon. the Karl op, 16, Portman Square, W. 
Du-Ckoz, Charles Grant, 5, Queen Street, May/air, W. 
Du-Croz, P. A., 62, Lombard Street, E.C. 
Duddell, George, Queen's Pa rk, Brighton. 
Duff, William, 11, Orsett Terrace, Bayswater, W. 
Duncan, William, 83, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Dr.scKi.EY, Charles, 15, Coleman Street, E.C. 
Dunn, James A. 
fDuNRAVEN, The Riort Hon. tub Earl of, K.P., Coombe Wood, Kings- 

ton-on-Thames ; and White's Club, S.W. 
Dubant, Augustus, 89, Qresham Street, E.C. 
Durham, John Henry, 1, Fenchurch Avenue, Ka\ 
Dutton, F. EL, Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 
Duiton, Frank M., Hanover Square Club, W. 
Button, Frederick, 10, St. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 

Edrnborough, Charles, Little Geariee, Barkingside, Essex. 
•f Edwards, Stanley, Box 199, Christchurch, New Zealand. 
Elcbo, Thb Right Hon. Lord, M.P., 23, St. James's Place, St. /«. 

a w. 

Elder, Alexander Lang, Campden BbMt, t m mnp ti m , W. 
t Elder, Frederick, 2, Moorgate 8 dings, EX'. 

t Elder, Wm. George, Adelaide House, Richmond, S.W. 
EngleheaRT, J. D. G., Duchy 0/ Lancaster, Lancaster Place, W.C. 
Errinoton, George, M.P., I 6, The Albany, Piccadilly, W. 
Briton, E., Blizcwood Park, Caterham, Surr 
Evans, Richardson, 2, Hamcj'uld Terrace, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Ewen,Job.n Alexander, 20, Philip Lane, London WaU, E.C. 
Fabre, Charles Maurice, 32, Chepstow Villas, Bayswater, W.; and 179, 
Regent Street, W. 

Fairfax, T. 8., Newtoxon, St. Boiwell's, N.B.; and Junior Carlton Club, 

V.dl Hall, W. 
Fanning, Wm. Bozedown, Whitchurch, Reading. 
Farmer, James, 6, Porchester Gate, Hyde Park, W. 
Faks, A., 70, Queen Street, Cannon Street, E.C. 
Fauntleroy, Robert, 1, Yale Terrace, Sutherland Gardens, W. 
t Fearon, Frederick (Secretary of the Trust and Lord Company of 

Canada), 7, Great Winchester Street Buildings, E.C. 
Fell, Arthur, 6, Pembroke Rood, Kensington, W. 
Ferard, B. A., 20, Church Road, St. Leonard' s-on-Sea. 
Feuguson, James, 123, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. 
Fergusson, The Right Hon. Sir James, Bart., K.C.M.G., CLE , 

(Governor of Bombay), Carlton Club; and Kilkerran, N.B. 
Field, HarrtT., 35, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
Fifi, George R., 29, CTreat St. Helen's, E.C. 
Findlay, George James, 1, Fenchurch Avenue, E.C. 

Resident Fellows. 


V-.r t 


JJO 1875 




Frrr, Johb H., Jiarticn, AlUyn Park, West Dulwich, S~E. ; 271. Wool 

; and Bar 
FoCKitto, A txiLPiirtt (Meaara. B. Hebetier ft Co.), 39, Lombard , 
Kolrabb, Arraua, ShateAad House Club, 86, ft, Januu't Street, 8.W. 
Foams, Antmonv Ulaer Hill Pari, ft, Ltoiu-inU-nn-Sea. 

Forster, The Rioht Hon W. E., M.P., 80, Soefaaton Sfnora, WF. 
Foestth-Bkown, J. 8., Wanderer*' Club, Pall Mall ; and Whitsome, 

Berwickshire, K.V, 
FoBTESCVK, T«» Bo*. DnUR F.. 9, Hertford Street, May/air, W. 
Fusee, Donald, &■ at a l w aft aa i , near Ipswich. 

Fbaskb, Jambs, Nmvfield, lilackhealh I'ark, 8.E. 
t Fbeeland, Humphbbt Yf., 16, Suffolk 8treet, 8.W. ; Athenaum I 

awl Chichester. 
Fbbbe, Km. ik II.>s. Sih H. Bartle K., Bart., G.C.B., O.C.S.I., Wre^tl 
(..»; and A !«)<, Pall Mod, 8, W. 

Fb**h»i»i.i>, William D., 5, bank B a i l ai 'a ■- 1 1 
• Faoima, J. A., M.A., F.U.S., 6, Onflow Gurdeiui.&W. 
Fdltok, Capt. John, R.N.R., 27, I •, If. 

Fieri*. Uajor-Gemeral W. A., C.B., 19, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

t Galoraith, Da»Id STEWART, 2, Manchester S tester Sq*a 

fflllir. Sir Alexander T., G.O.M.G., Hi^h Comtnieaioaer for Canada, 

9, F«rtor»a rJui mb«r/>, Wctttninstvr, S. IT. 
t Giltoh, Captain Douglas, C.B., 12, Chester Street, Groevenor Place, 

Gardner, Edward J. Dent. Sherwood, Kit ham Btt4, ghata—Ma, S.B. 
UaBD'BEB, Maitlajcd, Weathorpe, ft, Peter's Road, South t'i'ydon. 
t GARDNER, STEWART, 7, Ppper Hamilton Terrace, jV. IF. 
Grrvebi, Fraxcia H. A., 101, Haiton Garden, Bailors, H'.C. 
Giib». Henry J., 1, Gr £.(.'. ; 0*4 Mount £>' 

ifiiiia. S.W. 
GiBR', S. M. 1, i^iu<en'« Oaf,- Gardens, SW. 

r, K. W. II-, [faon Clot, 1 mr.-, W. 

IS, Uobebt, 41, Pembroke Hood, Kensington, W. 
GtU'iiBisrr, Jam*:*, 11, fffmbruiye Fi"n«, BayMaatar, IF. 
GiLLtsriE. Colin M, . 

GlLLBBPIE, U IS OiJrdorw, S.1F. 

Para, IF. 

■\, Gruboe R., Kensington Palace Mansions, Kensington, W. 

.lteh T., 22, lh I '. May/air, W. 

:>, Ke». B., lory, Cambridge. 

Ooacifr n Hon. G. J., M.P., 69, Portland Place, W. 

.ncl Hill, S.W. 

Grain, William, 50, Ahmm Home, Old Bread street, B.C. 
GraXtillk, Thb Right Hon. Ea»l, K.G., IS, Carlton House Terrace, 

GiAtca, John Belle*, Clare Hill, St. Clears, 8outh Wales. 

Gbat, Ambrose G. Wentwobth, 31, Great St. Haiti '«, ft C. ; aiui 21, 

GtMN-n Jnn»'« Mro**, IF. 
Gbat, Gkobob, Jfanoi'rr Square Club, W. 



Year of 

270 1868 

275 1879 

280 1873 



285 1882 




290 1880 




295 1877 



300 1881 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

Gray, Robert J., 12, Charterhouse Buildings, E.C. 
f Gbeathead, JA8. H., O.B.,8, Victoria Chamber*, Westminster, S.W. 
Greene, Frederick, 25, €<■'• '. Bovlh Kemingta*, S.W. 

Green, George, Qlanton House, Sydenham Rise, 8.E. 
Grbooby, Charles Hutton, C.M.G.. 2, / v«(, Westminster, S.W. 

Greig, Henry Alfred, The 1 're, Kent. 

Griffith, W. Dowses, 57, Han-onrt Terrace, S.W. 
Griffiths, Major Artiu'r, Army ami Xar,,ci,,h, rail Mall, S.W. 
Griosby, William E., LiL.D., 48, Chancery Lane, E.C. 
Guillemard, Arthur G., Sit ham, Kant. 

Gwynnk, Francis A., 15, Bury Street, St. James's, S.W.; ami , 
Thames Yacht Cluh, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W. 

t Hadfielp, Robert, M.I.M.E., Ashdell, Sheffield. 

Hadi.ey, Alderman 8. C, 5, Knight rid, ir Street, E.C. 

Haliburton, A. L., C.B ..ited Service Club, Charles Street, S.W. 

Hall, Arthur, 35, Omm Hill GhmdMu, IF. 

Hamilton, P., LtvWum Park, S.E. 

Hamilton, Robert, G.C., Acting-Under Secretary of State for Ireland, 

I), r t,!u, ; ami Hr.'f,;,,/ Borne, ISiZm Hill, S.W. 
Hamilton, Thomas, J.P., 12, Bloomfield Street, E.C. 
Harrisoton, Thomas Moore, 2, Royal Erchange Buildings, E.C. 
Harris, William James, F.S.8.,75, Linden Gardens, Bayswater, W. 

6, Crotby Square, E.C. 
t Harris, Wolf, 197, Queen's Gate, S.W. 
Hart, Montague P., 28, St. Luke's Road, Westbourne Park, W. 
Ha*tington, The Right Hon. the Marquis of, M.P., Devonshire House, 

Piccadilly, W. 
Hatward, J. F., Arocma, Freshford, Bath. 
Healet, Edward 0., 86, St. James's Street, S.W. 
•Hector, James, M.D., C.M.G. (Colonial Museum, Wellington, New 

Helyar, F. W., Salisbury Club, St. James's Square, 8.W.; and 118, 

Buckingham Palace Road, 8. W. 
Hemmant, Willum, East Neulc, Blackheath. 
HeNTT, Henry, 211, Camden Rnad, N.W. 
Herring, Rby. A. Stylkman, B.A., 45, CaUlrrook Rmr, N. 
Hill, Alexander Staveley, Q.O., M.P., D.C.L., 4, Queen's Gate, S.W. 
Hill, Rey. John G. H., M.A., 2, St. Katherine's, Regent's Park, N.W. ; 

and Quarley Rectory, Andover, II 
Hill, John S., 32, Great St. Helen's, B.C. 
Hill, Matthew, Audley Villa, Church Road, Eastbmirne. 
Hill, Colonel Sir Stephen J., K.C.M.G., C.B., Drowford, Bixhop's 

Wallham, Hants. 
Hn.i., Thomas Daniel, 21, Grosvenor Place, 8.W.; and 4, Mincing Lane, 

Hodobon, Arthur, O.M.G., Clapton, Strat ford-on- Avon ; and Windham 

Club, St. James's Square, S.W. 
fHoDOsoN, H. Tylston, M.A., Harpendsm, Hertfordshire. 
Hoffnunq, S., 38, Redclijfe Square, S.W. 

Resident Fellows. 


Tear of 


305 1874 

310 1882 

315 1881 





3» 1877 

3»5 1874 






335 «*» 






tHooo, Quintin, 4, Richmond Terrace, Whitehall, S.W. 

Hollings, H. db B., M.A., New University Club, 8t. James's Street, S.W. 

Hollwat, Joseph Walpole, Ravensleigh, The Avenue, Beckenham. 

Holt, Thomas, Qrosvenor Hotel, 8.W. 

Hoba, Jambs, 103, Victoria Street, 8.W. 

Hoskins, Rear Admiral A. H., C.B., 4, Montagu Square, W. 

Houghton, Lobd, M.A., D.C.L., Travellers' Club, Pall Mall, 8.W. 

tHonsiouN, G. L., Johnstone Castle, Johnstone, Renfrewshire, N.B. 

Howard, John Howard, The Abbey Close, Bedford. 

tHuoHjes, John, F.C.S., Holmdale, Forest Hill, 8.B. ; and 79, Mark 

Lane, B.C. 
Humphreys, George H., 24, Gutter Lane, Cheapside, B.C.; and Caen 

Lodge, Qreen Lanes, Wood Qreen, N. 
Hunt, John, 102, Downes Park Road, Clapton, E. 

Ingram, W. J., 65, CromweU Road, S. W. 

Irvine, Thomas W., 10, Austin Friars, B.C. 

Irwin, J. V. H., 18, Hensbridge Villas, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Isaacs, Michael Baser, 85, Leinster Square, Bayswater, W. 

Jamieson, Hugh, Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S. W. 
Jamieson, T. Bushbt, Windham Club, St. James's Square, S.W. 
Johnson, Edmund, F.S.S., 8, Northwick Terrace, N.W. 
Joshua, Saul, 27, Linden Gardens, Notting Hill, W. 
Jourdain, H. J., la, Portland Place, W. 

Jultan, Sir Penrose G., K.O.M.G., C.B., Cornwall House, Brompton 
Crescent, 8.W. 

Karuth, Feane, 27, Luttichau Strasse, Dresden. 

Kate, William, 102, Cromwell Road, S.W. 

Keep, Edward, 1, Guildhall Chambers, Basinghall Street, E.G. 

Kendall, Franklin B., 1, The Paragon, Blackheath, 8.E. ; and St. 

Stephen's Club, S.W. 
Kennedy, D. C, St. Stephen's Club, Westminster, 8.W. 
Kennedy, John Murray, Knockralling, Kirkcudbrightshire, N.B. ; and 

New University Club, S.W. 
tKsswicK, William, 8, Hyde Park Gate, S.W. 
Kimber, Henry, 79, Lombard Street, B.C. 
tKiNNAiRD, Lord, 2, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
tKlBECALDlE, Robert, Villa Rosa, Potters Bar, N. 
Knioht, A. H., 62, Holland Park, Kensington, W. 
Kough, Thomas W., Eastnor Cottage, Reigate, Surrey. 

fLABiLUEBE, Francis P., 5, Pump Court, Temple, B.C. ; and Hilling Aon 

House, Harrow. 
Laing, James R., 7, Australian Avenue, B.C. 
Landale, Alexander, 12, Westhourne Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Lamgton, James, Hillfield, Reigate. 
Lanyon, John C, Birdhurst, Croydon. 
t Laborer, W. G., 2, Burwood Place, Hyde Park, W. 


Year of 

345 1878 




35° ISO 




35S 1879 



36o 1881 




3 6 S 1875 





3/0 1879 



375 1869 



Iluyal Colonial Institute. 

Lark, Timothy. f», Pembridgt Place, Bayxwater, W. 

Larnach, Donald, 21, Kensington Palace Garden*, W. ; and BrombUtye, 

East Grinstead, Sum, John, 4, Percy Road, Galdhawk Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
LAUQHLANb, James, 85, Gracechurch Street, E.G. 
Lawrence, Alexander M., 17, Thurlow Road, Hampnteod, N.W. 
La whence, The Hon. Charles N., 11, Clement's Lane, E.C. 
Lawbante, Edward, 18, Q a m & tm Hill Road, Kensington, W. 
Lawrence, W. F., New University Club, St. James's 8treet, 8.W. ; and 

Cowesfisld EfouM, Salisbury, 
Lktroy, Lieut. -General Sib John Henry, R.A., K.C.M.G., C.B., 82, 

,,\ Gnt,<, S.W. 
Leoge, Captain V7. Vincent, R.A., Altrystwith, Walts. 
Letqbridoe, William, M.A., 71. Portland Phice, W. 
Levi, Frederick, 6, Redcliffe Gardens, S.W.; and George Yard, Lombard 

Street, E.I'. 
Lewis, John, 10, Cullum Street, E.C. 
Littleton, Libut.-Colonel thb Hon. Edward G. P., C.M.G., 55, War. 

Kiel Square, 8.W. 
Littleton, Hon. Henby, Teddesley, Penkridgc, Staffordshire. 
Littleton, The Hon. William F., C.M.G., Travellers' Club, 8.W. ; and 

Lloyd, Eichaed, 2, Addison Crescent, Addison Roail, W. 
•Llotd, Sampson 8., Moor Hall, Button-Coldfield, Warwickshire ; and 

Carlton Club, S.W. 
Long, Glacdi H., M.A., 50, Marine Parade, Brighton. 
TLqbnk, The Bight IIon. the Marquis or, K.T., G.C.M.G. (Governor- 

Genertil of Canada). 
tLow, W. Anderson, care of Bank of New Zealand, 1, Queen Victoria 

8treet. E.C. 
Lowry, Major-General R. W., C.B., 25, Warrington Crescent, Itaida 

Hill, W. I and United Service Clnb, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Lubbock, Nevile, 16, Lcadenhall Street, E.C. 
LlllBOOK, Sir John, Bart., M.P., 16, Lombard Street, E.C. 
Lucas, Edward, 9, Qto*x\$ fytiare, E.G. 
fLvEix, Captain Francib H., F.R.G.S., Nett\ettone t Bickley, Kent ; and 

Naval and Military Clnb, Piccadilly, W. 

MacCakthy, Justin, M.P., Westminster Palace Hotel, S.W. 
Macponalh, Alexander J., 2, Suffolk- bOM, Oam E.C. 

MacDouuall, Likut.-Genehal Sib Patrick L., K.C.M.G. (commanding 

Hor Majesty's Forces in British North America), Halifax, Nova 
tMacpaklan, Alexander, 25, SaclcvHle Street, IF.; and Torish, Hemsdale, 

MacFik, B. A., Reform Club, S.W.; and Dreghom, Colinton, Edinburgh, 

Mackay, A. Mackenzie, 85, Gracechurch Street, E.C. 
Mackay, Rohert F., 3, Rose Angle, Dundee, 
Mackie, David, 13, Moorgate Street, E.C. 

Resident Fellows. 


Tms at 


410 1879 




4X> 1973 

MacKillop, C. W., 1 1, Bbyol Crescent, Bath. 

Macki.vnon, W., Ba/m.; : rpytWk (re, tf.B. 

MacLeat, Alexander D„ O 

MacLeat, SibGeoroe, K.C.M.G., Pendell r j, Sumy ; 

and Athenaeum Club, S.W. 
IMacPiiebson, Josepb, Devonshire Club, St. Jot/urn's, S.W. 
tMacpberson, John, Athens, Helensburgh, X.B. 
MacRostt, Alrxandeb, WeM Bank House, Ether; and 13, Kinfs] Arms 

Yard, E.C. 
McAbthir, Alexander, M.P., Rr Brixton, S.W. 

McAethub, Alderman William, Ml'., T'.t, Holland Park, W 
McCalman, Allan C, 27. Be/Band Park, W. 
McClube, Sib Thomas, Babt., M.P., Belmont, Belfast; Reform Club, S.W. ; 

and 21, The Grave, B6U 
fMcCoNNltLL, John, 65, Hollaml Park, W. 

ald, II. C, Warwick Hoiue, South Norwood Park, S.E.; and 

116, Penehurch Street, E.C. 
McDonell, Arthcb W., Maisonette, Denmark Hill, Wimble Inn, S. W. 
McEaciubn, Malcolm Donald, 31. L>-adenhall Street, E.C. 
McErt.f, David Painter, 21, Ptsitrridgt Square, II'. 
McIlwbaitii, Andrew, 34, Leadcnhall Street, E.C. 
fMclTEB, David, MR, 31, tame rark, If. 

McKellar, Thomas, Arrochar 11 ir, Dumbartonshire, N.B. 

McKebbell, R. M., Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
McLean, T. M., 61, Be.Ui:e Park. X. W. 
Malcolm. A. J., 87, E 9.C. 

Maixeson, Fbank B., Camp Cottage, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Manackji, The Betxa Eduljbe, Hanover Square rinh, w. 
tMaxchester, His Crack the Dl*ke of, K.P., 1, Great Stanhope Street, 

W.; and Kimbolton Castle, St. Nents. 
Mann, W. E., 1, Aldermanbury Avenue, E.C. 

tMAXNEBs-SiiTTON, Hon. Qbaham, Arthur's Club, St. Jam**'* Street, S.1T 
Mabcuant, W. L., (.Vow's Nest, Queen's Road, Richmond, Surrey. 
Make, William H., 15, Onslow Square, n ,ir. 
Marshall, Ernest L., B, ffl 
Marshall, John, F.R.Q.S., Auckland Lodge, Queen's Road, Richmond t 

Mabtis, William, rare „f Messrs. Sargood, Butler, .J" Nichot, 20, Philip 

Lane, London Walt, E.C 
MattersON, William, EmUteiah, Strcnthaw. S .11". 
M-ATTflAWB, William, 46, Avenue Road, atft nf e Pari, .V. II". 
MAT5ABD, H. W., St. Aubyns, Grorvewr H,!l, Win,lil,d„n. S.W. 
Matse. Edward Graves, MA., 10, 

Keinebtzhaban, Ernest Louis, Bel mi w .mum, S.W. 

Kbbewethbb, F. L. 8., Peacocks, I f-'.ssct. 

Mebivau:. GsoBOB M., 27, Catherine JN 

tMKTi'ALrt, iTbAKI E ., ", N. 

MewbcbN, Wim.iam R., 1, Bank Building*, I 

Miller, J"> "od, Palace Road, Roupcll Park, S.W. 


xviii lioyal Colonial Institute. 

Year of 



MlLLER, WILLIAM, 67, Queen Victoria Street, E.G. 


Moxigan, De. Joseph, 6, Craven Street, Strand, W.C. 


MOCATTA, Ernest G., 68, Kensington Gardens Square, W. 

425 1881 

Mat xrt, Geobgb, 6, Lime Street, E.C. 


Molineox, Gisbobne, 1, East India Avenue, E.C. 


Monck, Kt. Hon. Viscount, G.C.M.G., Brooks' a Club, 8.W.; and Charle- 

ville, Enniskerry, Wicklow. 


Montagu, J. M. P., Downe Hall, Bridport, Dorset; and 61, St. George's 

Road, S.W. 


Montepiobe, Jacob, 35, Hyde Park Square, W. 

43° 1878 

Montemoke, J. B., 36, Kensington Gardens Square, W. 


Montefiobe, J. L., Kerr Bank, Upper Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, 8~E., 


Montefiore, Leslie J., 28, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 


f Montgomebie, Hugh E., 17, Gracechurch Street, E.C. 


Moobe, Wm. Feeds,, 6, Cambrian Villas, Queen's Road, Richmond, 


435 1868 

Morgan, Septimus Vauohan, 6, The Boltowt, South Kensington, B.W. 


• Morgan, Henry J., Ottawa, Canada. 


Most, Laidley, Endriak, Epsom, Surrey. 


MORT, W., 1, Stanley Crescent, Netting Hill, W. 


Mosenthal, Henry db, 23, Maddox Street, W. 

440 1881 

Mouat, Frederic John, M.D,, 12, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 


Moulks, Henry, English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered Bank, 73, 

Cornhill, E.C. 


Mora, Hugh, 30, Lombard Street, E.C. 


Murray, W. M., 12, 13 and 14, Barbican, E.C. 


Nairn, John, Temple Quiting, Wincheombe, Gloucestershire. 

445 1681 

Nathan, Alfred N., 39, Queensborough Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 


Nathan, Henrt (lato M.L.O. British. Columbia), 110, Portsdoum Road, 

Maida Hill IF. 


t Naz, Sir Yiroilb, K.C.M.G. M.L.C. (Mauritius), care of Messrs. 

Chalmers, Guthrie cf Co., 39, Lime Street, E.C. 


Neave, Edward G., Dashteood House, 9, New Broad Street, E.C; and 39> 

Bryanstone Square, W. 


Nelson, Edward M., Hanger Hill House, Ealing, W. 

450 1875 

Nelson, William, 2, Jury Street, Warwick. 


Ness, Gavin Parser, 9, Porchester Terrace, W.; and 3, Temple Gardens, 



Nicholson, Sib Charles, Bart., The Grange, Totteridge, Herts, N. 


NlHlLL, PaCL H., 37, Charterhouse Square, E.C. 


Novelli, L. W. ( 8, Hyde Park Square, W. 

455 1868 

Northcotk, The Right Hon. Sir Stafford H., Bart., G.C.B., M.P., SO, 

St. James's Place, S.W.-, Carlton Club, S.W. ; and The Pynes near 

Exeter, Devon. 


Noukse, Henry, Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 


Oakley, William, 29, Charles Street, St. James's, S.W. 


Ohlson, James L., 0, Billiter Square, E.C. 


+ Oppekheim, Hermann, 17, Rue de Londret, Paris. 

Resident Fellows. 



463 1879 



470 1880 





4S3 1VT7 

48$ 1876 



1 m 



OprKXTfEiMEB, Joseph, 52, / • ,', Manchester. 

Oswald, Wm. Walter, National Bank of Australasia, 149, Leudenhull 

net, E.C. 
Otwat, Sib Abthub John, Bart., M.P., 19, Cromwell Road, S.W. 
Owen, 8ib Philip Cinlifeb, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., 2, The Residence*, 
8011th Kensington Museum, S.W. 

PACK?, JOHN C, 79, Woodstock Road, Finsbury Park, N, 

Palliskb, Captain Edward, 8, Charhvitle Road, West Kensington, S.W. 

Palliskb, Captain John, C.M.G., National Club, 1, Whitehall Gardens, 

Palmeb, LTenby Pollard, 66, Dale Street, Port Street, Manchester. 
Pabbtjbt, Charles, 8, De Vers Gardens, Kntimgton, W 
Parutt, Captain William, 24, Matilla Qarden.*, Rotting Hill, W. 
Park, W. C Cunningham., 25, Lime Street, B.C. 
I'abmb, George Q.. 103 and 104, Palmerston Buildings, E.C. 
Pabunson, Thomas, Cmseley Street, Halifax. 
Pabtbidok, Fbkdebick J., 35, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 
Patbrson, J., 7 and 8, Australian Avenue, E.C. 
Patterson, MrtEs, 29, Glouectter Place, Hyde Park, W. 
♦Pattikson, Joseph, 12, Bow Lane. 

Paul, H. Moncbripp. 12, Lanedowne Crescent. Hatting Hill, W. 
Patnb, John, 34, I'.Jcmnn Street, E.C. ; and 2, Alexander Villas, Pins. 

bury Park, X. 
Peace, Walter (Natal GoTornment Emigration Agent), 21, Finslunj 

Pbaoock, Oboboe, 27, Milton Street, Fore Street, 7 

Peacock, J. M., Ctevedtm, Addiscombe, Surr, 

tPkkb, CuthbBbt, Eor,j8, WimhUdnn House, S.W. 

Pellt, Lronabd, Loughtnn Rectory, Esse*. 

Perceval, Acoustics G., I'J. tioat, Clapham, S.W. 

Port, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., 32, Avenue Road, Regent's Park, 

tPETHEBicic, Edward A., 8, SUbari S.W. 

Pfoundeb, Charles, F.R.G.S., Spring Qor&mt, fi.IT. 

I'harazyn, Edward, Hannrrr Square Club, W. 

Phiu-ott, Richard, 3, Altchurch Lane, B.C. 

tPiM, Captain Bedford, B.N., Leatidc, Kingtwood Road, Upper Nor. 

wood, S.E. 
Plant, Geoboe W., Halewood Villa, Westdmim Road, Catfori I:- 

PUIWMAN, Thomas, 3, Lerham Gardens, CrmnwcU Road, S.W. 
tFoOBX, MAJOB B., Old Ijodgr, Nrrrtnn t*MV, (MUbwty, B 

Pope, WlUJAM Agnbw, Merrinyton House, Bolton Gardens, S.W. ; ami 

Union Club, S.W. 
Porter, Robert, Wtmtfield House, South Lyncnmbe, Bath. 
\'is.r.:i, Abthub Campbell, 189, Fleet Street, I 
Puanck. Reginald H., 2, Hercules Passage, E.C. ; and Frognal, Uamv. 

stead, H W, 
Pba.ikbbd, Peter D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Brvitol. 





SOS 1881 



510 1881 



SIS 1880 

520 1882 

525 1881 




535 1879 



Royal Colonial Institute. 

Prankerd, Pebcy J., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Pratt, J. J., 79, Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C. 

Price, Evan J., 11, Clement's Lane, E.C. 

Prince, J. Sampson, 20, Queen's Gate Gardens, S.W. 

Pugh, W. R., M.D., 3, Fair/an Road, South Hampstead, N.W. 

Punch, James W„ Denmark House, Forest Rise, Snaresbrook, Esse*. 

Fozey, William, The Birches, Kingston Hill, Norbiton. 

Qcin, Thomas F., F.R.G.8., Whitelands, High Street, CUipham, S.W. 

Rae, James, 32, Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W. 

+Rae, John, LL.D., F.S.A., 9, Minting Lane, E.C. 

Rajc, John, M.D., LL.D., F.R.8., 4, Addison Gardens West, Kensington, 

Ealli, Pandeli, M.P., 17, Belgrave Square, S.W. 
Ramsden, Richabi), St. Leonard's Forest, near Horsham. 
tRANim, James, M.P., 36, Ennismore Gardens, S.W.; and Bryngiryn, 

Rattson, 8ir Ramtson W., K.C.M.G., C.B., 68, Cornwall Gardens, S.W. 
tREAT, Lord, 6, Great Stanhope Street, W. ; and Carolside, Earlston, 

Redpatb, Peter, The Manor House, Chislehurst, Kent. 
Reid, George, 79, Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C. 
Reid, W. L m 16, Cleveland Square, Hyde Park, 11". 
Rensiiaw, Francis, 93, Philbeach Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Richardson, William, Limber Magna, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 
Richardson, William Ridley, 12, St. Helen's Place, E.C. 
Richman, H. J., 46, Clanricarde Gardens, Bayswater, W. 
Ridgwat, Lieut.-Colonkl A., 2, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Ridley, William, O.E., 3, Spencer Park, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 
Ritington, Alexander, Arts Club, 17, Hanover Square, W. 
Robertson, Caupbell A., Dashwood House, 9, New Broad Street, E.C. ; 

and 34, Addison Gardens, W. 
Robertson, Robebt M., Wanttcood, Otago, New Zealand. 
t Robinson, James Salkeld, Roachbank, Rochdale. 
Robinson, Sir Bryan, 18, Gordon Place, Kmtington, W. 
Robinson, Mcrrell R., M.I.G.E., 95, Philbeach Gardens, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 
Rogers, Alexander, 38, Clanricarde Gardens, W. 
Rogers, Coun, 9, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
Rogers, Murray, 22a, Dorset Street, Baker Street, W. 
Ronald, R. B., Pembury Grange, near Tnnbridge Welts. 
Rose, B. Lancaster, 1, Cromwell Road, South Kensington, S.W. 
Rose, Charles D., Bartholomew House, Bartholomew Lane, E.C. 
Rose, Sir Juiin, Baut., G.C.M.G., Bartholomew House, Bartholomexc 

Lane, E.C. ; and 18, Queen's Sot*, S.W. 
tRosebeby, The Right Hon. the Earl op, Lansdoume House, Berkeley 

Square; 'ii/, near Edinburgh, N.B. 

Ross, Hamilton, 22, Basinghall Street, E.C, 
Ross, John, Morven Park, Potters Bar, N. 

Tot.- ft 


565 1879 




Resident Fellows. xxi 

Bot«, J. Grafton, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 
Routledce, Thomas, Ct land. 

Russell, Captain A. H., l'i//.i Bmm AV/our, lamam 
Rcmbll, P. N\, Junwr Carlton Club, Pall Hall, S.W. 
Russell, Purvis, Woman, Milnatlmrt, Ki<\rm*-»h\re, N.B. 
Rissill, Thomas, Hurtmare Hall, Humtgreen, Suites. 
Rcmill, Thcmas, C.M.G., 69, Eaton Square, S.W. 
Russell, William James, Jwtiof OaritM '7»J», lull ifnll, S. W. 
RTALL, R., 24, Warwick La,,.., Charles, 18. Poultry, E 

tSaii.labp, Philip, 86, AWersijate Stnet, t.O, 

Samuel, Sir Sail, K.C.M.G. (Agont-General for New South Wales), 5, 

Westmintter Chtimbrrt, S.W. 

^Sanderson, John, Putter* WW, OhNUhnirst, Si 

Saxdeord, Colonel Sir Herbert Bruce, R.A., 1, Gloucester Ttare, Hyde 

Parle, W. 
t8ABOEArM, W. C, C.M.G., Colonial Office, Douminy Street, S.W, 
Saboood, Frederice T., Rybal Mount, Champion Hill, Surrey. 
BASSOON, Arthur, 12, Leadenhall Street, E.<\ 
Sapkdms, H. W. Demain, llrickentbm. Grange, Hertford, 
BcuiEr, Charles, 28, Lowndtt Bpiarm, S, 11'. 

t8CHWABTZB, HELMITII, O.itulruck House, Denmark Hill, S.K. 

Sclaniiers, Alexani>i:u. 10, Cedars Bond, Olapham Common, S.W. 
Boott, Abraham, f-treatham Hill. 

Sin John, K.C.M.G.. H, E B«rll Garde,,*, W. 

Seaeight, James, 7, Eatt India Avmw, E<\ 
Selbt, Prideaux Balms, Chepttoto Road, Croydon; ami I, 

Thrtadnc E.C. 

S« C. Fabquhae, \A, The Albany, W. 
Shaw. Jons, 103, Holland I . W,- and 48, Bj 

Shepherd, William Lake, 30, Talbot Road, R Park, W. 

Shipster, Henry F., Ccnvervatiiv Club, St James'* Strut. & U ". 
t8lLTEE, S. W., 4. . MB, E.C. 

Sim, Alexander, Harrow Weald Park, Stanmort. 
Simmonds, P. L., 85, Tinbonugh Bond, SmbA Kensington, B.W. 

KM, Commander H. G., K.N., ton r f'arfc, Surrey. 

SivsoN, Colin William, 110, Qn 

ir, J. E., 12, Sa/uiri'mjharo Gariww, Ealinj, W. j and J 

Army and BiOVy l'/i/'.. gf. James' t Street. 
BlKClI, THE RAJAa Ram PAL, ICampar H.atse, Sudbury, Harrow. 

Smith, Arthur, Tfcr Si H'ufmcr, A'ciit. 

Smyth, Cattebson, 18, WW Sir«e/, CAcap*i"d<, B.C. 

Smith, David, 6, Laurence Pountney Lane, E.C; and 11, At* 

Smith, Joskpi! J., 11, Clem K.C. 

Smith, Tub Right Hon. William Henry, M.r., 3, Grotvenor Place, S. W. ; 
and Greenland), Henley ■un.Thamtt. 


Year of 


585 1882 


590 1879 




595 1882 
600 1873 


605 1877 

610 1875 






Royal Colonial Institute. 

Smith, Robert Murray (Agent General for Victoria), 8, Victoria Cham- 
ber*, Westminster ; and 56, Stanhope Gardens, S.W. 

•f-SostERViLLE, ARTHUR FowNKS, Oxford $* Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Sopek, W. O., Bury Street, St. Mary Ate, E.C. 

Spensley, Howard, F.S.S., Kensington Palace Mansion*, De Vete 
Gardens, W. 

8piceb James, 50, Upper Thames Street, E.C. 

Stafford, Sir Edward W., K.C.M.G., 48, Stanhope Gardens, Soutli 
Kiiutington, S.W. 

Stanford, Edward, 13 and 14, Long Acre, W.C. 

Starke, J. Gibson, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.), Troqueer Holm, near 
Dumfries, N.B. 

Steele, William Johnston*, National Bank of New Zealand, 37. 
Lombard Street, E.C. 

Stein, Andrew, Protea House, Cambridge Gardens, Notting Hill, W. 

Stein, Abthdr Taylor, 42, Ladbroke Square, Kensington, W. 

Stern, PniLir, 3, Pump Court, Temple, E.C. 

Stevenson, L. C., 73, Courtfield Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

Stewart, Charles W. A., 38, Courtfield Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

Stewart, George, 47, Mark Lane, E.C. 

Stewart, Robert, Mimosa Dale, Lordship Lane, East LMdxvich, S.E. 

Stewart, Robert M., Hawthorne, Bickley, Kent; and 12, Red-cross 
Street, E.C. 

Stewart, William Arnott, 38, Courtfield Gardens, South Kensington, S. W. 

Stirling, J. Archibald, 38, Harcourt Terrace, Redcliffe Square, S.W. 

fSTiRLiNG, Sir Charles, Bart., Qlorat Milton of Campsie, N.B. ; and 
Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Stone, F. W., B.C.L., 7, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

Btorer, Wm., 128, Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

Stott, Thomas, Naffcrton Lodge, Loughton, Esses. 

Stovin, Rev. C. F., 59, Warwick Square, S.W. 

STOWS, Edwin, Trolley Hall, Buckingham. 

Strangways, H. B. T., 2, Cambridge Park Gardens, Twickenlxam, S.W. ; 
and 5, Pump C.nrt, T, ,,<ple, E.C. 

fSTBEET, Edmund, Millfield Lane, Highgate Rise, N. 

Sutherland, His Grace the Duke or, K.G., Stafford House, St. James'*, 

Swali, Rev. H. J., M.A., J.P., The Elms, Guildford, Surrey. 

Stmons, G. J., F.R.8., 62, Camden Sqwre, N.W. 

Tatleb, Frank, F.R.G.S., 10, Queen, Street, Cheapside, E.C. 
Taylor, Charles J., 50, Courtfield Gardens, South Kensington, S. M". 
Taylor, James Banks, Thatched House Club, St. James's Street, S.W. ; 
and 10, Austin Friars, E.C. 
Taylor, Theodore C, Westfield House, Batley, Yorkshire. 
AYLor, W. P., 33, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. 
empi.e, Sir Richard, Bart., G.C.S.I., C.I.E., The Nash,near Worcester; 

and Athenarum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
►Tennyson, Alfred, D.CL., Haslemere, Surrey. 

****** FcU 0lr ^ 
/ tf * *>■** ALA., ^ * **"- **■* 



Year of 


1870 [ 

665 1868 

670 1877 


675 1878 




685 1868 



Royal Colonial Institute. 

Welch, Henbt P., Toorak, Eliot Hill, Lewisham, S.E. 

Wellings, Henry, HuTiorer Square Club, W. 

Wetherell, William S., 117, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Western, Chares B., Chaddesden Hill, Derby. 

Westoarth, William, 8, Finch Lane, E.C. ; and 10, Bolton Gardens, S.W. 

Wiieeler, Charles, Park House, Addleetone, Surrey. 

White, James T., 4, Clarendon Place, Hyde Park W. 

White, Lekdham, 44, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

White, Robert, Mihlmay Chambers, 82, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. 

WniTEroBD, William, 3, Temple Gardens, E.G. 

Whitehead, Herbert M., Conservative Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

Wills, Geoboe, White Hall, Hornsey Lane, N.; and 3, Chapel Street, 

Whitecrots Street, E.C. 
Williams, W. J„ 95, Cromwell Road, S.W.; and Thatched House Club, 

St. James's Street, S.W. 
Wilson, Bdwabd D. J., Reform Club, S.W. 
Wilson, John George Hannay, 49, Thurloe Square, South Kensington, 

Wilson, Boiiert, St. Mary's Chambers, St. Mary Awe, E.C. 
f Wilson, Sir 8amuel, 9, Grosvenor Square, W ; and Hughenden Manor, 

High Wycombe, Buck*. 
Wilson, William, 5, Earl's Court Square, South Kensington, S.W. ; and 

Wingtield, 8ir Charles, K.C.S.I., C.B., Arthur's Club, St. Janus'* 

Street, S.W.; and 66, Portland Place, W. 
fWoLFr, Sir Henry Drummond, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., M.P., Carlton Club, 

S. W. ; and Boscombe Tower, Ringwood, Hants. 
Wood, J. Dennistoun, 2, Hare Court, Temple, E.C. 
Wood, William, The Bank, Highgate, N. 

fWooDB, Arthur, Mickleham, Dorking, Surrey ; and 1, Drapers' Gardens, 
Throgmorton Street, E.C. 

Yasdlet, S,, 5, Westminster Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 

Youl, James A., C.M.G., Waratah House, Clapham Park, S.W. 

Young, Adolphcs W., 55, Davies Street, Berkeley Square, W. ; Reform 

Club, S.W.; and Hare Hatch House, Twyford, Berks. 
f Young, Frederick, 5, Qmensberry Place, South Kensington, S.W. 


(<?, m 




695 1881 



700 1878 




705 ww 


IN* I 

710 1878 

715 1877 



730 1877 





ABDrB.RAiiMA.v, Modlvie Stud, P.S.S., Barrieter-at-Law (Inner Templo), 

42, ToltoUah Lane, Calcutta, India. 
Abrahams, Manlt, J. P., Hampton Green, Spanish Town, P.O. Jamaica. 
Ackrotd, Edward James, Registrar of the Supreme Court, li 
Aclasd, Hon. .1. fl. AsnVDXL, M.L.C., ChrUtchurch, Nine Zen'- 
Adolfhvs, Edwin, Bi arra Leone, Went Africa. 
Ar.Lux, Capiat A. T., Maritzbury, WatoL 
Aonew, Hon. J. W., M.D., M.L.C., Bctmrt, Tasmania. 
Aoostini, Edgab, Barrister-at-Law, V«rt if Spain, Trinidad. 
fAiaTH, Alexander, Port Captain, Port Natal, Durlan. 
Akxbma.n, J. W., M. L. C, Mariltburg, Natal. 
tAKEBBKBG.CBABLKS 0., Swedish and Norwegian Consul-General, Cape 

Town, Cape Colony. 
Alxxandeb, A. II., Immigration Agent-General, Kingst.-m, Jamaica. 
Alxxandeb, Douglas, St. George'*, Grenada, West Indies. 
Alison, James, F.R.G.8., Union Club, Sydney, N. B, Males. 
Allan, The Hon. G. W., Moss Park, Toronto, Canada. 
fAlLAN, Sib Hugh, Montreal, Canada, 
Allen, Robert, J.P., Colworth, Ladysmith, .X 
Alletne, George H., Ilarbados, West Indies. 

tAiLPOBT, Walter H., C.E., The Repp, Neumarket, P. 0., Jamaica. 
Axdbrson, F. H., M.D., Government Medical Officer, Qeorgctoxcn, British 

tAxpbrson, DrrKSON, Montreal, Canada. 

Axdebson, James F., Bet-Air, Oramd* Savanne, Mauritius. 

Andrews, William, Kiwisti-m, Jamaica. 

t Angas, J. H., J I irve, South Australia. 

Ariiieu, William, Graeemere, Queensland. 

ABCHrBALB, Hon. Adams, G., C.M.G., Q.C., Lient.-Governor of Nora 

Scotia, HaUfai, A'*™ Scotia. 
Abmbbibtxr. Hon. Wm. K., M.E.C., Nassau, Bahamas. 
Abmttaoe, Ferdinand F., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 
Abmttaoe, F. w., Me X bom m t , Retorta, Australia. 
Armstrong, James, C.M.G., Sorel, Quebec, Cm 
Armstrong, John, Barrister-at-Law, Sydney. ■'< Wales. 

fABNOT, David, Bskdale, P.O. Longford, Herbert, Cape OeA 
Arundel, John Thomas, South Sea, Ista 

fATHNsoN, Nicholas, Solicitor-General, GV >itUh Guiana. 

ATiiEasTnsE, Edwin, M.B., Grahamstoicn, Cape Colony. 
Atbcrstonb, Db. W. Gutbon, M.L.A., i . (Cor- 

responding Secretary). 
fATiiiBSTOSE, Gctdon D.. A.I.C.E., Grahamstoum, Cape Colony. 
ASKS, Edward K. H., Wteoeia, I'yprus. 
Ai'LD, Patrice, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Acrit, Abraham, ML. A., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
tAuiTJN, CbaULES PiebCT, Georgetown, British Qv. 


Year of 



730 1881 



735 1878 


74 o 1875 



745 18?7 





755 1880 



7 6o 1878 

763 1873 


Royal Colonial Institute. 

Austin, Tiie Eight Rev. William Perot, D.D., Lord Bishop of Guiana* 

Kingston House, Georgetown, British Guttata. 
AUSTIN, Hon. H. W., Chief Justice, Nassau, Bahamas. 
Auybat, P, Elicio, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Back, Oltvtr E., J.P., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

Baldwin, Captain W., Chingford, Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Ball, Captain E., R.N.R., gs. " Blenheim." 

BALL, Frederick A., Queen's Pari, Toronto, Canada. 

Bam, J. A., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Banbubt, George A., Assistant Colonial Secretary and Treasurer, 

Sierra Leone. 
Bankekmak, Samuel, Accra, Oold Coast Colony. 
Babbow, H., Colmar House, Kingston, Jamaica. 
Babby, Sib Jacob D., Judge President, Eastern Distsict Court, Grahams- 

town, Cape Colony. 
Barter, Charles, B.C.L., Resident Magistrate, The Finish, Marittburg, 

Babtlet, Abthub II., B.A., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Barton, William, The Upper Huti, Wellington, New Zealand. 
Bathes, Hon. Edwin Donald, C.M.G., President of Antigua, St. John's, 

Baynss, Thomas, St. John's, Antigua. 
Bean, George T., Adelaide, South Australia. 
Beard, Charles Halman, St. Kitt*. 
Beibb, D. M., Tliames, Auckland, Nne Zealand. 
Beetham, William H., Wairarapa, Wellingt'm, New Zealand. 

Bego, Alexander, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Bellairs, Sea forth Mackenzie, Met-en-Meerzoog, West Coast, Britiih 

Belmonte, B. C. Calaco, M.A., D.C.L., Barrister-at-Law, Georgetown, 
British Guiana. 

Bennett, George, M.D., Sydney, New South Wales (Corresponding 

Benjamin, David, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Bennett, Bamuel Mackenzie, Immigrat ion Department,Kingston,Jamaica. 

Benson, George C, Superintendent of Government Telegraphs, George- 
town, British Guiana. 

BENSC8AN, Ralph, Cape Town, Cape Colon y. 

BKaKELEY, Captain J. H. Hardtm i a ■■'■■', St. Kitts. 

Berkilxt, Hon. Henby S. ( St. John's, Antigua. 

Bekridge, A. Hamilton, M.L.A., St. Kitts. 

BlEBrDGE, W. D., Colonial Bank, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

ISk.rrt, Alexander, Kingston P. O., Jamaica. 

tBiDEN, A. G., Kimberley, Cape C ' 

Birch, A. 8., Fitthcrbert Terrace, Wellington, New Zealand. 

BtBOB, W. J., Jon., Stoneycroft, Hastings, New Zealand. 

+Blagbove, Hxnrt John (13th Hussars), Muttra, N.W.P., India; and 
Army awl Navy Club, Pall Mall, S. II'. 

Blalne, George, M.L.A., Fast London, Cape Colony. 



770 wai 




780 1874 














1ST. J 


Bltth, Caftaix Matthew 8., C.M.Q., Chief Magistrate, Trantkei, South 

Bots, Frederic W., J.P., Colombo, Ceylon. 
Bolus, Walter, Addertey Street, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Bompa.s, Frederick William, i'anmwe, £<w< London, Cape Colony. 
Boorrrtr, Josiab, C.M.G., J.P., Adelaide, South Australia. 
Bolton, John G. E., M.B.C.S 

BoswortH, CurTAts Abthuk, lnl Weft India Jifjt,, Sierra Leone. 
BotrcHMViLUt, A. be, Port Louis, Mauritius (Corresponding Secretary). 
BoraiNOT, J. G., Clerk of the Boose of Commons, Ottawa, Canada. 
Bocrke, Wellrslkt, Kingston, Jamaica. 
tBoDsiiELD, The Right Bev. E. B., D.D., Lord Bishop of Pretoria, 

Bishop's Cote, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 
Bowi.v, Charles Christopher, Middleton, Christchurch, New Zealand 

(Corresponding Secretary). 
Bowek, Edward C, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. 
Howes, Sir George P., G.C.M.G., Government House, Mauritius. 
Botle, Moses, Sierra. Leone, West Africa, 

BEADriru>, John L., M.L.A., Dordrecht, Wodeliouse, Cape Colony. 
Braxuon, Alfred de Bathe, M.B.R., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Brewer, II. Moltnkalx, Wanganui, New Zealand. 
Bridge, B. B., Fairfield, Ruataniwha, Napier, New Zealand. 
Bridges, W. F., New Amsterdam, British Guiana. 
Bboadhurst, Bon. John, M.L.C., Sutra Leone. 

Brodrikd, Hon. W. A., M.L.C., 133, Macquarie 8treel, Sydney, N.8.W. 
llBoniUBa, Kenric E., Burnett Street, St. Kilda.near Melbourne, Australia. 
Bbocghton, Frederics, Great Western Railway of Canada, Hamilton, 

Brown, Hon. Alfred H., M.L.C., Baralon, Queensland, 
Bbown, James A., Black River, P.O., Jamaica. 
Brown, John, M.B., J. P., Fraserbi', tony. 

t Browne, Bon. C. Macaulet, M.1..C, St. George's, Grenada. 
Beownger, Sydney G., C.E., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Brcmmel, John, Barrister- at-Law, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Buchanan, A. M., Melbourne, Avttriiliu. 
Buchanan, E. J., Jndgo of the Snpreme Conrt, Gra/muislMen. Cape 

Buchanan, Hector Cross, J.P., Colombo, Ceylon. 
Bvcitasan, Walter Cross, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Buckley, Boif. Geosge, M.L.O., Christchurch, New Zealand, 
Buckley, W. P. McLear, ChrisUhureh, New Zealand. 
Hldoe, William, Waterloo, Sierra Leone. 

Bvllrr, Dr. Walter L.. C.M.G., F.R.S., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Bult, C. Masgin, DutoiUpnn, Cape Colony (Corresponding Secretary). 
Bull. Jane*, Bungiliki, New Zealand. 

Bullivant, William Uose, Avulon, Lara, Victoria, Australia. 
BotwtR. Sir U«nry Ernest LrrtON, K.O.M.G., Government House, 

Burtord-Hancock, Sir Ernst J., Chief Juitioe, Leeward Islands, 



Year of 





815 1879 




820 1879 





830 1880 


835 1882 

S40 1873 

845 1882 

o 1878 


Royal Colonial Institute. 

Bubgebs, Hon. J. A., M.L.O., Murray sburg, Cape Colony. 
Burke, Henry Labdneb, B.A., Gordon Terrace, Port Elizabeth, Capo 

Bubke, Hon, Samuel Constantine, M.L.C., Assistant Attorney-General, 

Buknsidk, Hon. Bruce L., Queen's Advocate, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Burrowes, A. A., Colonial Receiver-General's Office, Georgetown, British 

Butler, Liect.-Colonel W. F., C.B. {late 62th Reginuint). 
Button, Edward, Newcastle, Natal. 
tBurroff, Frederick, Durban, Natal. 

fCAiBscaoss, John, J.F., ilember of the Divisional Coancil, Mossel Bay, 

Cape Colony. 
Caldecott, Habbt 8., Aliwal North, Cape Colony. 
Campbell, A. H., Toronto, Canada. 
Campbell, Charles J., Toronto, Canada. 
Campbell, Colin T., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Campbell, W. H., LL.D., Georgetotcn, British Guiana (Corresponding 

Capper, Thomas, Kingston, Jamaica. 
Carfrae, John, Melbourne, Australia. 
Gabon, Hon. AdoLpiiE F., M.P., Quebec, Canada. 
Carpenter, Fbank W., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Carter, Hon. Gilbert T., K.N'., Collector of Cnstoma and Treasurer, 

Accra, Cold Coast Colony, 
fCABTEK, William H., B.A., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Casey, Hon. J. J., M.P., C.M.G., 36, Temple Court, Melbourne, Australia. 
Cabtbll, Rev. H, T. 8„ Incumbent of St. Philip's, Georgetown, British 

Castor, Christian F., Assistant Surgeon, Accra, Gold Coast Colony. 
Chadwick, Hon. F. M., Public Treasurer, St. George's, Grenada. 
Chambebs, John, Te Mata, Napier, New Zealand. 
Chamnbt, Robert Wm., Port Louis, Mauritius. 
Ciiantkell, Hon. IIe.nkv W,, Audi tor- General, Trinidad. 
Chapleau, Hon. J. A., M.P.P., Premier of Quebec, Canada. 
Chapman, John, M.D., 212, Rue de Rivoli, Paris. 
Chabnock, J, H., Lennoxvilte, Quebec, Canada. 
Chiappini, P., M.D., Sen., Cape Town, Caps Colony. 
Chabpentieb, Gustave, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
ClIASTELLIBB, Piebbe L., Barrister-at-Law, Mauritius. 
Chatterton, B., Qeargetoicn, British Guiana. 
CllELTnAM-STRODE, Alfred, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand. 
tCBiNTAMON, Hurrtchunu (Political Agent for Native Princes). 
fCHlSHOLM, W., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
tCnaiSTlAN, H. B., M.L.A., Port Elisabeth, Cape Colony. 
Churchill, John Fleming, C.B., Director- General of Public Works, 

Colombo, Ceylon. 
Clark, James McCosk, Auckland, New Zealand. 
Clark, Walter J. Glenara, Victoria, Australia. 




Clark, William, Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Clarke, Thomas F., Halfway Tree P.O., St. Andrew, Jamaica. 

Clarke, Hon. W. J., M.L.C., Melbourne, Australia. 

Clatdxn, Arthur, Nelson, New Zealand. 

CLOETE, Henby, Barrister-at-Law, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 

Cloete, Woodbine, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

tCu>sE, Edward Charles, Morpeth, New South Wales. 

Cochran, James, Widgiewa, Vrana, New South Wales 

Cockblbs. Samuel A., Belie, British Honduras. 

Oodd, John A., Bowmanville, Ontario, Canada. 

COLE, BoBERT Ernest, Bathur«t J?tror. Gambia, West Africa. 

Coleman, William J,, J. P., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

Collier, Charles Frederice, Barrister-at-Law, Hobart, Tasmania. 

Collteb, William B., Qooen'a Advocate, Cyprus. 

Comissiono, W. 8., St. George's, Grenada. 

Comtton, Lieut. J. N., B.N., Commanding Colonial Steamer " Prince of 

Wale*!' Sierra Leone. 
Cooke, William Francis, Melbourne Club, Victoria, Australia. 
Coote, Acdlet, M.L.A., Hobart, Tasmu 

Cornish, Horace H., Colonial Bank, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 
tCoaTEB, John Lewis, Bank of New Zealand, Christchurch, New Zealand, 
Coortnet, J. M., Deputy Finance Minister, Ottawa, Canada. 
Cox, Charles T., Georgetown, British Guiana, 
fCox, Hon. George H., M.L.C, Mudgee, New South WaJ«. 
Crawford, James D., Montreal, Canada. 
Crbswick, Hbnbt, Hawthorne, near Melbourne, Australia. 
Cripps, Thomas N., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Chooses, Hoh. Adam, M.P., Q.C., LL.D., Toronto, Cana 
Cboskbrrt, Dr. Hugh, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
CtnmiNo, W. Gordon (District Magistrate), Xalanga, Tembuland, 

South Africa. 
Curling. Rev. Joseph J„ Bay of Islands, Newfoundland. 
Ccr&ib, James, Port Louis, Mauritius. 
Curwen, Bev. E. H., Hobart, Tasmania. 

Da Costa, D. C, 7 , Barbados. 

Da Costa, Henry W., Kingston, Jamaica, 

Dale, Lanciiam, MA., LL.D., Superiiitendont-Goueral of Education, 

Cope Town, Cape Colony. 
Dalton, E. H. G., Begistrar of the Supreme Courts, Georgetown, Britnh 

Dalt, TitOMAi, Lamaha House, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
DaLzikL, J. A., Georgetown, Briti»h Qv, 
Dammcr, Frederick E., Stipendiary Magistrate, Georgetown, V 

DaNBT, H. W., Melbourne, Australia. 
Danqar, W. J., Sydney, New South Wait*. 
Darby, James C.. itiah Hond* 

■fDATEBPOET, Samuel, Beaumont, Adelaide, South Australia |i 

•ponding Secretary) . 

Year of 


























91 s 




























Royal Colonial Institute. 

Davidson, John, J. P., Sherwood Forest, Jamaica. 

Davidson, William M., Depnty Surveyor General, Brisbane, Queensland. 

Davis, B. 8., St. Kitt*. 

fDAVls, Hon. N. Darnell, Controller of CnBtoms, Georgetown, British 

fDAYls, P., J UN., Marittbitrg, Natal. 

Davson, George Li., British Guiana Bank, Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Davson, Hbnbt K., Berbiea, British Guiana. 

Deare, Charles Rubsel, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

Dears, Henry Russel, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

Dx Gboot, R. J., Van Ryck, Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Dell, James, Traffic Manager Western Railway, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

dk la Mare, F., Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Denjson, Lieut. -Colonel George T., Commanding the Governor- 
General's Body Guard, Toronto, Canada. 

pe Pasb, Elliot A, F.R.G.S., Turf Club, New York. 

de Pahs, John, Kimbcrley, Cape Colony. 

Des Vasnx, G. W., C.M.G., Government House, Levuka, Fiji. 

Dillet, Tiios. Wm. Ht., Clerk of tho Supreme Court and Keeper of the 
Records, Belite, British Honduras. 

Dilwortu, James, J.P., Auckland, New Zealand. 

Disten, John 8., Tafelberg Hall, Middleburg, Capo Colony. 

fDoBELL, Richard R., Quebec, Canada. 

Domville, Lieut-Colonel James, St. John, New Brumnoick. 

Douoal, Joseph, Melbourne, Australia. 

Doutbi, JosEpn, Q.C., Montreal, Canada. 

Douglas, Hon. John, C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor and Colonial SeO., Ceylon. 

Douglass, Arthur, Heatherton Towers, near Qrahamstown, Cape Colony. 

D'Oyiy, John, St. Vincent, West Indies. 

fDRURY, Edward R., Brisbane, Queensland. 

Dudley, Cecil, Accra, Gold Coast Colony. 

Ddffebin, Rioht Hon. the Earl of, K.P., K.C.B., G.O.M.G., Her 
Britannic Majesty's Ambassador, Constantinople. 

Duncan, Captain A., Superintendent of the Pilot Establishment, George- 
town, British Guiana. 

Donlop, Rev. R., M.A, Nassau, Bahamas. 

Dunlop, Charles E., Civil 8ervioe, Colombo, Ceylon. 

DtiuNT, Evk.nor, Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Dwyer, John E., M.D., Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Eaolbstone, William, Doveton Street, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. 
East, Rev. D. J., Principal of Calabar College, Jamaica. 
Eabmon, J. Pabbell, M.D., P.B.C.S., Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast Colony. 
Ebden, John W., care of Chamber of Commerce, Cape Toum, Cape Colony. 
Edgar, J. D., Toronto, Canada. 

Edwards, Arthur Elliott, M.R.C.S.E., St. John's, Antigua. 
Edwards, Herbert, Oamaru, Otago, Neio Zealand. 
■(■Edwards, Dh. W. A., Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Eldbidoe, Hon. C. M., President of Dominica, Government House, 

Noti'Resident Fellows. xrsi 



Illiott, Ho*. A. C, Victoria, British C'.lombia. 


Elliott, Bev. F. T. W., New Amsterdam, Berbice, British Guiana. 

940 1879 

Elliott, Coloxel John, C.B., Inspector- Gon. of Police, Barbuda*. 


BLLIOTT, W. J. P., Accra, Quid. Coast Colony. 


tELUOT, William Thomas, Rockhampton, Queensland. 


Elus, Sir Adam Gib, Chief Jnatioe, Mauritius. 


Krscink, Ho*. Major D. 

945 »874 

Esoomhe, Harbt, Durban, Natal. 


EsTOUttGiES, Leopold, Royal Observatory, Brussels, Belgium. 


Svaxr, Frederick, C.M.G., Accra, Qold Coast Colony. 


Fairbairx, George, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 


Fairfax, James B., Sydney, New South Walet. 

9SQ 1881 

Faibiiead, Frederic, Cochin Cochin, Queensland. 


TkTTBTVLL, Bobbbt L., M.D., SpringfieUi, Goulbourn, N. S. Walet. 

Fallojt, J. T., AVbury, New South Wale*. 


tFarmir, We. Mortimer Mat.vard, M.L.A., J.P., Maynard Villa, 

Wynberg, Cape Colony. 


Farrae, 8. H., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

955 W80 

Farbab, Tn Bet. Thomas, B.D., Georgetown, Britiih Guiana. 


Fabcbtt, Mb. Justick, Sydney, Neiu South Walet. 


Fed ax, J. 0., Kingston, Jamaica. 


Filtham. H. J., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 


Fxxwice, Fairfax, Oainaru, Otago, New Zealand. 

960 1870 

Ferouson, J., Cinnamon Garden*, Colombo, Ceylon. 


Field, Wm. Hrxrt, J.P., Montserrat, Wett Indie*. 


Field, Edmund, J.P., Great. Dianwnd, British Guiana. 


fFiKAUOUTT, H. J., Weh-irilri n, Colesburg, Cape Colony. 


tFl.xcH-HATTOx, Hox. Benrt 8., Mount Spencer, Maekay, Queensland. 

96$ 1861 

Fixlatsox, H. M., Maekay, Queensland. 

Fijclatsox, J. U., Adelaide, South Auttralia. 


tFiswemore, Bobebt L ( Besident Magistrate, Durban, Natal. 


Fixmss, J. H. 8., M.D., Rose Hilt, Mauritius. 


FlBJH, Hsnrt Alotsius, Emigration Agent for British Guiana, 8, Garden 

Reach, Calcutta. 

97O 1878 

Fischer, C. F., M.D., F.L.S., Sydney, New South Wale*. 


Fisher, Wm., Esquimau, British Columbia. 


Fiiee.x, John Inglis, Tonrak, Melbourne, Australia, 


Fitzgerald, How. Nicholas, M.L.C., Melbourne, Australia. 


Fitxoibbox, E. G., Town Clerk of Melbourne, Australia. 

975 M» 

Fitzherbrrt, Sir William, K.C.M.G., M.H.B.. Wellington, New Zealand. 


fFLEXllco, Mr, Jcstice Frakcis, Georgetown, British Guiana. 


FLEM1SG, JoHX, Charlotte Town, Grenada. 

Flemixo, SANDfORD, C.E., C.M.G., Ottawa, Canada. 


Flower, James, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

980 1879 

Foleakp, Alfred, Georgetown, British Guiana. 


Folkakd, H. B., Georgetown, Britieh Guiana. 


Ford, Dr. F. T. West, Melbourne, Australia. 


Fi>ERE»T, John. C.M.G ., Deputy Surveyor-General, Perth, Western 


9 3 S 


Year of 






990 1878 

995 1882 



1000 1879 

I0O 5 1876 

ioio 1869 

1015 1875 


1020 1880 

1025 1879 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

Forrest, W., Brivbane, Queensland. 

fFoRSHAiv, George Anderson, Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Forssman, Chevalier, O.W.A., Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South 

Fortescixk, G., M.B., Sydney, New South Wales. 
Fowler, William J., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Fox, Sir W., K.C.M.G., M.H.E., Cro/ton, Rangiliki, New Zealand. 
Fraser, Hon. Malcolm, M.L.C., C.M.G., Surveyor-General, Perth, 

Western Australia. 
Fraser, Robert S., Kandancwera, Elkadua, Ceylon. 
Fbasbr, Hon. Capt. Thomas, M.L.C., F.E.G.8., Duncdin, New Zealand. 
+Fbksson, William, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Frith, Chablks, The Exchange, Sydney, N. S. Wales. 
Frost, John, C.M.G., M.L.A., Queenstown, Cape Colony. 
Finket, F. B., Durban, Natal. 
Fish, Hon. P. 0., M.H.A., Hobart, Tasmania. 

Gadd, Josiph, Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

Gahan, C. F., R.N., F.B.G.S., Port Louis, Mauritius. 

fGALLAGHEB, Dknis M., Aaaiatant Government Secretary and Assistant 

Receiver-General, Berbice, British Guiana. 
Garbatt, G. H., Sierra Leone. 

Gaul, Rev. Canon, B.A., The Rectory, Dutaitspan, Cape Colony. 
+Geard, Hon. John, M.L.C., Port Elisabeth, Cape Colony. 
Gibbons, 0. C, British Vioe-Consnl, Porto Rico, West Indies. 
fGiLBEHT, William, Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 
f Gilchrist, W. O., Sydney, New South Wales. 
Giles, Thomas, J. P., Adelaide Club, South Australia. 
Gillies, Hon. Mr. Justice, Auckland, New Zealand. 
Gillmor, Lieut.-Oolonel Charles T., Clerk of tho Legislative Assembly 

of Ontario, Toronto, Canada. 
fGlLMOBE, Captain G., Launc^ston, Tasmania. 

Gjlmour, Andrew, 343, Albert Road, Emerald Hill, Melbourne, Australia, 
Gisborne, Hon. William, Wellington, Neio Zealand. 
fGLANVlLLE, Thomas, Manchester, Jamaica. 
Gliknie, Thomas H., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Gollan, Donald, Napier, New Zealand. 
GoorBEr, Frederick R., Mtlhtuirnc, Australia. 
fGoLDKrr, Hon. J. Tankervule, Attorney -General of the Leeward 

Islands, Antigua. 
tGoLDSCHMlDT, Anthony, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Goldschmidt, Lunwio H., M.L.A., Cape Toicn, Cape Colony. 
Goldswortht, Hon. B. T., C.M.G., Government Bouse, St. Lucia. 
Goode, Charles H„ Ad, laidt, St.uth Australia. 
Goodlipfe, Francis G., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Goodlijte, JonN, Durban, Natal (Corresponding Secretary). 
GoODBICEE, D. G., Durban, Natal. 
fGoRDON, Charles, M.D., Maritzburg, Natal. 
Gordon, John, Toronto, Canada. 
Gordon, J. Mackenzie, M.B., Hay, Sm South Wales. 




Non-Resident Fellows. 


| |0| 








yO 1*77 



0S5 WW 



*5 1878 


Ooaz, Deputy-Commis»ary J.O., Cape Coart, Cattle, Gold Coast Colon]/. 
Goti'er, Gkohgb WooDaorrg, Sanreyor.Genonil, Adelaide, South 

Austral ia. 
Graham, Jons, Victoria, Brittik Columbia. 
Oubim, Joseph, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, 
Grant, Db. C. 8coyell, Gold QooM Cuhmy. 
Grant, Cuables, Kingston, Jamaica. 
Grajct, E. U., Colonial Bank, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Gust, LiEirr.-CoLONKL Thomas Hunter, care of Wm. Bignell, Bsq„ 

N.P., Quebec, Can a 
Grant, WrLUAM, Durban, Natal. 
GbaT, SaML'EL \Y., Kuima, Neio South Walco. 
Gur.N, Charles db Freville, District Commissioner, Accra, Gold Coast 

tGktrN. Morton, Durban, Natal. 

Gaxsif. Bobert Cottle, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 
tGRXEXACBR, B. W., M.L.C., Durban, Natal. 

Grbtton, George le M., Barrister-at-Law, Adelaide, South Australi i. 
fGBRY- Wilson, William, Belize, British Honduras. 
G kibble, J. D. B., Madras Civil Service, care of Meters. Arbuthnot if Co., 

Madras, India. 
fGaiCE, J., Messrs. Grice, Sumner $• Co., Melbourne, Australia. 
Grieve, Dr. Robert, New Amsterdam, Berbiee, British Guiana. 
GairrrnJ, Horace M. Bbanufobd, Lagos, Gold Coast Colony. 
fllllllHi IImn. B. W-, Q.C., M.L.A., Brisbane, Queensland. 
GRirrmi, Hon. T. Riselv, Colonial Secretary, 8itrra Leone. 
GaimTir, Hon. W. Biuxi>roun, C.M.G., Lieut. -Governor of the Gold 

Coast Colony, Lagos. 
Gbisdale,Yert Bev.Joon.B.D., Dean of Bupcrt'a Lnu<l, Winnipeg, Canada. 
GcrnbT, Frank, St. George's, Grenada. 
Guthrie, Charles, London Chartered Bank of Australia, Melbovme, 

fGzowsKi, Luct.-Colonel C. S. (A.D.C. to Her Majesty tlio Queer.), 

Toronto, Canada. 

HauDON, F. W„ Melbourne, Australia. 

Haoue, Geobcb, Merchants' Bank of Canada, Montreal. 

Halcombe, AJtrnuR F., Manager of the Manchester Block, Fielding, Ntir 

Zealand (Corresponding Secretary). 
HaLIBURToN, B. G., QC, Ottawa, Canada. 

Hall, no». Captain ANimiiw H., M.L.C., IUUu; Ihitinh Honduras. 
Hall, E. Oepple, Canada. 

riUix, Hon. William Henry, M.L.C , Nassau, Bahamas. 
Halkxtt, Captain F. Ckaioie, Lewka, I 
UasL'Y, C. Burton, Adelaide, South A'utrali". 
tlUuiif'Pf, H., KimberUy, Cup': 
Hablet, Colonel |B. W., C.B.,, | .! Jhuse, I 

tir\ | > rag, 

Harbaoix, William Campbell, British Guiana, 
Harris, D., L>utoitspan : Cope Colony. 


Year of 




I 070 1881 

1075 1882 




1080 1879 



1085 1869 


1090 1875 

aogS 1881 
1 100 1879 
1 105 1877 


Royal Colonial Institute. 

Harris, John, Treasury, Kingston, Jamaica. 
Harry, Thomas, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Harvey, Hon. A. W., M.L.C., St. John's Newfoundland. 
Harvey, Charles James, F.I.A., Bridgetown, Barbadot. 
fHABVET, Thomas L., Kingston, Jamaica. 
tHabsant, Sidney B., Kimbertey, Cape Colony. 
Hart, Lionel, British Sherbro', West Africa. 
Haslam, .Robert T., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 
HAWDON, C. G., Chriitchurch, New Zealand. 
Hay, EIk.NRT, Collindina, New South WaUs. 
Hay, William, Melbourne, Australia. 
Hays, Walteb, Townsville, Queensland. 

Hayter, H, H., C.M.G., Government Statist, Melbourne, Australia, (Cor- 
responding Secretary). 
Hawker, George C, Jcn., Adelaide, South Australia. 
Hawtayne, George H., Stipendiary Magistrate, Last Coast, British 

Hazell, Hon. John H., M.L.C., St. Vincent, West Indies. 
Heatok, J. Hennikeb, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Hellmuth, The Rioht Rev. Isaac, D.D., Lord Bishop of Huron, Nor- 
wood House, London, Canada. 
Hemming, John, Civil Commissioner, Qwenstown, Cape Colony. 
Henderson, Joseph, C.M.G., Marittburg, Natal. 
Hennessy, Bib John Pope, K.C.M.G., Governor of Hong Kong. 
Hett, J. Roland, Clerk of the Legislative Assembly, Victoria, British 

HEWAT, Captain J., Superintendent of the Cape To urn Docks, Cape 

Hiddingh, Dr. J., Cape Tou-n, Cape Colony. 

Higginson, Walter, Accra, Gold Coast Colony. 

Hill, Charles Lcmley, Brisbane, Queensland. 

fHiLL, James A., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

Hill, WILLIAM, Port Louis, Mauritius. 

tHoDGSoN, Edward D., Eton Vale, Cambooya, Queensland. 

Holmested, Ernest A., Adelaide Station, Falkland Islands. 

Holt, E. B., Bank of Neu> Zealand, Sydney, New South R 

Honiball, Oscar D., M.D., Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Hood, Alexander, Merrang, Ilerham, Victoria, Australia. 

+Hood, Frank, Danish Consnl, Lagos, Gold Coast Colony. 

Horton, A. G., Auckland, New Zealand. 

Howard, Joseph, J.P., Auckland, New Zealand. 

Howatson, William, Fort of Spain, Triniihul. 

Hudson, John Fkazek, Mnssel Bay, Cape Colony. 

Hdoel, Adolphk, Midland Railway of Canada, Port Hope, near Toronto, 

Huooiss, Hastings C, LL.D., F.R.G.S., Barrister-at-Law, Stipendiary 

Magistrate, Or UHlish Guiana. 

Hughes, Commander R. J., R.N., East London, Cape Colony ; and Naval 

■j-Ulghes, Sin Walter W., Wallaroo, 8outh Australia. 

Xon-Resutcnt Fellows. 



I I 15 1879 





OJ8 U74 


•U3 1879 



Humphreys, Octavui.*, Chief Registrar of the Supreme Court of the 

Leeward Islands, St. John's, At,i 
Hintinodon, Hon. L. 8., Q.C., Montreal, Canada. 
Hurlet, D. B., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Hutchinson, G. W., Barbados. 
Hutton, William P., Master and Registrar of tho HigU Cmirt, A'imoer- 

ley. Cape Colony. 
HTDR, FREDERICK. W., British Kajfrarin. 

Ibbotson, Chaui.ks, Gcelong, Victoria, Australia. 

Icelt, T. R., New South Wale*. 

Ik Thurn, Eyebakd F., Georgetown, British Guiana. 

I.vbciss, James, Barbados. 

IfctlNO, Si* HENRT T., K.C.M.G., Government BJOUm, Georgetown, 

■ h Quiana. 
I sting, Da. J., Christchureh, New Zcaltiml. 
Isham, Arthur C, Colombo, Ceylon. 

Jackson, Db. Andrew C, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

|M, Captain H. M., U.A., Inspector-General of Police, Sierra Jjeone, 
Jackson, Thomas Witter, Port*. 
Jacobs, Hon. Simeon, Qrahamrtown, Cape Colony. 
f James, J. William, P.G.8., Ostrich Kraal, CooJL-'k ftfttr, >i?«r Syrtwy, 

tf.S. JFak*. 
fJAMESON, Julius P., Kiny William's Town, Cape Colony. 
^Jamison, Da. L. S., Aimkr W<ry, Cope Colony. 
Jabrxtt, Michael Lewis, M.B.C.S.E., L.R.C.l*. Edin , British S). 

West Africa. 
tJtNiiNS, H. L., Indian Cinl 8ervice. 

Jenman, G. S., F.L.S., Government Botanist, Qeorgetoicn.BritithG" 
tJBPPE, JULIUS, Cape .Colony. 

Jrrtois, Major-Gknkkal Sir Wm. F. Drummonk, R.E., G.C.M.G., G.C.B., 

Government House, Adelaide, South Australia. 
JeTTK, L. A., Montreal, l'im<u!n. 

Johnson, Alered W., Warleigh, Brighton, M ilia. 

Johnson, G. Cuntnohams, St. h\tt*. 
fJoHNBToN, Hon. John, M.L.C., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Johnston, Thomas (.! Hid. 

JONES, ALBEBT II.. J. P.. Kingston, Jnui 

Jones, Hon. B. Howell, Plantation Bope\ D i U ieA Ohms*. 
Jones, Hon. Oswaxj>, M.C.L., Bnrba,i.,». 

Jones, Matthew, Assistant Colonial Surveyor, Arera, Qohl OeaM 1 
Jones, B. Twenttman, Stanwore, BmsMmbA, * 

Jonek, W. H ., Krtij/rtown, Borbodo*. 

lSTS KKK7T.B, SAMUEL, C.E., Brookm-i'lfr, Ontario, Canada. 

;r, H. A . ale*. 

KtLSBT, J. F., F.S.S .'.njri/iiM. 

1S80 I KxMr, Hon. G. T. R., M.D., M.L.C., Nassau, Bal 


Year of 
"50 1882 





"55 1883 




il6o 1873 

1 165 1882 

1170 1875 

"75 1878 




1 190 






Royal Colonial Institute. 

KeMSLEY, John C, J.P., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

IKennkdy, Sir Arthur E., G.C.M.G., C.B., Government Home, Brisbane, 

Kerr, Thomas, Government HotMt, Stanley, Full-hind standi. 
Kemslev, James, Vt,<i tMmuwtth, Cape (.'• 
Keynes, Richard R., Keyneton, S„ut)i Australia. 
Kidd, Jons, Governor. General's Office, Ottaiea, Canada. 
Kixo, Nathaniel T., M.D., Lagos, Went Africa. 
Kino, Thomas, Adelaide, South Australia. 
Kixgsmill, Nicol, Toronto, Oamaia. 

Knevett, J, S-, 2, Rue de. Lotuui, Brussels; and British Columbia. 
Knioiit, William, Ilobart, Tasmania. 

Knights, B. T., Attornoj-at-Law, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Knox, Edward, Colonial 8ugi , Sydney, N.S. Wales. 

Kortright, Sir 0. H., K.C.M.G. 

tKRIEL, Rev. H. T., Ladysmith, Natal. 

Kyshe, J. B., F.S.S., Kegistrar-General, Mauritius. 

Laborde, W. Melville, British Sforbro*, West Africa. 

Lamp, Walter, Sydney. New South Well*. 

La Mothe, E. A., St. George's, Grenada. 

Lamprey, J. J., Surgeon, Army Medical Department, Sierra Leone, 

Landale, Robebt, Melbourne, Australia. 

fLANDALE, Walter, Melbourne Club, Victoria, Auttralia. 

Langlois, Jules, Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Lantox, Colonel Sir W. Owen, K.C.M.G., C.B., 2nd West India 

LllX, !''• H-. Sydney, New South II 
ILarnach, Hon. William J. M., C.M.G., The Camp, Dunedin, Otago, 

New Zealand. 
Latton, A. L., Airy Hall, I l t eq ui bo , liritiali Oitiana. 
Leart, 8., M.D., Superintendent, Publio Hospital, Berhice, British 

Leeb, P. G., Cape Town, Cape Col 

Lees, James, care of Messrs. Lees §r Moore, Oamaru, Otago, NewZealand. 
Lees, John, Wanganui, New Zealand. 
Le Mibre, Hippoltte, Jun., Port Louis, Man, 
Lembebc, P., Freetown, Sierra Leone. 
LENNOCK, G. R., King William's Town, Cape Cohxiy. 
Levey, G. Collins, C.M.G , Melbourne, Australia, 
Levin, W. H., WtVUnatan, New Ztaland. 
Levy, Amos D. C, Maua P.O., Jamaica, 
Lkvt.'Arthub, Mandeville, Jamaica. 

Levy, Emanuel Geobge,;J. P., St. Jago Parlt,i Spanish Tuicn P.O., Jamaica. 
Levt. Geohc.k, Kingston, Jam 
Levy, IIun. Isaac, Custos of St. Catherine, St. Jago Park, Spanish Town 

P.O., Jamaica. 
Lewis, LIox. Alhest,'Q.C., Attorney-General, Tobago. 
Lewis, N. K., Unhurt. Tasmania. 
Luns, Lotni Lucas, Melbourne, FSeft rt'a. 

Non-Rcsidetit Fdloics. 



; Ml 





a ,o 1881 


21; UH 









.^5 un 






;5 un 


Lf wis. Hon. Saitoh., M.L.C., Sierra Leorw. 

Lilkt, Bev. J. H., Dutmtspan, Cape Colony. 

Little, George, Jun., Georgetown, British Guiana. 

tLiversidge, PEOfEssok A., P.G.S., F.B.G.S., Sydney, New South Wales, 

iRT, C. G. Norman, New Souf/i lFa?«*. 
Looeheao, W. K., Jcn., TfiTmwflB. New South Wales. 
Longhen, Sir James B., K.C.M.G., Government House, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Lord, J. Lek, Union Club, Sydney, AVie .S'out/* Wales. 
LOUOHNA.V, IIenrt, JMfcoumc, Xudtrafia. 
Lovell, Dr. Francis H., Port Loui.<, Mauritius. 
\.\ | ii., Akurew, M.L.A., 46, Elisabeth Street, Mslbourne, Australia. 
Ltnch, Edward B., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Ltni.ii, James A., Bridgetown, Barbados. 

Ltncii, William Nicholas, Barrister-at-law, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Ltoxs, Frank B., Kingston, Jamaica. 

Mai-bice, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Macabthub, Douglas H-, J. P., Fielding, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Macdokald, The Bight Hon. Sir John A., K.C.B., Ottawa, Canada. 

tBlAcooKALD, Joseph, Kilfera, New South Wales. 

MacdonalD, Mubdo, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

Macdoigall, James, Melbourne, Austral i a. 

Mac? arlase, B., Member of the Volkaraad, Harrismith, Orange Free State. 

Macgioroe, Jameb, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Macglamian, Hon. John, Auditor-General, Jamaica. 

Macimyke, Donald, Kayuga, New South Wales. 

Maclcbe, Hon. W. M. G., M.D., M.L.C., Nassau, Bahama*. 

Macnab, BbTi Dr., Bector of Darlington, Bowmanville, Ontario, 

Hacphrrbon, Major-Grneral Sir Herbert, V.C., K.C.B., Commanding 

at Allahabad, India. 
Mai HlB J Mi Eom. J. A., Victoria, Austmlui. 

tMACPHERsoN, William Bobket, Derrm Villa, St. Andrew, Javuiica. 
M'Aham, Hon. Alex., M.L.C., 8t. John's, Am- 
McCarthy, James A., Barrister-at-Law, Sierra Leone. 
McCartht, Jam is D., Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Lagos, West Africa. 
McCrae, Farijcuar P. G., Manager, Bank of Australia, Adelaide, South 

McCulloch, Sir Jameb, K.C.M.G., Melbourne, Australia, 
McCclloch, William, Melbourne, AustraUn, 
McFarlaxd, Bobert, Barooga, Dcniliq'iin, New South Wales. 
McFarlaxd, Thomas, Australian Club, Melbourne, Australia. 
fMc Gibbon, James H. C, Superintendent Cape Town Botanical 

Gardens, IMly Lodge, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
McHattie, A. G , M.D., F.B.C.8.E., St. John's, Antigua. 
M'-Ilwkaitii. Hon., Thomas, M.L.A., Brteoane, Quecnstnn^L 
McKenzie, Frank, Boyal Mail Steamship Company. 
fMcLEAN, Douglas, Marackakaho, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand, 
McLroo, Captain Murdoch, Provost-Marshal, Georgetown, British 



Year of 


Royal Colonial Institute. 


1240 1871 

1 245 1880 

1250 1875 




1265 1880 











1280 1875 

McLennan, John, Orona Down*, near Wellington, Neto Zealand. 

McMaster, Alexander, IVaikaura,, Otago, New Zealand. 

McMubrat, J. 8., Barristcr-at-Law, Toronto, Canada. 

McNeilt, Alexander J. W., M.H.A., St. John's, Newfoundland. 

McPhail, John, J.P., Tulloch, Linstead, P.O., Jamaica. 

Main, George, Adelaide, South. Australia. 

Malabre, William, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Malcolm, Hon. O. D., Q.C., Attorney-General, Nassau, Bahama*. 

Manchester, Jamin, St. John, New Brunsudck. 

Manford, William, Auditor- General, Accra, Qold Coast Colony. 

Manning, George, DiUoitspan, Cape Colony. 

M arrant, Hon. Loris Ferdinand, M.L.C., Grenada. 

Madais, Hon. P. J., M.L.C., Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 

Marescaux, Oscar, Manager of the Colonial Bank, Kingston, Jamaica. 

^Marshall, Sir James, Chief Justice, Gold Coast Colony. 

Martin, Edward, care of J. G. Dougalty, Esq., Burke Street, Melbourne, 

Martin, John E., LL.D., Kingston, Jamaica, 
Martin, Thomas M., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Mahtin Thomas, ft \p$ Colony. 

Mason, E. G. L., Colonial Bank, Derbies, British Guiana. 

f Mason, F. A., Manager of the Demeraru Railway, Georgetown, British 

tMATTHEws, Dr. J. W., M.L.A., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

Mawbt, A. M'i Standard Bank, Calvinia, Cape Colony. 

Maxwell, Joseph Kennkr, Barrister-at-Law, Cape Coast Colony. 

Maxwell, Major Thomas, Kimhvrhy, Oapt Colony. 

Mayers, Joseph Brigos, Plantation Welti, British Guiana. 

Mejn, Georoi A., M.D.. Mdbtmnu ctnb, Victoria. 

Melville, George, ABaistant Government Secretary, Georgetown, British 

Minds, W. Fisher, Colonial Bank, St. KUtx. 

Mercer, William James, C.E., Elmina, Gold Const Colony. 

Meruiman, The Right Rev. N. J., D.D., Lord Bishop of Grahamstown, 
Cape Colony. 

Mel-rant, Louis Henrt, J.P., Civil Commissioner and Resident Magis- 
trate, Kirersdah, Cape C.h.oy. 

Middleton, John Page, Barrister-at-Law, Accra, Gold Coast Colony. 

Miles, Geohge/.S^otim Hope, Manchester, Jamaica. 

fMiLLs, Captain Charles, C.M.G- 

Milne, Sib William, S'lrtnyaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 
; Mitchell, Lieut.-Colonel Hon. C. B. U., C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, 
Maritiburg, Natal. 

Mitchell, Hon. Samuel, St. George's, Grenada. 

Molonet, Captain Alvred, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary, Accra, Gold 
Coast Colony. 

Molteno, Hon. J. C, M.L.A., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Molteno, John Charles. Jin., t'upe Town, Cape Colon [i. 

Moodie, G. P., Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Moodie, Thomas, M.L.A., Stcellcndam, Cape Colony. 

Non-Ilcsident Fellows. 






itqp 1880 




1395 1880 



ijOO 1876 


ijoj 1880 


1310 1878 




1340 W» 

*Mnon», William H., St. John's House, Antigua. 

fMoir.AJt, M. C, TA* Bamboo*, Kingston, Jamaica. 

tMoum, A. 1L, 3f<v. ;iy. 

Mobhin, Thomas, J.P., Auckland, New Zealand. 

Morris, D.. M.A., F.G.S., Director of Pablio Gardens, Gordon Town, 

Jam.. I 

Morrison, James, J. P., (.'m'M/W, li -ralia (Corresponding 

Mortloce, W. B., Adelaide, South Aust. 
Hosblbt, C. H. IIauliy. British Sherbro', West Africa. 
KOUUI, W. A., M.R.C.8., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Moylan, Hon. E. K., Attorney-General, Grenada. 
Mueller, Uabon Ferdinand Von, K.C.M.G.,F.ll.S„Govornment Botanist, 

Melbourne, Australia. 
Mucueridkk, Arthur L., Las Horquetas, Saute rurto, Buenos Ayres, 

South America. 
fMuLUOAN, Hon. Thomas, Plantation l'ire la Force, British Guiana, 
Mi'kbo, Archibald, Kingston, J"»> 

fMuNBo, John, J. P., MeiuWi Hotel, Melbourne, Australia. 
Hvbpht, Sir Francis, Melbourne Club, Australia. 
Xc&rar.AiEXAXDKK U., Melbourne, Australia. 
fMmuuT-ATNSLET, Hugh Pkbcy, J. P., Clirintchurcli, New Zealand. 
tMusoravt, a, K.C.M.G.. * hvermm nt II .use, Kingston, Jamaica, 

Nairn, Charles J., fta land. 

Nathan, D. P., Kingston, Jamaica. 

Needham, Sir Joseph, Chief Justice, San Antonio, Trinidad. 

Needham, Roderick Fraseb, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

fNELsoN, Frederick, I ' md. 

Nesbitt, Major Richard A., C.M.Ii,, ffratan ■ ,>c Colony. 

1L8, Arthur, Commercial Bank <>J Australia, Melliourne, Aust 
Nicuoixs, Kerry, Queenelaml. 

Nightingale, Percy, Civil Commissioner and Resident Magistrate, Cape 

PmnP Henry. 

uur I!., Manager Standard Bank, King William'* Toien, 
Oafw <' •' 
N'hh, Lieut.- Colonel Knox Rowan, KietQwttM, Jamaica. 
Noble, John, Clerk of the llonse of Assembly. I \tfi l\>\i>n, Cape Colony. 

■fNoRl'IIElMEB, SAMI l la. 

Normanht, The Most Noble the Marquis or, fi.C.M.G., Government 

1! use, Melbourne, Australia. 
fNoiTH, Charles, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
North, Frbdbrice W. W., F.G.S., t ape <-/ Hood Uop&. 
North, Habbt, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Norton, Edwin, J. P., Grenada. 

Nowlax, Jonx, Elah, West 1 w South Wales. 

Mcttdt. E., M.D., Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast Colony. 

O'Brien, Colonel J. T. N., C.M.G., Government House, Heligoland. 


Year of 


'325 1880 

1330 1379 













Royal Colonial Institute. 

O'Brien, Major W. E-, Batrie, Ontario, Canada. 

O'Connor, Owen Livingstone, Rose Hill, Mauritius. 

Opfickr, William, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia. 

O'Geady, Thomas, Alderman, Town Hall, Melbourne, Australia. 

O'Malley. Hon. Edwarii L., Attorney. General, Hong Kong. 

Orgias, Hon. P., M.D., M.L.C., St. George's, Grenada 

Orhond, George C, Napier, New Zealand. 

tORMOND, Hon. Francis, M.L.O., Melbourne, Australia. 

Orpen, Francis H. S., M.L.A., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

fORPEN, J. M., Chief Magistrate, Basutoland, Cape Col 

OrretT, John, Halfwaytree Post Office, St. Andreiv, Jamaica. 

Osborne, Hamilton, Australian Club, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Owen, H. Gwynne, Kimberley, Cape Culemy. 

tPaudon, John, Barkly, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

fPAiNT, Henry Nicholas, J.P., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Parkks, Sir Barry 8., G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Ambassador at the Court of 

Japan, Yedo. 
Paekbr, George B., Christehureh Club, Canterbury, New Zealand. 
Parkin, Herbert, Waldck's Plank, Griqualand West, Cape Colony. 
t Parsons, Crcil, Bloomfield, Hamilton, Tasmania. 
Pacl, F. W., Khyber Pass, near Auckland, New Zealand. 
Payne, C. L., J.P., Georgetown, Britith Guiana. 
fPAYNE, Frederick W., Jon., Melbourne, Australia. 
Payne, T. B., Maritima, Melbourne, Australia. 
Peacock, Caleb, J.P., M.P., Adelaide, South Australia. 
fPEARCE, E., M.H.B., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Pearse, Benjamin W., Femwood, Victoria, British Columbia. 
Pearson, Bey. John George, Berbice, British Guiana. 
fPELLEREATJ, Etienne, Port Louis, Mauritius. 
Perch, George, Colonial Bank, Bridgetown, Barbados. 
Periiam, Geobge W., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Perring, Charles, Caiifcrbiiry, New Zealand. 
Peterson, William, 6, Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia. 
Petnado, George J., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Pharazyn, Charles, J.P., Wellington, New Zealand. 
Pharazyn, Bobert, The Poplars, Wanganui, Nete Zealand. 
Phelps, J, J., Qualmby, Tasmania; and Melbourne Club, Melbourne, 

Puillippo, Sir George, Chief Justice, Hong Kong. 
I'iiillippo, J. C.| M.D., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Phillips, Coleman, Dry River Station, Wairarapa, Wellington. 

Phillips, Hon. J. H., MJj.C, Belize, British Honduras. 
Pike, Charles, Treasurer of Lagos, Wat Africa. 
Pine, Sib Benjamin, K.C.M.G. 

Pinsint, Mr. Justice R. J., D.C.L., St. John's, Newfoundland. 
Pitman, Edwasd D., Inspector of Postal Telegraph Service, Melbourne, 

Pleydeli., T. G-, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Non-Rcsiden t Fellows. 




1310 mt 

1 no 

IJS5 I860 



1390 18X» 




I ;co '" , " s 





Pn-Mtrr, Bnmna w., c e., Dfefy, Rbva Scofia. 

Foosok. Edward, St. Kitts, West Indies. 
LSO, \Vh.mam B , C.E. 
, K\mheii< 

Powell, WiLrEiD, F.B.G.S., Agent B.I.B.N. Co., Thursday Wajuf, 

•■<?*, Queen* Jan J. 
tPrextice, Edward Alexander, F.8.A. (Scot.). F.B.G.S., Montreal, 

<<ia (Corresponding Secretary). 
Prestoe, Hx.vav, Government Botanist, Trim 
Price, Hon. J. M., Surveyor-General, Hong h 
Pritciiard, Hox. Charles, M.L.O., Bt to ttVrt • Colony. 

Pbowsb, Mr. Justice, D.W., St. John's, Newfoundland. 
Purland, T. 0.j H.M.'s Customs, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

routtr, Ca^e Colony. 

BaDCLIME, ESV. John', Kingston P.O., Jamaica. 

Bamaat, Commander E. Murray, E.N., Civil Commissioner, Vol ta L\ 
Gold Coast Colony. 

Rankin, William LL, M.I.C.E., Jli/ij TFittwro'i Town, Cape Colony. 

Ban me, D. ft,, St. John's, Antigua. 

Eawson, Charles C., The Hollow, Wtuhny, Queensland. 

Bead, Horatio, Assistant Immigration Agent, (Ion- get mm, British 

Bbid, J. StrAET, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Be id, Alexander. 

Beid, Walter, Rockhampton, Queensland. 

'.Villum W., Member of the General Legislative Council, Leeward 
Islands, St. Kitts. 

Betett, Richard, Commodore of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- 
pany's Fleet. 

Betinuton, ALfBEB, Freetown, Sierra Leon*. 

Hank of New South Wales, Adelaide, South Australia. 

BiioDes, A. E. G., Harrister-at-Law, Beverley, Timaru, New Zealand. 

Rhode*, Ceul J., M.L.A., Kimberley, Cape Coluny. 

Francis Dver, J.P., Bushey Park, I'almerston, S. Dunedin, New 
'/ru I 

Richards, Bodrrt. B arris tor-at- Law. Natal. 

II 'iLMAil 8., Norris Estate, St. Daniel's P.O., Jamaica. 

Bkhuan, Walter, Naming, Milan?. S-uth Australia. 
' M'tain II. F., Sierra Leone. 

Richmond, James, New South Wales. 

Rimer, J. C, A'imWey, Cape Colony. 

{Roberts, Richard M., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

fEoBRRts, Willum, care of Messrs. Young ^T Lark, Sydney, New South 
Waits; and Australian Club. 

Bobertsos, Alexander W., Ottawa Toorak, Victoria, Australia. 

Robertson, George P., Colac, Victoria, Australia; and Melbourne Club. 

Robertson, William, Melbourne Club, Victoria, Australia. 


Year of 




1410 1879 


>4«5 1869 


1430 1881 




1425 1871 

1430 1876 



I435 1877 

1440 1881 

,44c WW 


Royal Colonial Institute. 

Robinson, Augustus F., Melbourne, Australia. 
Robinson, George, Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Robinson, The Right Hon. Sib Heroeles, G.C.M.G., Government 
House, Caff Ttirii, Cape Calami. 

Robinson, Sir William C, K.C.M.G., Government House, Perth, Western 

Robinson, William, C.M.G., Governor of the Windward Islands, Govern- 
ment House, Barbados. 

Robinson, C. A., Kingston, Jamaica. 

Robinson, Lieut.-Colonel C.W., Rifle Brigade (Staff). 

Houston, Christopher, Q.C., Beverley House, Toronto, Canada. 

t Robinson, Joiin, Durban, Natal. 

Rogers, Henry, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., Mauritius. 

Rolland, Adam, Blackstone Hill Station, Otago, New Zealand. 

Roixeston, Christopher, C.M.G., Aaditor-Genoral, Sydney, New South 

Romilly, Alfred, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

fRoTii, Henry Ling, F.S.S., Foulden, Madcay, Queensland. 

Rowe, 8ib Samuel, K.C.M.G., Governor of the Gold Coast Colony. 

Rowsell, Francis William, C.B., C.M.G., British Commissioner of tho 
Egyptinn State Domains, Cairn, Egypt. 

tRcDALL, James T., F.R.C.8., Melbourne, Australia. 

Hudd, Charles D., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

Rusden, George W., Melbourne, Australia. 

Rushton, Mark. W. B., King William's Town, Cape Colony. 

Russell, Arthur E., Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. 

Russell, George, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Russell, H. C, Government Astronomer, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Russell, Hon. Henry Robert, M.L.C., .Mount Herbert, Waipukurau, 
Napier, New Zealand. 

Russell, G. Gret, Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Russell, Logan. D. H,, M.D-, F.R.C.S-, Government Park, near Spanish 
Town, Jamaica. 

Russell, Philip, Camgham, Victoria, Australia. 

Russell, Robert, LL.B., Barristor-at-Law, Gorerament Park; near 
Spanish Town, Jamaica (Corresponding Secretary). 

Russell, Captain William R., M.H.R.. . Napier, New Zealand. 

Russell, William, Georgetown, British Guiana. 

SAcnsE, Chables, Queenstmi-n, Cape Colony. 

tSt. George, Henry Q., Toronto, Camilla; and Montpelivr, France. 

St. Jean, Le Viscomte Satj£, Castil-Noit, Py-Or, France. 

8t. JOHN, MoLVNKUX, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Sandwitii, Captain J. H., R.M.L.I. 

Sanjo, J., Tvhio, Tokoliama, Japan. 

Sarjeant, Henry, Wanganui, New Zealand. 

Sarl, A. J., Colonial Be British Guiana. 

Sacee, J. W., M.L.A., Al ileal North, Oope Colony. 

Satsi'ers, John, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Saunders, James R., M.L.C., J.P., Tanyaoti, Natal. 

Non-Res'ukut Fellows. 


Tern o| 



-. is:.- 









5 1KB 








S 1*77 





as, Rev. Richardson, Rector of St. Matthew's Church, .Va*tau, 
Sacnders. S. P., M.L.A , TTflim. Bahamas. 
Sawebs. Jo: 

SrnoLT*, Bobekt Irwin, Resident Magistrate, Dutoitrpan, Cape Col 

Caleb E., Dutoitspan, CofM Ostmy. 
Boon, Hon. Qknut, M.L.C , J. P., AdWaid*, flouffc Au«<ra24a. 
Score, Joseph S., J. P., Savannah La Mar, Jamaica. 
tSravici, Hon. J an vs. Melbourne, Avtn 

SRROCOLD, G. P., K Wand. 

fScwcLL, IIon. IIe.nry, M.L.C., I too, 

Suaxd, Charles Annan, TUehe* • ■jua. 

Suaxd, James Wiurixuton, Henrietta House, Yacoas, Mauritius. 

SttAIXK, HcNKT.Provost-Mnrshal, St. Or,,ry,-_ 

Shaw. Major E. W., Indian Staff Corps, care of Messrs. Kin-j, A'imj, $■ 

I .ry. 

Sbaw. Hbxkv B., A'i" 

Sir Tueoi'iiilis, K.C.M.G., Ma riiiburg. Natal. 
Moxtstone, Theopiulus, C.M.G., M.L.C.. Maritzbitrj. {falsi 
SnrRirr. Hon. R. Ffrcnch, Attorney- General, 0ifrrai/<ir. 
Sucairr, Hon. VY. Musorave, Chief Justice, liritish Honduras. 
Shcrlock, R. J., Georgetown, British Guiana. 

SmrrARD, Sidney G. A., M.A., D.C.L., Judge of the Supreme Court, 
■thamstovm, Cape Colony. 

ft. BOX. LKI0K8TXB C, Hyde Hall, Clarkx Town P.O., Jamaica. 
SiiORTRiccx, Samuel, J. P., Plantain Garden River P.O., Jamaica. 
rSmu», VV. K., J. P., M.P., Adelaide, i/iVj. 

>M, G. Morris, Auttm - Sidney, New South Wales. 

BfMrsox, J. M., Burundi, Tamwarth, New South Wales. 
Sinclair, A. C, Government Printing Establishment, Kingston P.O., 

Scareatt, Charlbs Carlton, Sydney, New South Wales. 
f Sloane. Alexander, Mulwala Statiun, New South Wail* 
Swii>T, Abraham »c, Surveyor-General, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Smith. Charles, Wanyanui, Sew Zealand. 
tSMim, BOW. DOXAU A., M.I'., M 
Smith, Sib Francis, Chief Justice, H abort, Tasmania. 
Smith, E. T-, District Judge, Jamaica. 
B«mi, Julius, J., Kaftans, Oambia, West Africa. 
Sinn, Robert, F.R.C.S., Sierra Leone. 
SMrrn, Ilox. W. F.Hayxks, LL.D.,Attomcy-GeneraJ, Georgetown, British 

Smith, William Howard, Melbourne, Australia. 
Smith, W. H. Wins, lh,ri,nn, Ratal 
Smuts, J. A., Cleric of the Papers, House of Assembly, Cap* Town, Cape 

BjUXL, ''initor, Hev> Amsterdam, Berbice, British Ouiana. 
Solomon, Hon. Geoioe, M.L.C, Kingstown, Jamaica. 
Solomon, Hon. Minnn, M.L.C, Seville, St. Ann, Jamaica. 


■year of 


1495 1881 

1500 1875 

1505 1873 

1 afg 





1515 1S81 

1520 1870 






. H35 1881 

Royal Colonial Institute. 
Southgatx, J. J., Victoria, British Columbia. 

t S fence, J. Bkodie, Adelaide, South Australia. 

I TOO ('.. 't, Grenada. 

Sratoo, Bos, J. Gordon, M.L.A., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Spboulx, James H., Badulla, Ceylon. 
SquiBEs, William Herbert, Barnard Street, Worth Adelaide, South 

Stables, Henry L., C.E., East London Railway, Cape C •■' 
Stancliffe, F., At 

Stanford, J. F., KimbrrUnj, Cape Colony. 
Stanford, Robert Harlev, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Steibkl, George, Devon, Penn, Kingston Post Office, Jamaica. 

Stent, Sidney, C.E., Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

Stiiiiens. Harold, F.R.G.S., Attorney. at- Law, Pretoria, Transvaal, 
South Africa. 

t Stbpuens, Romeo, Montreal, Canada. 

Stephens, Colonel W. F. (In.ha), Melbourne, Australia. 

STERN, M., F.R.C.S.E., Kin'jstown, Jamaica. 

Stevenson, George, Melbourne, Australia. 

Stirling, J. Launcelot, M.P., Adelaide, South Australia. 

Stocktjalk, R. H., Kondcbosch, Cape Tentn, Cape Colony 

Stockwell, Francis W., Quebec, Canada. 

Stone, R. Sidney, M.D., Port louts, Mauritius. 

Stow, Frederick, JMoUspan, Cape Colony. 

Stow, F.S.P., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

STBANACK, J. W., Durban, Natal. 

Si iiiMa, Carl, Victoria, British Columbia. 

buben, H. W., The Willou-s, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Struct, Dr., Melbourne, Australia. 

Studholme, John, Christ O hm r ch , Canterbury, New Zealand. 

Stukt, E. P. S., Melbourne, Australia. 

Stuart, M. V. D., Collector of Customs, Sierra Leant. 

Sturridgb, George, J.P., Mnndeeille, Jamaica. 

t Symon, J. H., Q.C., Adelaide, 8outh Australia. 

Sullivan, A. F., Melbourne Club, Victoria, Australia. 

Sunter, Rev. M., M.A., Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone. 

8wan, Robert A., Stipendiary Magistrate, Curepipe, Mauritius. 

Tait, M. M., Great Westerford, Newlands, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Tanner, Tuomas, lliverslea, Napier, New Zealand. 
Taylor, Hon. E. B. A., Colonial Secretary, Nassau, Bahamat. 

Taylor, William, Melbourne, Australia. 
t Ten n a. nt, The Hon. Sir Davii>, M.L.A., Speaker of the House of 

Assembly, Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
Thhiandeau, Alfred, Quebec, Canada. 
THOM8ON, Jam>->, Georgetown, Britii<h Guiana. 
Thomson, Matthew C, Eorkhampton, Queensland. 
Thomson, S. Belmont., Clark's Town, Jamaica. 

Tbomson, William, C.B., Engineer's Office, East London Railicay, Cape 

Xon-Rc$ident Fclhwt. 



S 1981 




1560 1B81 




156$ iss8 


181 ■ 

1570 mto 

»575 1*7 4 

TaouiOK, W. K., 

Thompson, George A., Union (7u\ RrubaiM, Qu0*n«tand. 

Trobvr, Cornelius, Messrs. Watttami tab 

TmriiTKS, Hawtkeit, B«gi»tr»r, .^ Ion. 

Tirra, Hrnbt H., J. P., Napier, Sum Zealand. 

Tobjn, Andrew, TTi'»iyad*«, I RtsI6oMni«\ I 

ToniN, P. J„ Winyadst Station, Coonamble, Hew South II . 

Tobuct, W., Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

TosMHIX, CAPTAIN R. O. D., Canterbury, Hew Zealatul. 

Tacrcu, Hon. J. W., C.M.G., PSaforte, Crifwh Columbia. 
TurroRD, O., Chief Justice, St, Vincent, West Indies. 

TraVERS, MARC fa, Astrnhovs, Bnulogm; France. 

TciMisr.nAM, William P., Th- haeU, Barbados. 

Trimmer, Frederick. I nth Auttro 

Ti'HNBrLL, Edcar, Yontego Bay, Jamaica . 

fTvBXEi, Hevrt Giles, Commcrrial Bank, M ■■alia. 

tTcRNEB, William 8, Chief Commissary of Taxation, Georgetown. 

llriiish Guiana. 
fTi'RTOx, C. D., Assistant Colonial Secretary, Gold Coast Colony. 
Tweed, Arthur, Civil Commissioner and Resident Magistrate, CAesbrrj, 

Ttson, Thomas G., Kimberlty, Cape Colony. 

Uhiacke, A.M., B 

Usher, Henbt Charles, Belite, British Honduras. 

Varlkt, John, Stipendiary Magistrate, Kapundn, South Australia. 

tYEENDAU, Dr. J. L.., Esscquifm, Britis) 

Vekdrtes, Henry, Advocate, Kingston, Jam 
Vkrdon, Sib George, K.O.M.G.. C.B., Melbourne. 
VsSLBY, Lon- .. Jamaica. 

ices, Hon. Francis John, C.M.G., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
Vintcebt, Lewis A., M.L.A., Cape Town, GojM I'olony. 
Vobsen, Ernst, ne. 

Von BaxasEXDORrr, Arthur B., J.P., Postmaster-General, Kimberley, 

Cape Colony. 
Vries, MACTUCE i , Transvaal 

WaITE. PeRCITAL, St. Felersbu ■ 

;t:raldQ.H., Treasury.! >, Jamaica. 

Wali'Box, J a nm L., J. P., Falkland Islands. 

tVYAi I M l.C, Assistant C«»l.miuJ Secretary, 


Wai.err, Major Jons, I 

I, M.L.A., Hamilton House, Port 1 

A , F.R.G.S., BrifcU B Ho*. 

nl Commandant, British St- a. 

bartered Bank, < 
tW.kl.TrB, FlrNKr J„ Da 


xlvi Royal Colonial Institute. 

Tear of 


1580 1879 Ward, Charles J,, Kingst on, Jamaica. 

1876 Ward, J. H., St. George's, Grenada. 

1881 Ward, Walter, Kimberley, Cape Colony. 
1873 Ward, William Curtis, Victoria, British Colombia. 

1879 tWARE, John, Tatyoon, Yalla.y-Poora, Victoria, Australia. 

15S5 1880 tWARE, J. C, Yalla.y-Poora, Victoria, Australia. 

1878 Warren, Frederick William, King Street, Kingston, Jama 

1882 Waterhouse, Hon. G. M., M.L.C., rfttMnptMS AVu> 7ea?a7nJ. 
1882 Watson, Robert, C.E., Melbourne Club, Victoria, Australia. 

1879 Watson, B. G., Melbourne, Australia. 

1590 1875 Watson, Thomas, Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, Cape Tuim. 
Cape Colony (Corresponding Secretary). 

1879 Watt, Edmund, Civil Commissioner, Cape Coast, West Africa. 

1879 Watt, George, Tirana Station, Vranu, New South Males. 

1880 Watt, J. Paton, M.D., Georgetown, British Guiana. 
1876 Watts, Horace, M.D., Stanley, Falkland Islands. 

•595 1881 Wa wn, Deputy Commissary G., Sierra Leone. 

1881 WAT, E., Sydney, New S'luth Wales. 

1880 Webb, Georok H. P., Q.O., Melbourne, Australia. 

1880 Webb, Henrt B., London and South African Exploration Company, Kim. 

berley, Cape Colony. 

1881 Webb, Hon. J. H., M.L.C., Nassau, Bahamas. 

1600 1880 Webster, Eben, Messrs. Arthur $■ Co., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

1880 Wsoo, Dr. John A., J. P., Colreville, Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

1881 Weil, 8., Kimberley, Cape Colony. 

1808 Weld, Sir Frederick A., K.C.M.G., Governor of the Straits Settlements, 


1878 tWebtbt, Edmund W., Bullitop !jf Buclcaginga Station, New South I! 

1605 18 7 6 f Wkst-Erskine, W. A. E., M.A., Adelaide, South Australia. 

1870 Wkstsuf, Major Charles, Gisbnrne, New Zealand. 

1880 Wharton, Henrt, Highfield Station, Amuri, New Zealand. 

1881 fWHEELEB, Edward, F.R.G.S., United Empire Club, Toronto, Canada. 
1881 White, The Venerable Archdeacon IT. Master, Grahamstown, Cape 


1610 1881 White, Hon. James, M.L.C., Double Bay, Sydney, New South WaU$. 

1880 White, M. W., St. John's, Ant> 

1870 Whitehead, Perct, care of Messrs. Grant $r FradA, Durban, Natal. 

1878 Whitmore, Colonel Sir G. S., K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Napier, New Zealand. 

1881 Wiiitkway, Sir William V., K.C.M.G., St. John's, Xwfoundland. 
1615 1878 Wiiyham, William II., St. John's, Antigua (Corresponding Seorotary). 

1881 Wioht, Ernest E., Georgetown, British Qviana. 

1881 Wioht, Theophilus G. (Crown Surveyor), Georgetown, British Guiana. 

1S/S Wigley, James F., J.P., Adelaide, South Australia. 

1881 WlGLEY, WILLIAM H., Adelaide, South Australia. 

1620 1879 Wilks, John, J.P., 107, OetUm Street, W., Melbourne, Australia. 

1882 Williams, Dr. A. D. (District Medical Officer), British Guiana. 
1882 Williams, C. L., Cork, (Jwmi 1 

1879 Williams, The Rev. Frederick H., D.D., Dean of Graoamstown , I 


1881 Williams, Charles, Bel Air, British Guiana. 

•/.-.- .1 

i6»5 1881 

1030 MM 



163S 1881 
itMo MM 



ifc 4 $ 1881 


i6jo 1888 



iL-Itesident Fellows. 

Williams, II. Wynn, Chritt church. New Zealand. 

Williamson, Hon. George Walter, M.L.O., Grenada. 

WILLIAMSON, Jameh, Melbourne Club, Australia. 

fWiLLusiaoN, W. M., Jiutt River D»nm*, Qwensland. 

Willis, Edward, 1 taria, Aunt 

Wilman, Herbert, M.L.A., I . Cape Colony. 

Wilmot, Alexander, J. P., Port Eliuibeth, Capu Colony. 

Wilson, Major John, J.P., Cambridge, Auckland. 

Wilson, Hon. JonN N., M.L.C., Napier, New Zealand. 

Wilsok, Walter F„ Brisbane, Queensland. 

tWiLSON, Walter IL, Queensland Club, Brisbane, Queensland. 

Wilson, Hon. William, M.L.C., Melbourne, Australia. 

Wilson, W. W., Barristcr-at-Law, Dutu-din, New Zealand. 

Wlico, EDGAR, Clairmnnt, Clarence Plain*, near llnbart, Ta*m. 

Winter, Charles T., Q tB Tftt o m* , Dritilk Guiana. 

Wurrox, Robert, St. John's, Newfoundland. 

WouiLCT, W. A., Plantation Lusignan, British (iuiana. 

Wood, George, Jun., Btahamitown, I'ape Colony. 

Wood, John Edwin, GrahanisUnen, Cape Colony, 

Wood, Reader Gilson, M.H.R., Auckland, New Zealand. 

Woolfori), J. Bakrinoton, Oeoryelou-n, British Outturn 

Wrat, Leonard, Perak, Stra\t» «f Malacca. 

WsENPORriSLKV, Henry T., Chief Juatioo, Perth, Western Australia. 

Wtatt, Tre Venerable Archdeacon F. J., Geargetovm, British Qvinnn. 

Wtatt, Captain (laUs Cape Mounted Rifles). 

Yootig, Aketas, Barristcr-at-Law, .1,7..', AuttraUa. 

Yocmo, C. Bi:rnet, 1 lUa. 

tYovsa, Jamch H., M.LJL, Vattant, llahnma*. 
Todno, Snt William, f ia Scotia. 

'Villiam, A.G., C.M.G. (Government Secretary and 
Lical. -Governor of British Guiaos), George! 

ZocnoNis, George, Messrs. Randell i$* Fisher, Sierra Leone, West Africa. 
ZwEirii, Josca, care of 11. Wust, Esq., Company for Senegal an' 
Coast of Africa, ' 


T«K First Ordinary General Meeting of the Session 1881-82 was 
held at the Groavenor Gallery Library, 186, New Bond Street, on 
Tuesday, the 22nd November, 18^1. His Grace the Duke of 
stkr, K.P., Chairman of Council, presided. Amongst those 
it were the following : — 

Hi* Excellency William Robinson, C.M.G. (Governor of the Windward 

: m Excellency Captain C. C. Lees, C.M.G. (Governor of the 

■), Sir William Owen Lanyon, K.C.M.G., C.B.; 8ir Henry Barkly. 

| .B., Hon. J. Gordon Sprigg (l»te Colonial Secretary and 

Premier Cape Colony), Hon. Saul Samuel, C.M.G. (Agent-General for 

New South Wales), Hon. H. R. Russell, M.L.C. (New Zealand), Messrs. 

H W. Preelaad, Hugh Jamieson, Harley Bacon, R. C. Want (New South 

Wake). Mr. and Mrs. John Hemming (Cape Colony), H. M. Whitehead, 

George Baden-Powell, Alfred B. Cobb, George H. Cobb, Mr. and Mrs. 

Arthur Douglass (Cape Colony), John Council, S. Weil (Cape Colony) 

J. G. Cape Colony), J, G. Brex, The Venerable Archdeacon White 

iGrahamatown), Dr. John Rae, F.R.S., and Mrs. Rae, Messrs. J. A. Smut 

!« Colony), Frederick Dutton (South Australia), F. M. Dutton (South 

Australia). James T. White (Ceylon), B. S. Davis (St. Eitts), James A. 

Youl. C.M.G. ; John Holms, M.P. ; Edward C. Healey, C. R. Eaton (Cape 

Colony), J. D. Thomson, A. R. Oldman, F. H. Carpenter, F. D. Deare 

•Cape Colony), Captain II. F. Richmond (Assistant Colonial Secretary. 

8km Leone), Messrs. Frank Tayler, Murrell R. Robinson (Cape Colony), 

P. P. Labilhrre. Pascoe Caddy, S. W. Silver, J. Henniker Heaton (New 

Wales), Mr. and Mrs. James R. Saunders (Natal), Thomas Mac 

1, Thomas Bayne* (Antigua), H. E. Moutgomerie, Louis F. Bellot. 

Moore (Antigua), G. Molineux, Arthur C. S. Barkly (Cape Colony), 

i Leone), H. E. Watts, Hon. T. 1 Hitli 

aial Secretary, Sierra Leone), the Rev. C. F. Stovin, Messrs. W. L. 

First Ordinary General Meeting. 

Reid (South Australia,), Walter Richman (South Australia), Stephen 
Bourne, C. F. Bourne, M.A. (New Zealand), Morton Green (Natal), 
\V. I,. SlK)ihcrd (New Zealand), Charles Brown (Cape Colcny), Hon. J. H. 
Phillips, M.L.C. (British Honduras), J. M. Hyde, A. Mackenzie Mackay, 
John Draper, John C. Ware, J. G. Caswell, Win. Manfurd (Gold Coast), 
John Taylor, Miss E. Skeffington Thompson, Mrs. Robert G. Webster 
Mrs. Edward Wade, Mr. Cope Whitehouse, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Cockburn 
(British Honduras), Messrs. J. Holland, Charles Griffith, H. S. Valentine, 
Harold Gore Browne, C. D. Collett, James A. Lynch (Barbados), 
Colin M. Gillespie, Mrs. Bethel, Mr. E. Sharpe, Major-General 
Banlay, Sir Sihbald Scott, Bart., Mrs. Carey Hobson (Cape Colony), 
Miss Agnes Pain, Messrs. Walter Peace (Natal), John Payne 
(Natal), Robert F. Carter, John S. Prince (Cape Colony), J. Banks 
Taylor, P, J. Wait*, W. Manley, Mr. and Mrs. Coster (New Zealand), 
Messrs. George Moffat (Canada), R. G. 0. Hamilton, John Leea 
(New Zealand), James F. Anderson (Mauritius), Rev. A. Styleman Her- 
ring, Messrs. E. Hepple Hall (Canada), W. S. Wetherell, William Ridley 
(Natal), Arthur E. G. Rhodes (New Zealand), Paget A. Wade, Edwin 
S. Waill, William Barton (New Zealand), W. F. M. Buckley (New 
Zealand), W. N. Prince, Timothy Lark (New South Wales), Ernest E. 
Gough, A. H. Good, C. Dunckley, J. R. Boyd (Ceylon), Sir Arthur Blyth, 
K.C.M.G.; Captain Alfred Emocke, Captain J. H. Sandwith, R.M. ; 
Messrs. F. Villiers, C.M.G. (Cape Colony), Charles Bethell, H. B. Darby, 
J. C. Spooner (Grenada), H. B. Halswell, Alfred Durel!, W. Miller, 
G. Humphry, J. Beaumont, P. Darnell Davis (Grenada), James Farmer 
(New Zealand), Miss Farmer, Messrs. Edward Chapman (New South 
Wales), J. S. Southlan (New South Wales), H. T. Field, Catterson Smith, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Murray (South Australia), Miss Murray (South 
Australia), Mr. Henry Bois (Ceylon), Mr. and Mrs. A. Forking (Cape 
Colony), Messrs. R. J. Gray, Henry P. Weld, J. C. Smith. E. A. Wallace, 
Hugh Muir (Canada), Gilbert D. Jennings, Alexander Donaldson (South 
Australia), Edward Evison (South Australia), Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Wilson, 
lh\ J. J. Lamprey (Gold Coast Colony), Mr. and Mrs. John Daly 
(Sydney), Messrs. Walter B, Paton, P. C. Gates, W. St. Hill Bourne, 
Alexander Sim (Canada), Frederick Fairhead, G. Ormond (New Zealand), 
F. R. Kendall, W. Grey Wilson, Alexander Landale ("Victoria), D. C. 
Kennedy (Victoria), George Reid (Cape Colony), P. Badcock (Victoria), 
A. Follett Halcombe (New Zealand), Sir Charles Clifford, Messrs. Francis 
Clifford, Walter Cargill, J. H. M. Campbell, MiBS Douglas, Mr. J. V. H. 
Irwin, Sir John Smale (late Chief Justice, Hong Kong), Messrs. J. Vin- 
cent Barber, C. F. Just, J. R. Reed, Colin W. Simson, Paul T. Jacobs, 
Joseph G. Colmer (Canada), Dr. Gerard Harper, Mr. and Mrs. George 
J. Catline, Mr. John Colebrooke, the Rev. R. Goodwin, Messrs. George 
Aitken, W. Consens, Dr. W. Culver James, Miss Young, Miss Ada Mary 
Young, Messrs. Frederick Young (Hon. Secretary), J. Pope, Captain 
Biggins, H. M. Blakiston, H. W. Chantrell (Trinidad). 

The Honorary Secretary (Mr, Frederick Young) read the 
minutes of the Ninth Ordinary General Meeting of Session 

First Ordinary General Mc.r.tinrf. 


1880-81, which were oonfinned, and announced that since that 
tins held on June 11 last, 165 Fellows had been elected, viz.. 
Resident And 11.", Non-Resident. 
Resident Fellows : — 

W. K. Bevan, Esq.. R.'nry Beds, Esq., Henrv Bourne, Esq., J. O. 

nder v7, B. Bridges, U.N. , Sir Graham Briggs. Bart,; 

mas Brown. Esq., Pascoe Caddy, Esq., R. F. Carter, Esq., David 

ri«rks.m. Esq., R. N. Connolly. Esq , J. Coutts Crawford, Esq., James 

D i |. E. Morton Daniel, Esq., H. J. Daniel. Esq., H. J. B. 

t>»rby, Esq., H. B. Deare, Esq., the Right Hon. the Earl of Denbigh, 

Alfred d* Pass, Esq., C. S. Dicken, Esq.. Augustus Durant, Es(|., 0. M. 

Pabre, Esq, Harry T. Field, Esq., Donald Fraser, Esq., the Right Hon. 

tie E. Frere, Bart., G.C.S.I., li.CB.; Captain J. Fulton, Colin 

M. ' Esq., R. Gray. Esq., D. Harris, Esq., G. H. Humphreys, 

in Hunt, Esq., F. R. Kendall, Esq., William Keswick, Esq., 

Donald Larnoeh, Esq., John Lewis, Esq., W. E. Mann, Esq., E. Lurmore 

Marshall, Esq., Major the Hon. J. S. Napier, P. H. Nihill, Esq., G. G. 

Parker, Esq., William Pnzey, Esq.. William Ridley, Esq., J. S. Robinson, 

Esq.. Charles Sadler. Esq., P. Saillard, Esq., R. If. Stewart, Esq., W. P. 

John Thomas, Esq., Stockdale Toulrnin, Esq., H. II. 

]'.. G.Webster, E<q., George Wedlake, Esq., Henry R. 

Welch. Esq., James T. White, Esq. 

Resident Fellows : — 

John L. Adams. Esq. (New South Wales), Hon. Dr. J. W. Agnew.M. L.<\ 

(Tasmania), Alexander Airth, Esq. (Natal), C. G. Akerberg. Esq. (Cape 

James Alison, Esq. (New South Walrs*, Jnmes F. Anderson, 

ritiii-i. \. Aunt. Esq., M.L.A. (Cape Colony!, W. H. Berkeley, 

I. (West Africa). A. O. Biilen, Esq. (Cap.- Colony). G. Blaine. Esq. 

;.« Colony), Frederick Bois, Esq. (Ceylon), Hon. J. W. Brooks. M.I..C 

>gal). A. M. Buchanan, 1 rial, IT. C. Buchanan, Esq.. J. P. 

(Csylan), W. i .an, Esq. (Ceylon), N. Cameron. Esq.. M.B. (West 

Africa). Est. H. T. 8. Castell (British Guiana), Hon. J. A. Chapleau, 

Quebec, Canada), J. F. Churchill, Esq., C.E. (Ceylon), Samuel 

iharn. Esq. (British Honduras), R. E. Cole, Esq. (West Africal, J. L, 

Coster. Esq. (New Zealand), W. If. Davidson, Esq. (Queensland). James 

Deft, Esq. (Cape Colony), E. A. De Pass. Esq., James Dilworth. 

Esq. (New Zealand), Fairbead, Esq. (Queensland), H. J. 

nighty, Esq. (Cape Colony), Hon. Henry 8. Fincb-Hatton 

(Queensland), J. I. Fisken, Esq. (Victoria), Francis Fleming, Esq., 

John Forrest, Esq. (West Australia), Hon. Capt. T. Fraser, M.L.C. 

•* Zealand). C. F. Gahan, Esq., R.N. (Mauritius), J. C. Gore, Esq. 

%t Africa), W. Grey* Wilson, Esq. (British Honduras), George Hague, 

Esq. (Canada.. H. Burhoff, Esq. (Cape Colony), Sidney B. Harsant, 

E*q. (Cape Col >n. A. W. Harvey, M.L.C. (Newfoundland), 0. J. 

Harrey, Esq. (Barbados), John Hemming, Esq. (Cape Colony), William 

luritius), F. Montagu Hobson, Esq. (British Guiana), A. G. 

Horton, Esq. (New Zealand), Joseph Howard, Esq. (New Zealand^, Q. 

First Ordinary General Meitm/). 

\\. HrtohJMOBi Esq. (Barbados), Dr. L, S. Jarnieson (Cape Colony I, 
Mntthew Jones, Esq. (West Africa), R. R. Keynes, Esq. (South Australia), 
Sir W. Owen Lanyou. K.C.M.G., C.B.; L. L. Lewis, Esq. (Victoria). 
1 Q K, LookbMt, Btq, (New South Wales), \V. K. Lockhead, Esq., jun. 

«• South Wales I, Leo Lord, Esq. (New South Wales), Douglas Mac- 
arthur, Esq., .1.1'. (New Zealand), R. Macfarlane, Esq. (Orange Free 
State), Hon. J. Macglashan (Jamaica), A, G. McHattie, Esq., M.D. 
(Antigua), Donald Macintyre, Esq. (New South Wales), Hon. J. A. 
Macpherson (Victoria), Peter McTavish, Esq., J.P. (Victoria), James 
Manchester, Esq. (New Brunswick), George Manning, Esq. (Cape 
Colony), Thomiut Martin, Esq. (Capo Colony). J. W. Matthews, E 
M.D., M.L.A. (Cape Colony), Major Thomas Maxwell (Cape Colony). 
<i. M< "r. Baq. (Cape Colony), A. H. Morkel, Esq. (Cape Colony), Thomas 
Morrin, Esq., J.P. (New Zealand). C. H. EL MoBeley, Esq. (West Africa), 
Hamilton Osborne, Esq. (New South Wales), H. G. Owen, Esq. (Cape 
Cr.lony), Herbert Parkin, Esq. (Cape Colony), C. L. Payne, Esq. (British 
Guiana), J. M. Price Esq. (Hong Kong), M. l.uifur Rahman, Esq. 
1 India), A. E. G. Rhodes, Esq. (New Zealand), Francis D. Rich, Esq., 
J.P. (New Zealand), Robert Richards, Esq. (Natal), Walter Richnnui, 
;. (South Australia), J. C. Rimer, Esq. (Cape Colony), George 1' 
Robinson, Esq. (Victoria), H. L. Roth, Esq. (Queensland), James T. 
Kudall, E- 1 . I .li.C.S. (Victoria), James R. Saunders, Esq., M.L.C.. LP. 
(Natal), Rev. R. Saunders (Bahamas), R. Scholtz, Esq., R.M. (Cape 
Colony), J. A. Smuts, Esq. (Cape Colony), lion. J. Gordon Sprigg, M. LA 
(Cape Colony), W. H. Squires, Esq. (South Australia), Frederick Stow. 
Esq. (Cape Colony). L W. Stranack, Esq. (Natal), George Stm-ridge. 
LP. (Jamaica), Robert Swan, Esq. (Mauritius), G. A. Thompson. 
Esq. (Queensland), W. Torbet, Esq. (Cape Colony), Hon. Francis .1. 
Villiera, C.M.G. (Cape Colony), 1'enival Waile, Esq. (R.issia), Joseph 
WalkaT, R«q., M.L.A. (Cape Colony), James Wallace, Est]. (CevLni. 
Walter Ward. Esq. (Cape Colony), G. Wawn, Esq. ("West Africa), K. 
Way. Esq. (N«W South Wales), S- Weil, Esq, (Cape Colony), Hon. James 
White, Esq., M.L.C. (New South Wales), Theophilus G. Wight, Esq. 

tisfa Guiana), Major Jehu \\ 'd-«m, J.P. (New Zealand), W. H 
Wilson, Esq. (Queensland), Thomas Woodcock, Esq. (West Africa). 

The IIon-oraby Skcretarv announced that the following donations 
of books, maps, photographs, 4c. had been presented to the 
since the last Ordinary General Meeting, by the uiuler- 
joncd : — 

The Government of British Columbia: 

Statutes, 1881. 
The Court of I ritish Guiana : 

Blue Book, 1880. 
The Government of the Dominion of Canada: 

Bine Books. IBM. 

Sessional Papan, Y.L \IX„ Part* 1, 2. ft, 4, 5 to 10. 

General Meeting. 

Geological Survey. Report of Pro • 

i ual of the Hotise of Commons, Vol. XV 

Journal of the Senate, 1880 81. 

Debates of the Senate, 1*78 to 1881. 


Debates of the House of < 
The Government of the Cape of Good Hope : 

Votes and I*roceeding6 of Parliament, 1880. 

Act* of Parliament, 1HHO. 

Blue Book, 1880. 
The Goveronx n: 

Sessional Papers, 1880. 

Blue Book, 1880. 
Tbe Government of Jamaica : 

LawB, 1872 to 1878. 
Th» Government of Sew South Wales : 

ilea and Parliamentary Debates, 1880-1881. 

Vote* and Proceeding. 

Parliamentary Debates, 1881. 
Tbe Government of New Zealand : 

Parliamentary Papers, 1881. 

Parliamentary Debates. 1881. 
Tli* Government of Natal : 

Blue Book, 1880. 
The Government of Tasmania : 

Journals of the House of Assembly, Vol. XXXVIII. and 
IX.. 1880. 
Tbe Government of the United States : 

Reports on the Commerce and Manufactures of the Ooo 
Districts, 1881. 
I legislative Assembly of Ontario : 

Ontario Agricultural Commission Report, Parts 1 

Sessional Papers, Vol. XIII.. Parte 1 to 4, 1881. 
The Legislative Assembly of Quebec : 

Statute* of Quebec. 1881. 

Sessional Papers. Vol. XII., 1878-70. 

Statutes. 1875, 

Journals of the Legislative Assembly, Vol. X 

Journal of the Legislative Council. Vol. XV., 1881. 
The Colonial Office : 

lltural Resource* of the Seychelles: Report. 
The Agent-General for New South Wales: 

Registrar-General' b Report. Statistics of Bydni 

Suttemeut of the Colonial Treasurer, 1881. 

Statistical Return of the Australasian Coloii > 

> First Ordinary General Meeting. 

Catalogue of New South Wales Exhibits at the Melbourne 
Exhibition, 1880. 
The Agent-General for Queensland : 

Beports of the Trans-continental Railway from Roma to 
Point Parker, 1881. 
The Agent- General for South Australia : 

Boothby's South Australian Directory, 1881. 
The Government Astronomer, Sydney : 

Results of Meteorological Observations made in New South 
Wales during 1876 to 1879. 

Recent Changes in the Surface of Jupiter. 

Thunder and Hailstorms in New South Wales. 

The Wentworth Hurrioane. 

The Gem Cluster in Argo. 

Papers read before the Astronomical Section of the Royal 
Society of New South Wales, 1878-79. 

Note upon a Sliding Scale for Correcting Barometer Read- 
ings at 82° Fah. and mean Sea Level. 

Some New Double Stars and Southern Binaries. 

Astronomical Results, 1877-78, New South Wales. 
The Registrar-General, Queensland : 

Vital Statistics, 1880. 

Blue Book, 1880. 

Statistics, 1880. 
The Anthropological Institute : 

Journal of the Institute, Vol. X., No. III., February, 1881. 
The Proprietors of the British Trade Journal : 

Commerce and Navigation of the United States, Report, 
The Canadian Institute, Toronto : 

Proceedings of the Institute (New Series), Vol. I. Part II. 
The Chamber of Commerce, Cape Town : 

Annual Address of the President. 
The Chamber of Commerce, Melbourne : 

Annual Report, &c, May, 1881. 
The Chamber of Commerce, Adelaide : 

Annual Report, 1881. 
The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec : 

Transactions of the Society, 1880-81. 
The McGill University, Montreal : 

McGill University Calendar, 1880-81. 
The New Zealand Institute, Auckland : 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Institute, 1880. 
The Royal Geographical Society : 

Journal of the Society, Vol. L., 1880. 

Proceedings of the Society, July, August, and September, 

First Ordinary General Meeting. 7 

Index to the Journal, Vols. XXI. to XL., 1881. 

Library Catalogue to December, 1878. 
The Royal Society of New South Wales : 

Journal and Proceedings of the Society, Vol. XIV., 1880. 
The Royal Society of Tasmania : 

Papers and Proceedings of the Society, 1879. 
The Royal United Service Institution : 

Journal of the Institution, Vol. XXV., Nos. CX. and CXI. 
The Social Science Association : 

Sessional Proceedings of the Association, VoL XIV., No. V. 
The Society for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations : 

Report of the Eighth Annnul Conference held at Berne, 
August, 1880. 
The Statistical Society : 

Journal of the Society, 1874 to September 1871, 7 Vols. 
and 8 Parts. 
The Sydney Free Public Library : 

Report of the Trustees, 1880-81. 
The University College, Toronto : 

Calendar for 1881-82. 
The Victoria Humane Society, Melbourne : 

Seventh Annual Report of the Society, 1881. 
The Swansea Free Public Library : 

Annual Report, 1880-81. 
J. G. Bourinot, Esq., Ottawa : 

Canadian Monthly, July to November, 1881. 

The Land Prospector's Manual and Field Book. 
Dr. John Chapman : 

The Westminster Review, July and October, 1881. 
Hyde Clarke, Esq. : 

The English Stations in the Hill Regions of India, their 
Value and Importance, 4c. 
Captain J. C. R. Colomb, R.M .A. : 

Naval Intelligence and Protection of Commerce in War, 
C. Cowan, Esq., Port Elizabeth : 

Sixteenth Annual Report of the Chamber of Commerce 
Arthur Douglass, Esq. : 

Ostrich Farming in South Africa, by the Donor. 1 Vol. 
J. Ferguson, Esq., Ceylon : 

The Ceylon Directory, 1880-81, 2 Vols. 
H. A. Firth, Esq., Calcutta: 

Coolie Emigration Returns. 1857 to 1881. 
Sandford Fleming, Esq., C.M.O., Ottawa: 

The Adoption of a Prime Meridian to be Common to all 
Nations, Pamphlet, 1881. 


First Ordinary General Meeting. 

H. W. Freeland, Esq. ! 

Report of the Eighth Annual Conference held at Berne of 
the Association for the Reform and Codification of the 
LawB of Nations, August, 1880. 

William Fresson, Esq., British Guiana : 

Temperature and Rainfall in British Guiana. 1880. 

Hon. T. Risely Griffith, 8ierra Leone : 

Report on the Census of Sierra Leone and its Dependencies, 

A Short Account of the Insurrection in Grenada in 1797. 

A. G. Gnillemard, Esq. : 

Over Land and Sea, 1 Vol., 1875, by the donor. 
R. G. Haliburton, Esq., Q.C., Ottawa : 

The Pariahs of the Empire, 1874. 

A Review of British Diplomacy and its Fruits, 1872. 
Hon. Colonel R. W. Harley, C.B., C.M.G., Grenada : 

Grenada Blue Book, 1880. 

Census of Grenada, 1881. 
H. H. Hayter, Esq., Melbourne : 

Regulations and Instructions for the Guidance of Persons 
on the Compilation of the Census of Victoria, 

Census of Victoria, 1881, Approximate Returns. 

Agricultural Statistics of Victoria, 1880-81. 

Statistical Register of Victoria for 1880, Parts 1 to 8. 
.1. H. Heaton, Esq., Sydney: 

Photographic Album. 
John Hemming, Esq., Cape Town : 

Six Assegais from Zululand. 
J. V. Irwin, Esq. : 

Address to His Excellency E. J. Eyre, Esq., Jamaica, 

Departmental Expenditure, Western Australia. 

Statistical Account of British Columbia, 1867. 

What shall we do with the Hudson's Bay Territory '.' 
Edmund Johnson, Esq. : 

Catalogue of Pictures, Drawings, &c. 4c, lent for exhibition 
at Sydney, 1871), and Melbourne, 1880. 
F. P. Labilliere, Esq. : 

Colonial Papers, 1 Vol. 
J, Lebburn, Esq: 

Statistics of South Australia, 1845-46. 

Blue Book of South Australia, 1866. 

Alexander McMaster, Esq., New Zealand : 

A Voyage to New South Wales, 1 Vol. 

Fir»l Ordinary General Merting. 


J. R. Maxwell. Esq. : 

Advantages and Disadvantages of European Intercourse 
with the West Coast of Africa. 
Henry J. Morgan, Esq., Ottawa : 

Six Letters to the Hon. O. Mowat on the Amendment of 
the Provincial Constitution by the Hon. W. Mae- 
dougall, 1875. 
Prerogative Rights in Canada, 1881. 
John Noble, Esq., Cape Town : 

Cape of Good Hope Blue Books and Reports, 1879-80. 
O'HaJJoran. Esq. : 

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Geographical Soci.-tv, 
1865. With Supplement, 1870. 
W. J. Patereon, Esq., Montreal : 

Trade of Canada, Annual Report of the Commerce of 

Montreal, 1875 to 1899. 
Harbour Dues and Transit Charges at Montreal. 
John Bm. Esq., M.D., F.R.S. : 

The Biograph, No. 88, September, 1881. 

Travels in Kamschatka, 2 Vols., 1787. 

Cook's Voyages, 1 Vol., 1801. 

Game's Travels in the East, 1 Vol., 1880. 

Staunton's Embassy to China, 1 Vol., 1797. 

Sandwich Islands, A Voyage Round the World, 1800 to 

1812, 1 Vol., 1816. 
Humboldt's Cosmos, 2 Vols., 1849. 
J. Stnart Reid, Esq., New Zealand : 

Bradahaw'B Guide to New Zealand, May, 1881. 
George Robertson, Esq., Melbourne : 

The Melbourne Review, July, 1881. 
John Robinson, Esq., M.L.C., Natal : 

The Transvaal War, Reprint from the Natal Mercury. 
John Sands, Esq., New South Wales : 

Country Directory and Gazetteer of New South Wales, 
Dr. Sehomburgk, South Australia : 

Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic 
Gardens, South Australia, 1880. 
Ber. C. P. Stovin : 

A Marble Clock. 
James Take. Esq. : 

Irish Distress and its Remedies. 
Robert G. Webster. Esq. : 

The Trade of the World, 1 Vol. 

.. White: 
Canadian Blue Books, 1881. 
Report, Immigration and Colonisation, 1881. 

By the Donor. 1880. 
1880, by the Donor. 


First Ordinary General Meeting. 

Jocua Zwiefel, West Africa : 

Voyage anx sources du Niger, par H.M. J. Zwiefel et M 
Mouatier, 1 Vol., 1880. 

The Dake of Manchester (who was received with applause) 
said : Ladies and gentlemen, — I see by your greeting that you 
almost anticipate what I am about to say. As this is the first 
occasion on which I have had the pleasure and honour of pre- 
siding here for over a year, I feel bound, in some measure, to 
account for my absence. Mr. Young wa« very anxious that I 
should have furnished you with a report of my proceedings, and 
I had hoped that I might perhaps have attempted it ; but I find 
that after a year's absence the position of the English landlord 
here has by no means improved since I left. On the contrary, it has 
rather grown worse ; and the amount of business that I have per- 
sonally to attend to precluded all hope of my thinking or even 
attempting to do justice to the great country I have visited. But, 
however, I cannot come before you without expressing my deep 
sense of gratitude to all persons I met of all classes in Australia, 
for their very great kindness and the hospitality they showed ma 
In fact, without the especial and peculiar assistance which was 
afforded to me by Government authorities and by individuals, I 
never could have seen so much of those magnificent countries as 
I did in the time spent in visiting them. Australians have told 
me that I have seen more of Australia than they themselves. I can 
well believe that I have seen more, perhaps, of the three Eastern 
Colonies of Australia than any one colonist; although, of course, 
not so much of any particular Colony as the residents themselves. 
They have afforded me many opportunities of admiring the rich- 
ness and the charms of their country. The climate I have certainly 
left with regret. I come back ; and instead of clear sky and fresh 
air I meet a misty climate in which the sun is very seldom seen. 
Hut beyond the climate, the richness of the country really 
astounded me. One subject which it is perhaps scarcely necessary 
to allude to, as it will be much more fully and ably dealt with by 
the gentleman who is about to read the paper, is the production of 
wheat. I need not touch upon it except to say I do not think 
that for a considerable time Australia generally can be a very large 
wheat- producing country. The very charm of its climate, the 
amount of sunshine, is, you may say, the cause of its not being 
generally well adapted to the production of wheat. It is too dry. 
I believe, myself, that there is an enormous amount of water under 

' Ordinary General Mctfnnj. 


the surface ; but the country must be much more fully populated 
labour cheaper before it will answer tbe purpose of people to 
water to the surface, as has been done in many instances ; 
or to conserve it in dams and artificial reservoirs. But tbe climate 
otherwise, if there was water to nurture the plant, would be admir- 
ably adapted to the production of wheat It has also great facilities 
for growing wine. Almost in all parts of the country the vine 
flourishes admirably ; but I think, and with deference I speak it, 
from tho observations I have made in other countries, on the Rhine 
for instance, the vines, especially the best vines, are grown on very 
strong soils and hill sides. Now, most of the vineyards where 
la grown in Australia are on flat, rich alluvial soil. I doubt 
whether that kind of sod is likely to produce the most delicate 
•oris of wine. I havo no doubt that the amount of wine grown is 
much greater; but I think the quality is deteriorated. One gentle- 
man, Mr. Carmicbael, whom I met there, proposed to grow the 
vine on a stony soil to see whether the wine was more delicate. 
1 may say that Mr. Carmichael's wines are among tbe best pro- 
duced in Australia ; and also Mr. Castella's, whose vines are on the 
River Yun-Yuu. I ought perhaps to allude to the growth of olives, 
which hi quite incipient. In South Australia, where they grow 
olives, they produced and showed some excellent olive oil at the 
Exhibition held there. I thought the best kind of oil was produced 
at Her Majesty's prison at Adelaide. (Laughter.) With regard to 

i«rah», every one knows the enormous production of gold in 
Australia. I was especially surprised with the amounts of stream- 

( saw coming down from Queensland by road into New South 
Wales. I stopped at one public-house, which was supposed to be 
in a town, and the landlord showed me a tumbler about one third 
full of grains of stream-tin which he had picked up after a shower 
of m ihe surface on the road in front of his house. The 

whole country is full of stream-tin ; and no wonder the enormous 
discoveries have Bent down the price of tin from £120 to £'60; but 
when I was there it had recovered to £80 ; and I see in the news- 
papers to-day that the price of tin is again £107, which is a good 
thing for my friends in Australia. But, besides tin, a silver mine 
had been discovered just as I passed from Queensland into New 
Sooth Wales. Bismuth and antimony are also abundant. It is 
an interesting fact, that I called to-day on Mr. Gregory, the geolo- 
gist, at 86, Charles street, Fitzroy- square, to whom I had given 
crystals which I brought home from Australia, and he 

wed them to me ground according to instructions ; one of them 
was a blue sapphire, somewhat pale in colour, but very good, and 


First Ordinary General Meeting. 

the others were most heautiful stones. There were two green 
sapphires, which were in shade quite unique and brilliant, and 
none, he said, had been seen like them in London with that peculiar 
tint of green. There were also a number of most beautiful zircons, 
which were picked up among the gravel soils ; and otherB were 
given to me as I was passing from the washings of the tin. I need 
scarcely allude to the enormous flocks of sheep and the splendid 
wool, which has no doubt been, after gold, the chief source of the 
progress of those countries. I am afraid that in Victoria and New 
South Wales they were rather in too great a hurry to promote the 
occupation of land iu small areas in the hope that it might increase 
colonisation. But it has not, I am afraid, done so ; primarily on 
account of the distance from markets. Those men who have been 
encouraged to go out to distant stations, and select the best portions 
of soil from the selectors, have caused very great inconvenience and 
loss to the Crown tenants upon those stations. Often they did so 
with the object of making the Crown tenants purchase and buy 
them out, and those who have remained have certainly not, as a 
whole, been successful ; and from the nature of the lives they lead 
their children too often grow up like young savagea People told 
mo when I came up to one of these distant selector's houses that 
I should see the children playing about anyhow, aud that as soon 
as they see a stranger coming they go and hide behind blocks of 
wood, as if they were a lot of kangaroos or rabbits. They seem as 
if they dare not face a Btranger, and they grow up without any 
moral influence, miles away from civilisation ; aud from them are 
recruited bushrangers and other desperate characters. I am afraid 
they come to little good, and the selector dcriveB very little profit 
from his land on account of the distance which he has to carry the 
produce to market, Now, in Queensland they have proceeded on 
a much wiser system ; they do not allow selection except in areas 
which they declare open to selection, and they take them into that 
part of the country which is nearest the means of communication 
or nearest the seaside and the great towns and railways, and is 
more adapted to tillage and agriculture than to pastoral purposes. 
But I am afraid I am wearying you with my desultory remarks 
about Australia — (No, no) — which perhaps many of you know much 
more about than I do myself. But having spent so many happy 
months in Buch a magnificent country, my mind is full of it ; and 
when I once begin on the subject perhaps 1 am led away and waste 
your time. (No, no.) I cannot sit down without repeating how 
much 1 enjoyed my stay in those countries, and how grateful I am 
to the many friends I have left there whom I hope I may see again. 

England'* Colonial Granaries. 


( Cheer* ) I now call on Mr. Robert G. Webstjeb, LL.B., to 
read hut paper. 


Before commencing to address this meeting on the deeply im- 
portant and interesting subject of the Colonial sources from whence 
England can draw large — in fact, year by year, increasingly large 
— stores of food, I should like to make one or two preliminary 
remarks. I am well aware of the vastuess of the subject which I 
am going to treat on, and that to treat it thoroughly and ex- 
haustively would occupy ten times the time allotted to us this 
evening. I shall therefore avoid, as far as I can, unnecessary 
details, and endeavour to treat this topic from a broad and com- 
prehensive standpoint. 

I speak, I assure you, with some diffidence, as there are here 
aeaembl-d to-night not only men well and intimately acquainted 
with scientific farming at home, but many, I doubt not, who at one 
portion or other of their lives havo had practical experience in 
iral pursuits, and who perchance now own thousands of 
broad acres in our Colonial Empire — in Greater Britain. To such 
i would say, I will endeavour to fulfil my task impartially to all, 
and should I in any way have failed, I trust they will give the 
Talno of their remarks touching any Colonial granary not thoroughly 
treated on, which, when given from practical experience, would be 
doubly valuable to us all. 

To-night I purpose, as far as possible, confining my remarks to 
our external grain supply, although I am well aware of the growing 
importance of our trade in animal food. The measure of the 
increase of that already vast source of food supply from foreign 
short* and oar Colonies appears to me to be a question for science 
In solve. For, as soon as scientific improvements, either by elec- 
tricity or by some other motive power cheaper than coal, enable us 
further utilise the vast resources of our Australian Colonies 
where there were in 1879 no less than sixty million cattle and 
sheep and the well-known wealth in flocks and herds in the United 
States and the River Plate — (speaking of this latter territory, it is 
s known fact the cattle of the Argentine Republic were slaughtered 
their hides, and even in the nineteenth century the Esta- 
oetroe have often burnt mares and sheep as fuel for making bricks) 
— when also Canada and the Cape Bend us more of their surplus 
^hiW"' 1 " of cattle and sheep ; it will doubtless reduce the price 


England'i Colonial Granaries. 

of animal food, whilst also, I fear, causing farther agricultural 
depression in this country. 

Let us now for a moment look at the past and present position 
of this country, and its requirements for a foreign and Colonial 
supply of wheat. Between the years 1811 to 1880 our total re- 
quirements were one hundred and one million bushels of wheat ; 
of this quantity ninety-seven million bushels waa on the average 
grown at home, and only four million" bushels imported from 

Taking the years 1870 to 1879 we find our requirements in this 
respect had exactly doubled, and were two hundred and two 
million bushels ; but whilst on the one hand our home-grown 
supply had decreased six million bushels, our importations from 
abroad had increased from four million bushels yearly to one 
hundred and eleven million bushels, or rather more than half. 
Looking at this fact from an economical point of view, and taking 
into account, as I hope shortly to show, that the huge bulk of this 
supply of grain comes from countries who are gradually becoming 
worse customers for our manufactured products, 1 am not certain 
if it is entirely a satisfactory condition of affairs, But looking on 
it from another point of view, namely, whether our dependence on 
the foreigner would not cause us serious dangers in case of onr 
food supply being cut off in time of war, that dependence meaning 
that eighteen millions out of the thirty-three millions in this 
country are at present entirely dependent on their cereal food 
supply from external sources, I do not think anyone can treat the 
question lightly ; and all must wish that the links in our 
chain of communication with foreign ports and our Colonies were 
firmly riveted, and our important coaling stations carefully fortified 
(one or two of them which I have recently seen being barely in that 
respect as one would think their importance demanded). 
Regarding this danger in time of war, we may to some 
extent console ourselves with the following reflection, that 
even without our external food supply, although we should 
be put to great loss and inconvenience, wa need not starve, aa long 
as we had surplus stock for one season in this country; as there is no 
lack of ability to grow grain at home to supply our wants, and it is 
simply a question of price that causes us, year by year, to decrease 
our acreage under grain. Were we to plough up an area of this 
country five times the size of Devonshire, we could in one season 
supply all the cereals required by the three kingdoms. 

The relative condition of the cornfields of the world show a 
marvellous change in recent years. Lagrange boasted in 1780 

England's Colonial Granaries. 15 

that Fran™ raised half the wheat of the world. At present she 
does not produce enough to feed her own population ; and actually 
down to 1850 the United States used at intervals to import wheat 
from Europe, whereas at present the latter country produces more 
than one Imitn <>f the world's crop. The reduction in recent years 
of transit charges of American wheat to Europe has greatly 
encouraged this increased growth of American wheat, for whilst 
the farmers of Red River and Minnesota can send their 
grain for Is. a bnshel to New York, or Is. 8d. to Liverpool, 
the inhabitants of Athens pay 3s. from Marathon, a distance 
of only fifteen miles. It appears the requirements for 
foreign- thrown grain in the United Kingdom amount at present 
to about one hundred and ten million bushels, and this reqdirc- 
tsent would seem to increase annually as the population augments 
in numbers. Mr. Porter said, only forty years ago, Great I.rit. 
can never obtain the bulk of her food supply from abroad, as all the 
■hipping in the world, say six million tons, would not be sufficient 
to carry food for her population. As a great statesman, now 
deceased, once said, nothing is certain but the unforeseen, for we 
oot only import 55 per cent, of our wheat, but in 1878 the quantity 
of food imported was in excess of the tonnage when Mr. Porter 

It may be well now to carefully oonsider the subjects of (1) an 
>a*c«d agricultural development at home, and (2) the influence 
of emigration. There is no doubt that by increasing the invest- 
of capital in agricultural improvements at home, we might 
a large proportion of the annual farm products imported from 
abroad. It is also clear that there is ample room for a great im- 
provement in our home agricultural industry. It was stated not 
long ago in evidence before a Committee of the House of Lords on 
Drainage, that the drained area was only about half the area which 
might be drained with advantage ; and a statesman, known as a 
most cautious one, declared that capital properly laid out would 
double the food-producing capacity of our soil. The patriotic 
enterprise of the Duke of Sutherland in his works of reclamation 
in the north of Scotland are well known, and there is a wide field 
for similar work in the millions of acres of waste land and bog 
now lying idle and unproductive. Every acre of converted waste 
i* as thoogh our small island had grown to A corresponding extent ; 
bat the question of reclamation of land resolves itself into this. 
Will it pay ? and from the data I have at my disposal, I am inrliiml 
at prevent to reply in the negative, except in exceptional 

Enalamd'* Ctdomial <rrnnaru: 


of emigration La intimately related to this sub}* 
an of our borne waste lands, bems. ao to apeak. 

of each other. 

Ave vast waste 

While we have space labour at home. 
lan.ia ready for occupation Br reclaim- 

ing onr own waste lands we bring tkm land ta ike pmopU. 
by sending ont emigrants to the Colonies we bring ca» 
fwple t.r> th* land. Wa can also thus allow England's sons to 
reap the golden harvest derivable from our increasing demands and 
payment h for food, True, it is quite evident there is no lack either 
in the will or the power of other wtinma to produce all the food we 
may need far the auupuit of oar population, and equally so that we 
have the means ar. sire to manufacture more than sunt 

therewith to make payment for the supplies they sand; 
the ' i i iiiiii»seiiii[ divergence between the amount of our pure 
;ind onr soiee cannot, I contend. continue >n-owing to an indefinite 
extent Whatever may be our accumulations of wealth at home, 
they will not suffice to ward off a scarcity of food if those who hare 
8 will not take the produce of our labour and capital in 
exchange. Touching that matter, I will quote a short extract from 
an address by that eminent statistician, Mr. Bourne, who remarks ; 
" \M us look upon England as the metropolis of the world, the 
tence of those whose eepital flows to every land, whose sJdH 
fits the employment of that capital in combination with the 
labour of emigrants from her own shores, still more of the wurka r s 
she finds ready to her hands almoBt wherever she turns her 
<1 she may go on receiving without payment those 
import.* which thus serve to support her own population, and 
-base all the products of their industry. Let the increase of our 
capital abroad, and the openings found for its profitable employment, 
.•*p pa*« with , or <vtc**d, the increase of numbers, wants, or 
q at home, and there will ultimately be true reason to measure 
the prosperity of the nation by the amounts it can afford to receive, 
without Ike necessity for atlfiag their value away. But if, on the 
other hand, investments abroad lessen in productiveness, our 
manufactures cease to sell on profitable terms, and our consump- 
tion at i require increasing foreign supplies; we shall by 
degrees be eating op the wealth accumulated in the past, and the 
r tb which our imports increase will then be the measure 
^■b 1 decay." Naturally the sole question which this re- 
f into is, Whilst the foreign markets are gradually 
Bar doors to our goods, is it to the advantage of this 
r become more and more dependent on a foreign supply 

, or is it not? 

England's Colonial Granaries. 


We mail also bear in mind that if we found it advisable to 
retain the refuse which pollutes our rivers and is lost into the sea, 
our own soil would doublless give increased returns ; but although 
higher cultivation and the reclamation of waste or imperfectly- 
drained lands might add to the acreage under crops and increase 
production of home-grown food supplies, these measures do not 
appear likely to be adopted, as every day's experience tends to 
make it more and more evident that it is cheaper to bring from 
■brood than to force production at home. 

In the next tabular statement are arranged side by side the esti- 
mated home production and the imports with the exports deducted ; 
the two together making the total amount of wheat available for 
MMOmption in each of the thirteen years 1666 to 1878 : — 

S<-|i I. 



1070-1 .. 

J .. 

» .. 

1*73-4 .. 

1874-0 .. 

4 .. 

1077 -9 .. 

1STS-9 . . 

1ST*-*) .. 



roa the United Kingdom. 


Wllaiiti f r 
















.-ow, iiou 

Import* of Wheat 

and Flour, 

dad acting 



7,600,000 . . 

9,010,000 .. 

7,880,000 . . 

9,680.000 . . 

7,960,000 .. 

9,320,000 .. 

11,720,11011 .. 

11,930,000 .. 

ll.MO.OOO .. 

18,940,000 .. 
13,1 M,00 

14,608,000 . . 

14,417,000 .. 

18,309,000 .. 


T"t;ti MaflakOj 



': !,7xo,ooo 



Average price 

Sf Hritiati 
Wheitt for 11 
months, July 1 

to Juno 30. 
. 68s. Od. 
. 69s. 3d. 
. 61». 8d. 
. 46s. lid. 
. 63s. 6d. 

41a. lOd. 

63b. 6d. 

In future, therefore, it appears evident that we must calculate 
on an increased instead of a diminished external food supply. 
That being the case, and it also appearing certain that we shall 
have to depend less and less as years roll on on our insular pro- 
duction of food, it would appear to me a wise policy worthy of 
Hntiah statesmen who can look beyond the policy of expediency 
for the moment, to endeavour to extend the food supply within the 
Bntub I ' hat is, to cheapen food by practically extending 

lb* arra of the world's corn-fields. Now from whence comes the 
imported cereals into this country, an examination of the following 
table of the total value of the corn, grain, meal, and flour imported 
in 1880 will ahow us :— 


18 England's Colonial Granaries. 

Corn, Qiunr Meal a*d Flottb. Valcx of Imposts ttlok Priwotpa.1. 


Importod from. 

Millions i.'. 

Poreentacs of 
Total Com Import*. 

Russia — 

2,882 1 , x ,„ 
2,240 j *' 1 - J! 







D tuted States of America 




Total from Foreign Countries 





Total from British Possessions ...... 




Hence we see that of the total import of cereals and flour to the 
value of 62} millions, we depended on foreign countries to the 
extent of 62 j, and may be said to have grown in oar Colonies 
10 million pounds worth — 56 per cent, of the total we also see 
came from the United States. Russia ranked second, with 8 per 
cent, of the total ; Canada third, with 6 per cent. 

Having thus examined the sources from whence our extraneous 
cereal supplies is obtained, it may not be without interest to con- 
sider whether in future years we could not receive a larger 
proportion of the imported food from our Colonies, and 
ho make this country not so entirely dependent for her food 
supply on foreign powers. I grant that this importation 
of food, as of all commodities, to this country is simply 
a question of supply and demand ; bub, presuming such a thing to 
be possible, are we right in placing ourselves in the position that 

e price of grain might be greatly increased in this country by a 

Kiujland't Colonial Granarie$. 


ring *' of Yankee corn merchants ? But, putting that perhaps 

probable case aside, it would tend to lower the price of wheat 

there more large sources of supply ready and able to supply 

with grain, and would remove the contingency of a heavy rise in 

in the event of there being a bad harvest the same year in 

England and the United States ; it would tend to modify that 

hieh would be the result, namely, a large increment in the price 

of wheat. 

I am far from saying, do not let as purchase food from extrn- 
dwoi sources. The fact stands that, be the reason what it may, 
we are obliged to do so, and we are of necessity the greatest 
purchasers of alimentary substances in the world. 

Take wheat as an instance of this. Our average annual impor- 
tation of wheat into the United Kingdom is eleven million quarters, 
and the approximate annual demand for wheat in the market of the 
world is from twenty to twenty- five million quarters. One fact we- 
must not lose sight of — " There are nations who depend much 
on their sale of raw produce, including food, to us, than 
England does in losing her Bale of iron or cotton goods to them 
amidst her at present wide- world trade." 

It may not now be uninteresting to turn aside for a minute and 

at the general current of our export trade for the past twelve 

of goods of home manufacture ; and, if I am not much mis- 

, they give us cause for much reflection, as they apparently 

te to as clearly how much better customers for our manufac- 

commodities British colonists appear to be relatively year by 

than the foreigner, and how important the Colonial market is 

to the industrial classes of this country. 


Poraentarc «i 

•■11114) Ulll 

To rotnjfii 

To Br 


Wmu Trade. 



■BBoaa £ 

Millions £ 

Million* £ 

Jfar cent. 





147 8 




171 s 


MS i 

23 -0 



256 3 



tM s 

M | 



IM a 





71 1 


31 8 

ItS 8 

fit 9 













loi •;. 



75 3 




England's Colonial Granarien. 

In this table it will be noticed the value of our total exports to 
foreign countries and to our Colonies in 1871 and 1880 was 
identical ; but whereas in 1871 our Colonies only took 28 per cent, 
of the total sura, they received 88 per cent, in 1880. 

On looking to the previous year, we find our exports to foreign 
countries in 1870 and in 1880 were exactly equal, viz.. £147.800.000 ; 
but our exports to our own possessions, which amounted in 1880 to 
£75,800,000, were only £51,800,000 in 1870, an inorease of rathe 
more than 68} per oent. 

On examining tho average of the above in four yearly periods in 
the following table, we find that notwithstanding the revival of 
trade in 1879, the value of our trade in manufactured commodities 
to the foreigner has declined in the last four years. 

Ajvii«oi ExroiT* or Butish Pmodici, 

Average Percentage. 

Four yearly 

To Foreign 

To Bi Uinta 


Of Colonial 

ami Indian 



Tr» Mi 

1869-1872 ... 
1873-1876 ... 
1877-1880 ... 

Mill ions £ 
133 5 

Millions £ 

Million* £ 
217 "1 



Per oent . 
70 1 


I purposely only go back twelve years, as the statistics have 
been compiled under the new system for that perod, and avoid the 
ridiculous mistakes made by certain British statesmen in quoting 
statistics regarding the value of imports or exports as long ago as 
1840. By using these figures no accurate conclusion can be arrived 
at, for the values of our goods imported and exported were given 
under the old arbitrary " official " value, the value of the goods in 
the year 1094 instead of, as at present, under the "declared" or 
actual value. To give instances of this, the real value of the wood 
imported in 1854 was over eleven million pounds sterling, but 
appeared according to the " official " valuation as under two 
millions sterling. The corn imported that year was estimated 
under the old official value at less than half its true worth. 1 will 
now conclude this portion of the subject by giving below a list of 
the principal articles, with their values, that make up the aggregate 
of our trade with the Colonies, with the view of showing in what 
respect the increase of twenty-four millions which has accrued in 
+k« «aine period of ten years is chiefly exhibited. 

England's Colonial Granariea. 


tpaaral and «lo|>s 

Krm. ammunition, 

and military 

b«r uvi ilr 

fVi't. cinder*, and patent f nel . . 
Ooffmr, aowruuglu and wrought 

Cotton yarn 

Cotton manufactures 

Iron and atcel, unwrouglit ami 

Value In the 
Jear 1871. 

, nowroaglit and wrooght 

id mill work 

of all kind. 






1,1 '.'5.663 


Bl 7,d63 





999, 40 1 




Value in the 

Increase in 
1880, ac 

compared with 

Total 61,260,213 75,254,179 24,003.966 


66 6904 

1, J<) 9733 


2,06*'.. int.". 


878. 0HU 













473,29 1 




The above-mentioned twenty-four millions represent an increase 
Dearly 47 per cent, in ten yours in regard to our trade with the 
lea, bat, on the other hand, the value of our trade with foreign 
eoantrie* has decreased in the same period from £171, Rift, !*4!> to 
il47,808,267, or fourteen per cent., the total export trade for 1871 
and 1880 being, as we have previously said, almost identical in 
t, although showing such wide differences when classified 
Foreign Countries" and "British Possessions" n- 

»t*vt. ?•']%. 

Dr. Forbes Watson, in a paper he read before this Institute iii 

. atere into the value of our export trade to our Colouies with 

great care, and estimates that each Australian bought a greater 

value of our manufactured commodities than that which is pur- 

by each inhabitant of these isles ; and I find in 1877 every 

was as large a customer to this country as 10 

and every Canadian a better one than 85 Russians. 

In fact, England is the only portion of the British Empire that 

foreign goods to any extent, the Colonies almost exclu- 

parchasing goods produced in the limit* of the Empire itself. 

That may not be the case in future. The colonists may discover 

England does not give them a fair share of her import trade, and 

may increase their manufactures, and, in my view of the case, \>et- 


England's Colotiial Granaiics. 

haps, they may be justified in bo doing, for as England has seen fit 
to leave them out in the cold to shift for themselves, why should 
they not try the system which Canada has adopted, which country 
appears to incline to the belief that a well balanced community 
should not be wholly an agricultural one, but should combine in its 
midst other interests and other elements ? Were the fiscal barriers 
now raised up in the British Empire ever removed, Greater Britain 
would for commercial purposes become a well knit together whole, 
and the wealth of each individual, unit, or state, would be 

I will now touch on, without further comment, the three great 
Colonial sources from whence England at present draws a propor- 
tion of her supply of grain, namely, India, Canada, and Australia, 
and I trust I may be pardoned for placing India for the nonce 
under the generic term of a Colony. For the purpose of supplying 
us with cereals, India appears to approach to the attributes of a 
plantation Colony, rather than to her other vastly important poli- 
tical and military relations as an integral part of the British 
Empire. I omit any mention of the South African Colonies and 
the West Indies, The former country does not export grain to tins 
country, in fact, it has to import that product from South Australia 
at present to meet its own requirements, though doubtless it pos- 
sesses great agricultural resources which only await development. 
We import from the West Indies other alimentary products, but 
not grain. 

British India, — Amongst the dependencies of Great Britain 
there is none that would reap greater advantages by an increase 
in their export of wheat to our shores than would India I under- 
stand that the cultivation of wheat is greatly increasing over the 
North- West Provinces, Gude, the Punjab, and Bengal, the Govern- 
ment having apparently done all in their power to improve the 
cultivation of it, and have established iu different parts of India 
model farms. In the Central Provinces the Maghur model farm 
has been very successful, and done much to demonstrate to the 
cultivating community the advantage of improved modes of culture 
for the ordinary crops of the couutry. For wheat cultivation the 
results obtained from manuring and irrigation are such that the 
produce of an acre of white -eared wheat amounted to 2,200 lbs. 
instead of about 410, and the value would be over £6, the cost ot 
cultivation being not more than £1. 

There can be no doubt than any effort made by our Government, 

"vhether by giving agricultural prizeB for farms judged to have 

(celled iu the cultivation of the superior descriptions of wheat, 

England's Colonial Granaries. 


or by any other kindred means, cannot fail to have a beneficial 

It. Forbes Watson, in his first report on Indian wheat, states 
that the samples he examined were far superior to an; Indian 
wheat usually seen in the London market, and it is difficult to 
fftirtf'* whether the finest varieties could be forthcoming in suf- 
ficient quantities for the development of an important trade. Some 
oples he examined were, he believed, equal to the finest Austra- 
i or Californian wheat, and those samples came not from one 
locality, but from district after district ; in fact, from more than 
one haudred different localities. At the time of his first valuation 
the price of English wheat was as low as 88a a quarter, and it 
ni on that standard he based his deductions. From more than 
sixty districts he received one or more samples of soft white wheat 
of a superior quality, valued at 4(ia. to 48s. per quarter. These 
district* included Oude, the greater portion of Bebar, and the 
North- West and Central Provinces. 

In addition to this he mentions other districts which, though not 
producing soft wheat of a similarly high character, yet grew a hard 
wheat, equal to the finest wheat of the same kind grown anywhere. 
And be also mentions that a gentleman of great practical experi- 
particularly struck with the fine hard wheat, which he 
is not sufficiently appreciated in the market ; and he refers 
to some experiments undertaken some time ago at his instance 
with dour produced from the hard St. Petersburg wheat, which 
yielded per sack of 280 lbs. 110 four-pound loaves of fine bread, 
whereas the best English wheat yields only 90 to 92 loaves. Some 
of the Indian samples of html wheat were even finer than the best 
hard St. Petersburg or Kubanka wheat. The provinces above 
mentioned include the whole of the wheat-growing area proper in 

In the markets of Great Britain, India, it appears to me, would 
have to contend chiefly with the produce of Russia, the United 
Slates, and Canada, and, to a less degree, with Australia. In the 
two former countries the area for the production of fine-grown 
winter wheat is comparatively restricted. In Russia spring 
wheat forms a very large proportion of the supply, as the greater 
part of that country is too cold for the growth of winter wheat. 
in the United States, likewise, the climate of Minnesota, Iowa, 
and other states on the Canadian border, and also in the Canadian 
province of Manitoba, is only adapted for the growth of spring 
wheat. Spring wheat appears to be a lighter crop, as a rule, than 
winter wheat 


England's Colonial Granar'us. 

India's true policy, therefore, with regard to grain -growing seems 
to be to take advantage of her climatic position and cultivate for 
export only the finest varieties, in which classes competition from 
Russia and the United States does not appear to be likely to be so 
severe as in the case of the common varieties. Such a policy is 
also to he recommended as the price of the finer varieties is 
always better kept up, and suffers leas in a falling market ; and 
the higher-priced wheat will likewise support better the necessarily 
high charges for freight. 

The question both of price in India and cost of transit enters 
largely into our calculations when considering the probabilities of 
an increased trade in wheat from India to England ; and having 
heard it stated that wheat could be crown in a good year in the 
North- WeBt Provinces of India for from 14s. to 16a. a quarter, I 
wrote to a friend of practical experience on the subject, asking 
him some questions respecting the prospects of the Indian trade 
in wheat, its price in India, and the cost of transit. He replied as 
follows : — 

" As regards wheat, it is really very difficult to say what it costs 
to raise, as it is nearly, if not all, grown by natives, and they don't 
tell much. But, for whatever a personal opinion is worth, I do 
not think it could be done at 16s. Freight is a very uncertain 
element in the cost ; within the last two years freight in wheat 
from Calcutta to London has been as high as 57s. 6d., and as low 
as 5b., but I should say that 80s. would be a fair average. The 
landing uhargea are about 2s. per quarter. Two years ago we had 
a good deal of Indian wheat. The grain ia of pretty good quality, 
but it is rather bard and gritty, and can only be used by a miller 
when mixed with soft grain. It is worth 5s. to tis. a quarter less 
than Californian wheat, and there is never a very ' free market ' 
for it." 

Dr. Forbes Watson on this question of price states that it 
averages per quarter from 9 to 14 rupees in India, and also calcu- 
lates that the charge for the transit from the Punjab to England 
via Calcutta is from 22s. 6d. to 27s. 2d. per quarter, according as 
the distance by rail from which the wheat has to be sent ia nearer 
or farther from that port, but anticipates that a saving of 8s. a 
quarter will be effected, when the Indus Valley Railway is com- 
pleted, in the transmission of grain to England from the Punjab 
via Kurrachee, instead of from Calcutta, and already, except the 
bridge at Sukkui, that hue is nearly constructed, and will be opened 
shortly. This saving in cost of transit may be expected to make 
Mie whole difference between a profitable and a losing trade — in 

1 'and'i Colonial Granaries. 


fact, between & trade of the largest dimensions and hardly any 
trade at all.' 

The completion of this Indus Valley Railway is thus calculated 
to bring about a complete revolution in the wheat trade of India, 
which is likely to assume in the Punjab a magnitude considerably 
greater than that which it is likely to attain in the districts from 

* Tb* saving on tbe inland carriage has been made on the basis of the 
ajMdial rvduced rate for long distances now charged on the Ran I ml 'an Rail- 
way — via , In 7 pie* per 100 maunds. The rates on the Bind, Paujab, and 
LMhi line pmrta of which would have to be used both in exporting MJ Calcutta 
a* well aa vU Kurrachee, are a little higher, vit., 25 piea per 100 maunds. 
For tb«t purpose of a rough calculation, however, it will be sufficient to adopt 
tbe Kaat Indian Railway rate of 18'7 pies for the whole distance, especially as 
it may be presumed that with an increased wheat traffic the Sind, Punjab, and 
D»lhi Railway would bring down its ratoa to the lower level. 

Carriage by rail to the port, per 

quarter .. 
Freight by sea to London, per 


Punjab to London, via 


»U0 milea 

a. il. 

6 10 



1.000 mil os 

{Umballn or 


Punjab to London, vii 


ff Islam ill. miles 




1.800 miles 

(Multan or 

Rawulpiu i). 

i an advantage of 5s. Nd. on the railway carriage and 2s. ou the sea 
fiwtfkt. or nearly 8s. per quarter in favour of the Kurrachee route. 

As tan Indus Valley Railway is almost finished, with the exception of the 
bslilss at Hukkui, experience will shortly show whether the line will be able 
to co«vey as 1 ante quantities of merchandise at rates as low as those now 
ehatrgatj on tbe East Indian Line, and it is only the inability of tbe Indus 
Vattsy Katlvay to accomplish this which would affect the above forecast. 

Toarbinir this important question of the cost of carriage of grain, I note 
wttb satisfaction the fact that railways in India appear to have increased in 
p i n u tarity since tbeir first introduction, as the natives became more accustomed 
to aaas taarra, as will be seen from the following table : — 




saaaa* or Guaranteed Railways 















:. n; 0,206 


Us^asjs ssaassajsjsj 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

which the wheat is at presented exported. With regard to the 
state in which the Indian wheat arrives in this country, the three 
principal causes which at present tend to depreciate Indian wheat 
are — the mixtures of different varieties of wheat, red and white, 
in the same consignment ; secondly, the admixture of other grain, 
such as barley, grain, rape, or linseed ; and also the presence of 
foreign matter, such as chaff, earth, lumps of clay, and dirt of 
every description. 

These existing causes are easily removable with care, and the 
Indian ryot and grain merchant would soon find this care to well 
repay them, as Mr. Watson tells ua that his valuer found many 
samples of Indian wheat which would have been worth 4s. to 5s. 
a quarter more in the English market if they had been clean. 

Excellent seed can be found in almost every wheat-growing dis- 
trict, and all that is required is that the foreign matter should be 
removed before the grain is exported by the introduction of com- 
paratively simple and cheap screening and winnowing machinery. 
No doubt, if steam-threshing machinery came to be extensively 
adopted in India, the benefit derived from its use would be con- 
siderable. In view, however, of the great cost and general unsuit- 
ability of such machines to the Indian system of fanning, it is 
impossible to entertain the hope that they could ever be adopted 
for general use in India. But it cannot be doubted that in some 
of the principal exporting districts such machines might be used 
with the greatest advantage. It may be mentioned that since the 
introduction of steam-threshing machinery into Russia, and quite 
recently into Egypt, there has resulted a considerable improvement 
of the quality of the wheat sent from these countries. 

The hard white Indian wheat to which I previously referred as 
equal, if not better, to the best Kubauka wheat (which is con- 
sidered the best wheat of this class) is specially suited to the 
manufacture of macaroni, which is so important an industry in 
Genoa, Naples, aud other places in Italy, and being in great 
demand there, the price is much higher than that quoted in 
London. The difference in favour of Italy may sometimes amount 
to as much as 6s. a quarter ; moreover, the shipping charges from 
India to Italy are less than those to England. 

The Indian wheat has been often much used in England to mix 
with our own, and to dry it after a wet season in this country. 
ftl have been made that some classes of hard Indian wheat 

itable to be ground by the machinery in our flour mills, 
recent improvements in the milling machinery that 
is been got over, and grindstones are now replaced by 


England'* Colonial Granaries. 


cylinders, ami the previous injury to the former by hard 
wheat u thus avoided. 

Next to the United 8tate8, India is the largest wheat-producing 
country in the world ; the yearly production in the provinces 
under British rale will amount from 30,000,000 to 85,000,000 quar- 
ters. In proportion to the population there is no part of India in 
which wheat is grown to the same extent as it is in the Punjab, 
the acreage now under wheat amounting to 6,000,000 aores, and 
being capable of rapid extension. 

A very valuable suggestion in Dr. Watson's report appears to be 
thai, an opinion having been promulgated of the very low per- 
Mntsgon of phosphoric acid in the husk of the Indian wheats, 
canaed by the exhaustion of the soil, and that it would be desirable 
to tot the correctness of this opinion, and to have a chemical 
analysis of the four different varieties — soft white, soft red, hard 
white, and hard red, and for the sake of comparison samples of 
English wheats, and of Australian and Californian, should be ana- 
lysed at the same time. Why not also the wheats of Minnesota 
and Manitoba, I am at a loss to understand 7 

As we are well aware, irrigation is very important in a 
country where occasionally the rainfall is insufficient. In the 
eaatriot near Cawnpore, in which both wheat and barley are 
largely cultivated, the mode of irrigating the land is to carry 
the water over the country by a series of main channels provided 
by Government, from which the oultivator makes his own offset 
into a small pond, and distributes it over the crops by means of 
smaller conduits. This system of irrigation from the main chan- 
nels he arranges and maintains at his own cost. The water is 
turned on the growing wheat, patch after patch, in a most skilful 
and careful manner. 

Them are three modes of irrigation in the Punjab — that of wells, 
canal irrigation, and inundation irrigation, and about one-fifth of 
the land through which the canal passes is supplied with water. 
The people may alter the fifth portion of the laud to be irrigated 
year by year, so as to bring the whole of their laud in irrigation 
in turn. The inundation irrigation does not extend beyond the 
river basin. It makes the summer crops safe in most years, and if 
it continues late helps also the winter crops. 

By the extension of railways and irrigation works aud wells 
throughout the length and breadth of India, the danger of famines 
will be practically reduced to a minimum. The famines have 
hitherto been purely local, and the encouragement of grain-growing 
in the undeveloped districts in the Punjab and elsewhere will, as 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

communication becomes more complete, be almost absolute safe- 
guards againBt famines, as when a district from lack of rain requires 
increased external food supplies prices will naturally rise in that 
area, and the surplus Indian supply will be diverted from its 
foreign markets to supplying a sudden demand in the internal 
markets of the country. 

It has been alleged that one of the causes of famine in India 
was the small margin of profit allowed to the cultivator of the soil ; 
that the Government charge him, in fact, too highly for rent. I 
am informed by those who have been recently in India that that is 
not borne out by facts. Naturally a famine will destroy any calcu- 
lation. Still, an Indian ryot has as good, if not better, chances of 
profit than an English farmer has. 

These Indian farmers, notwithstanding their rather ominously 
sounding name of *' ryots," pay their rent very regularly, the 
Government, who is the principal landholder, treating them with 
justice in times when their crops fail, which case does not occur on 
many farms once in a generation. 

In 1840 a general settlement was effected, fixing the amount to 
be paid by each village for thirty yearB, and a similar course was 
adopted in the Punjab. In 1874 and 1875 there was a revision of 
the^e settlements, mostly for a tenure of thirty years, thus giving 
the cultivator fixity of teuure and of rent. This assessment appears 
to have been made on about two-thirds of the yearly value — that 
is, the surplus remaining after deducting expenses of cultivation, 
profits of Btock, and wages of labour. This has been reduced to 
one-half in the revised settlements recently made. 

In Bombay the whole country is surveyed and mapped, and the 
fields distinguished by permanent boundary marks. When fixed, 
the rate charged here was, as I previously noticed, one-half the 
yearly rental, but, owing to the improvement of the laud, is pro- 
bably now not more than a fourth to au eighth in the districts not 
recently settled. In the thirty years' revision only public improve- 
ments and a general change of prices, but not improvements 
effected by the ryots themselves, are considered as grounds for 
enhancing the assessment. The ryot's tenure is permanent, pro- 
vided he pays the assessment. 

I will close my remarks on this important granary of the world 
in India by pointing out that Dr. Forbes Watson's second and 
supplementary report on Indian wheat substantially bears out his 
previous one. At the time of the second valuation being made 
English wheat ruled 4s. 6d. a quarter dearer than at the time of 
the previous valuation. Regarding the wheat similar to the 


Ewjlaiuls Colonial Qrwnarto. 


Russian Knbanka grain he even values it at a higher rate than in 
the estimate of 1879, and he corrects his previous opinion, which 
stated that the Punjab wheat was not as a rule equal in quality to 
the other grain-growing districts in India, as he received from that 
district s very large percentage of sample of valuable wheat. Were 
wo t« draw from India a larger bulk of wheat in exchange for some 
ur manufactured commodities and our gold, it appears to me it 
would be greatly to the advantage both of India and England. 


Canada, as we are aware, is the oldest of England's Colonies, 
Mid, excluding Newfoundland, is the nearest to the Mother-country. 
In looking at a map one cannot fail to notice the immense extent 
oi territory of which thin country consists ; it is, in fact, larger 
than the United States, if we except Alaska, although large regions 
in the dreary North can never add in any way to its productive 
powers or prosperity. 

Hut still there remains out of a total area of 8,346,701 square 
mile* t*o millions of timbered and agricultural lands, uml in the 
remainder, which as yet has been only partially explored, there is 
known to be vnluable minerals, fur-bearing animals, and productive 
fisheries. Taking the Canadian Far West alone, the extent of this 
territory is so vast that the mind cannot form a clear conception of 
it from utatistics. To say that this area includes 2,700,000 square 
mile* u merely to set forth large figures ; a clearer and more 
striking idea of the enormous expanse may be formed when I add 
that it is 700,000 miles larger than the German Empire, France, 
Spain, Italy, and Russia in Europe put together. In the Caniidian 
Far West the population, including Indians, is probably under 
900,000 ; and it is not thought an extravagant estimate to put the 
future population of this territory — when it shall have been ren- 
dered easily accessible, and when its advantages have exercised 
their full effect in attracting settlers— at nearly 100,000,000. 

There can be no doubt that the resources of Canada have not as 
yet been fully developed, and that the day is probably not so far in 
the future when a five-fold increased quantity of cereals will be 
grown than there are now. There are immense tracts in her corn- 
growing zone, the whole of which, cultivated and uncultivated, is 
mtimated at 1,000,000 square miles, and doubtless, when the agri- 
cultural population of Canada increases, will produce millions of 
ewte. more grain than at present. 

Mr. O'Neill, the Agent for the province of Quebec, reports that in 
that district 142,780 acres produced 2,068,000 owts. of wheat. 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

1,608,208 cwts. of barley, besides large crops of rye, peas, and buck- 

On glancing for one minute at the important province of 
Ontario, which has long been celebrated for the superior quality of 
its wheat, and has been and is one of the most settled and pros- 
perous corn-growing districts in the Dominion, in the greater portion 
of this province one finds extensive and valuable forests, which 
constitute a large portion of its revenue ; the land when cleared of 
trees proves most fertile. 

I will now conclude this portion of my remarks on England's 
Colonial granaries by reference to the province of Manitoba, which 
has tens of thousands of acres of the richest and most suitable land 
for corn-growing in the world. In this region are boundless prairies 
of " virgin Boil " entirely unencumbered with trees. This dis- 
trict simply awaits the time when the Pacific Railway or some 
other line opens it out. When that day arrives it will doubtlesB 
attract farmers as settlers on its soil, and materially aid Canada in 
becoming a formidable competitor with the United States in the 
corn markets of the world. For, according to Mr. Taylor's opinion, 
enunciated in many speeches and writings, the North-American 
Continent is divisible into three zones, the southern being the cotton- 
growing zone, the mid being specially adapted for the growth of 
Indian corn, and the northern for the production of wheat He holds 
that the mid zone extends to Southern Minnesota, and he stated in 
a public speech that three-fourths of the wheat-producing would be 
north of the international boundary. Mr. Archibald, the well- 
known proprietor of the Dundas Mills in Southern Minnesota, visited 
Manitoba. He remarked that the spring wheat in his vicinity was 
deteriorating — softening, and he sought a change of seed to restore 
its flinty texture. He timed his visit to Winnipeg with the harvest, 
and found the quality of grain he desired, but the yield astonished 
him. "Look," said he, " we have had an excellent harvest in 
Minnesota, but I never saw more than two well-formed grains in 
each group or cluster forming a row, hut here the rule is three 
grains in each cluster. That's the difference between twenty and 
thirty bushels an acre.'' 

There is a physical cause why wheat grown in the northern region 
of Manitoba should he superior to that grown in the United States 
to the Bouth of it. The nearer the northerly limit at which wheat 
will grow the finer is its quality. At the northern limit of its 
growth on this Continent not only is the soil adapted for it, but 
the duration of sunshine is longest there when the eara are 
ripening; from the 16th of June till the 1st July, nearly two hours 

land's Colonial Oranariet. 


daylight prevails in Manitoba than in the State of Ohio. It 
is not beat alone which is required to bring the wheat plant to per- 
fection even in places where the soil is best adapted for its growth ; 
other conditions being present the greater tfie amount of safer H>iht 
I** bttur the result. Now. wheat grown in tbe Canadian North-West 
is grown under incomparable advantages with respect to the length 
of sunlight, hence that wheat is of the finest description, and the 
acreage suited for the growth of wheal to this region is large enough 
to furnish bread for tbe whole of Europe. Want of time will com- 
pel toe to forbear touching on the facilities of water transit, which 
can be utilise.! in this favoured region with a comparatively speak- 
ing small outlay, or of the railway communication already made 
and in process of construction to open it out ; suffice to say. the 
two rivers Saskatchewan drain what is specially known as the fer- 
tile belt, containing no less than 90,000,000 acres of fine wheat 
land. These, together with the large Nelson river issuing from the 
north-east angle of Lake Winnipeg — a lake destined to be the future 
M Black Sea" of Canada — which discharges its surplus waters into 
Hudson's Bay, form a vast and comprehensive water system avail- 
able for steam navigation w 4.000 miles of the distance into 
Hudson'* Bay. The outlet of Nelson Kiver forms a fine natural 
and «afe harbour, averaging one mile in width, with great depth of 

It is wall known how assiduously and rigorously Mr. Pell and 
Mr. Rcade. the Commissioners on the Royal Commission on Agri- 
tare, daring their visit to America questioned everybody they 
and what great advantages they possessed of acquiring infor- 
mation. Mr. Reade embodied his feelings as a British farmer in 
terra* which were certainly emphatic. Being asked what he thought 
of the eoontry, he replied that he regarded it in the same light that 

• "' Fort Nelson, although situated in 9,V8° of west longitude, in thy very 
I of th" " n»inent, •« tufhiii »>./• « ntarrr to Lirrrpnol than \m> York m. F'T 
■ «•» 'nly. probnM» f«r fiv". rooi'h* in the year it is as clear of ioe a* any 
> of the North Atlantic port*. Thorn in no question about its accwrihilitv 
■«an rteMner* from Jane to OotoV>er. and it only remains to be 
whrthT theae mine ve-sets cannot force their wny up the srreat Nelson 
.-ir cargoes directly at the month of the Saskatchewan, the 
Red Riv»r or the Winnipeg, in the verv centre and heart of this great wheat- 
N rth-west, where 2on,r>nn,nn'i acres now await the advent of the 
►>« rapidly brought into cultivation. 
the present rate of jmmiirration and tbe rapid reclamation of this 
i ultirafcrd land, it i« by no moan* unlikely that within the next two 
i J. 000,000 aorea of this prairie will be under wheat oidtiration. and this 
pro?' *•'-. will be doubled within five years from tbe present time. This* 
as * 'hewhent products of' the world of 100,000,000 buakeli, which 

easy ha increased almost indefinitely " 



Emjhind's Colonial Granar'wg. 

a lamb does the butcher. It is impossible to view the vast expanse 
of land covered with crops of wheat, and of a still larger area of as 
good land still uncultivated, without arriving at the conclusion that 
the Manitoba farmers will prove dangerous rivals to British farmers. 
The average yield is said tu be thirty-five bushels an acre. The 
land requires no manuring for the first twenty years. Ontario 
farmers who have been only a year there are enchanted with the 
country. The seed sown in a Bhallow furrow in the wild prairie 
has yielded a vast increase. 

Of course the question of cost of carriage enters largely into the 
present profit to be made in farming in Manitoba and the north- 
west. Nothing would doubtless conduce to the prosperity of 
these provinces to a greater degree than the completion of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. If 1 am not mistaken, no assistance has 
been given from England to this matter of Imperial importance, 
hut the Government of Canada have already, including the value of 
the land given, subsidised it to the amount of 78 million dollars. 
Whilst the Canadian Pacific Railway will shorten the journey 
between Liverpool and Hongkong — (this latter port when this rail- 
way is completed and the Panama Canal finished, will become the 
ceutral entrepdt of the world) — and while it will both link together 
the provinces of the Dominion and aid in developing their resources, 
it will to a great measure solve the problem of transporting agri- 
cultural produce at the cheapest rate from the Canadian far west to 

With regard to price, Mr. Dalrymple and other large farmers who 
keep accounts, and carefully calculate expenses, are satisfied that 
they can profitably grow wheat at eight to nine dollars an acre — 
82s. to 86s. Now for the expenses of transit, taking as fairly repre- 
sentative Mr. Dalrymple's payment, we have eighteen cents, per 
bushel for railway carriage over 254 miles from Casselton to 
Duluth on Lake Superior. Although this would be considered a 
low freight in England, I am aware of wheat being carried in this 
country upwards of 500 miles for this moderate cost. At Duluth 
one and a half per cent goes for elevator charges, warehousing, and 
winnowing, which probably causes a shrinkage of about half per 
cent, hut which ensures the wheat being graded as No. 1 hard 
Bpring. Freight from Duluth to Montreal or New York will absorb, 
say, fifteen centB., while the ocean transport will cost eighteen cents., 
and marine insurance and commission on sale may be set down at 
three cents. For variation in transport charges and other contin- 
gencies throw in twelve and a half cents. The bushel of wheat 
' delivered in the British port will thus be delivered at 1 doL 10 c. — 


England's Colonial Granaries. 


4». 5d. per bushel, or 85a. 4d. per quarter. At this moderate price 
a profit accrues to grower, railway companies, shippers, and all 

These figures, setting forth the cost of a bushel of wheat grown 
in Minnesota, Dakota, or Manitoba, and forwarded to Qreat 
Britain, are subjoined in tabular form : — 


Coat of growinir 46 

Transit to Duluth or other entrepot 15 

Klevator chatves . 1J 

Transit to seaboard IS 

Ocean freight 18 

Marine insurance and commission 3 

Contingencies for uuhuncod freight, Ac 124 

110-4s. 5d. 

Satisfactory as such figures are to the British consumer, they 

are not very encouraging to the British wheat-grower. For his 

fuller berried wheat, richer in starch, but poorer in gluten, he 

ly gets 8s. or 4s. per quarter more than can be had for the 

spring wheat. But £2, or even two guineas a quarter, 

is all that English wheat can be calculated to make on an 

Avenge of years, cannot, under present conditions, remunerate the 

English agriculturist. 

the (Jolted States the route by the way of the Mississippi has an 

as advantage over any other. Wheat can be carried from St. 

ol, the capital of Minnesota, down the Mississippi in barges to 

New Orleans, where it is transferred in steamers bound for Glasgow 

at S8 eents. a bush. 1. 

Mr. Fowler, M.P., in a letter dated from Baltimore, and pub- 
lished in Tht Timn of Nov. 17th, 1881, givee certain facts regarding 
of production of wheat in the American continent, present cost 
freight, Ac, and considers Messrs. Read and Pell had estimated 
the price at which a quarter of wheat could be grown to pay the 
American farmer too high. His corrected estimate of cost of 
growing and carriage to this country will be found below, and 
the comparison will therefore work out as follows: — 

Estimate cor- 



Messrs. Read 

anil 1'rll. 

£ s. d. 

Cnatof growing a quarter of wheat ... 1 8 

Freight to Chicago 6 8 

|T«w York 6 2 

> rk to Liverpool 4 9J 

Handling m Ameiica* Oil 

Liverpool charge* 2 1 

reeled as 



3 6 

£2 7 9* 
•Avoided on through rates. 

2 1 
£1 15 7 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

Messrs. Read and Pell very properly allow for a reduction in 
freights, and they fix £2 2a. as the probable future price for 
American wheat delivered in Liverpool in ordinary times. They 
refer to speculation as an element in price, hut they do not attempt 
to estimate it. In Chicago it is thought that the price of wheat will 
be permanently raised by speculation, but in Montreal my friends 
think that when crops are good the supply will be such as to baffle 
all the calculations of speculators, and that we may see the day 
when the " bears " may beat the " bulla," and produce an undue 

I believe that, sooner or later, and probably soon, the Eng 
landowner and farmer will have to face the competition of the great 
West, not merely in the prevention of famine prices, hut in thi 
creation and probable perpetuation of very low prices. 

In the important matter of water carriage, the farmer in the 
Canadian Far West has unrivalled advantages. The navigable riven 
cover a distance of 11,000 miles, of which 4,000 only have as yi 
been turned to account. The distance from Winnipeg to the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence is 2,000 miles, and the transit of bulky articles 
over the intervening space would he costly. But if instead of 
choosing the route of the St. Lawrence as the outlet to the Atlanti 
the route of Hudson's Bay be chosen, then Winnipeg may be brqug 
within two days' journey by rail and water from the sea. 

It is estimated that at some future date, when steamers shall ply 
between Hudson's Buy and the Mersey, the Clyde, or the Thames, it 
will be possible to sell Manitoba wheat in the United Kingdom at 
23s. a quarter, and to do so at as large a profit as that now obtained 
from the sale of United States wheat at 48s. 

From September, 1879, to the 11th of May, 1880, the total 
value of the exports of cereals from the whole American Continent 
to these shores amounted to thirty-six million pounds sterling. 
It is not at all improbable that the annual production in the 
course of a few years in the wheat-fields of the Winnipeg 
watershed may be equal to our above-named total supply 
of bread-stuffs from America. Well might the late Hon. 
William Seward, whilst Prime Minister of the United States, 
write thus his impressions of Canada (that region nearly equalling 
in Bize all Europe, which even many of us have looked on 
fag-end of America, a waste bit of the world) : " Hitherto, 
common with moat of my countrymen, as I suppose, I ha 
thought Cauada a mere strip, lying north of the United Btol 
easily detached from the parent State, but incapable of sustainini 
itself, and therefore ultimately, nay right soon, to be taken on 


England?* Colonial Grunaru*. 


ion, without materially changing or affecting its 
own development. I have dropped the opinion as a national con- 
ceit. I see in British North-America, stretching as it does across 
the Continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific, in its wheat-fields 
of the West, its invaluable fisheries, and its mineral wealth, a 
region grand enough for the seat of a great empire." 


I find my time has already exceeded the usually allotted period 
for the lecturer to address you. I am, therefore, compelled to 
abridge my remarks on the grand continent of Australia, which 
contains Mich vast tracts of corn-growing regions, as yet compara- 
tively undeveloped. Indeed, to dwell separately on the condition* 
and ayalema of farming in each of the great divisions of which it is 
i poa ed would of itself occupy a whole evening. I cannot, how- 
rbear to make special mention of South Australia, which 
Colony in 1879, with a population of but 259,000, had under cnlti 
ration nearly 1,500,000 acres of wheat, and this of such fine quality 
a* twice to take the Grand Prix at the Paris Exhibition against the 
competition of the world. The yield per acre having been greatly 
of late years by unscientific farming, the Government have 
appointed a Professor of Agriculture, and it is proposed to 
under his direction a college and model farms. South 
Australia exported to this country in 1860 wheat and flour to the 
value of L I ,<rl :,,o00. Nor must I omit a passing reference to New 
Zealand — the Britain of the South— which is distinguished by the 
production of a much larger average of grain per acre than the 
Australian Colonies, being freer from the periodical droughts of 
the Continent, the effects of which, however, a proper system of 
irrifation might go far to mitigate. Our imports of grain and 
floor from I land have gradually increased since 1870, 

that year amounting in value to £186,000; whilst last year 
they nearly reached one million sterling. 

Although at pro e oa t the exportation of cereals from the impoit mi 
Colony of New South Wales to this country is inconsiderable, her 
clucf export to the Mother-country being wool, of which pro- 
duct we received from New Booth Wales £4,700,000 in I860) 
•tall the central position of New South Wales, the fact of her 
being the oldest, richest, and most settled colony of Australasia, 
and the acknowledged superiority of her harbours, afford her many 
advantages over her competitors. She is not only the centre of 
the group, as well as of the islands in the South Pacific, but she 
ia within easy reach, not only of the American Continent, but also 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

of Asia ; and her situation, therefore, could not possibly be better 
for purposes of trade and commerce. 

The Hon. James Watson, the Colonial Treasurer of New South 
Wales, has just issued his financial statement — one of a very highly 
satisfactory nature. This points out that the receipts for the cur- 
rent year are £908,000 in excess of the estimates, and are £1,400,000 
over last year. The Minister said that the prosperous condition of 
the revenue was not due to laud sales merely, since all sources of 
the national income showed marvellous elasticity and expansive- 
ness, proving that the community were in a thriving condition, 
and that the Colony was making rapid progress. The increase of the 
population in the Colony since the passing of the Land Act in 1860 
had been 60 per cent. One thousand miles of railway were now open 
for traffic, of which 147 miles were opened during the current year. 

When the country becomes more populated, and its agricultural 
resources more thoroughly developed, there appears no reason why 
New South Wales should not have large surplus supplies of cereals 
for exportation, aud a time may come when many of the hard- 
working artisans and agricultural labourers of Great Britain may 
turn their attention to New South Wales, in order to participate in 
the prosperity of the country. 

Two or three words regarding the Colony of Victoria in connec- 
tion with her powers of supplying cereals to the Mother-country. 
Although the chief wealth of this Colony has hitherto been in her 
minerals — her productive gold mines — she has a large (at present 
very partially developed) source of wealth in her land, her soil being 
suitable for the growth of wheat, barley, and oats over tens of 
thousands of acres of at present uncultivated areas. 

Our importations of cereals from Victoria have increased in th 
laBt few years, partly, probably, owing to the increased facilities for 
the shipment of grain due to increase of cheapness in freight. In 
1876, the value of grain we received from Victoria was under 
i'100,000, whilst in 1880 it almoBt reached £700,000, or a Beveu- 
i'old increase. 

Although I notice a steady and a very satisfactory increase in the 
value of the goods imported from Queensland and West Australia 
to this country, I do not find we have received any cereals from 
these countries. Judging, however, from the very good accounts 
one reads of their fertile although undeveloped lauds, the day may 
not be far distant when they will add their quota to the bread 
supply of the Mother-country. 

The table on the next page shows at a glance the area under com 
in the Australasian Colonies in 1879 : — 


England's Colonial Granaries. 




• i 


to « ' 

- I 5 







-T Of 


■a to « <D 

fl r-1 05 *-* 

«o ~* t~ 04. 

fe * ~ s 


§ $ S | % 

8 a s s * 


8 8 S 

J r-« •-" rl 

S •" $ 3 



03 oo •» e» 

S t» m US 
00 tw O 04 

lie 8 





trust the day may be not far distant when the requirements of the 
Mother-country for grain may help to solve a difficult question, and 
to add at the same time to the wealth and prosperity of the 
Mother-country and her Colonies. 

Looking at the marvellous, growth of its agricultural enterprise, 
I see no reason to doubt that Australasia is destined to become 
one of the Mother-coantry'e principal sources of grain supply, and 
is entering on a new era of the " Golden Age." I feel sure that 
some here from recent inquiry on the spot, and from practical 
knowledge, are very competent to speak regarding this magnificent 
Colonial granary ; and I can aBBure you none will listen to their 
remarks with deeper interest than myself. 


Sir Abthub Blyth, K.C.M.G. : My Lord Duke, ladies, and gentle- 
men — I cannot refrain from using a few seconds of my time to express 
what 1 feel is the opinion of all present — our great satisfaction at 
seeing your Grace again in the chair, and thanking you on behalf 
of the Australian Colonies for the graceful remarks you have 
made as to their kindness and hospitality. It is always a good 
thing for the Colonies to see themselves as others see them, 
although remarks on a new country are Hot always very palatable 
— they were not in the case of America ; in my time I can remember 
Mr. Trollope and Charles Dickens writing books that were not 
admired in America — still, the colonists of Australia are always 
exceedingly glad to hear what the people who meet them have to 
say ; and to say it openly to them is always a good thing. The 
colonists of Australia must of necessity be men of energy ; if they 
were not so they would not be there. They would atop at home 
comfortably under their ten or twelve shillings a week, and gradu- 
ally pass away. But the energy that ia found in all parts 
of Great Britain has been repeated in our Colonies by a number of 
very energetic persons ; and if they mako mistakes, as probably 
they have done, they very Boon find out those mistakes, and they 
have in their land and constitution a very rapid and ready way of 
altering and amending those mistakes. I make these remarks 
because I think a somewhat hasty visit to Australia might lead 
people to imagine that the small settlers there were not doing a 
great and good work. I have the misfortune to differ from your 
Grace with regard to what you said about the small settlers of 
Australia. I believe they are building up the continent of Australia 

England's Colonial Granaries. 

into that great empire which it must sooner or later become. 
( Hear, bear.) Now, in the interesting paper which we have listened 
to, and which will be, I am sure, read at the other end of the 
world, and received there with as much interest as it has been 
received here, we have compiled a very great many useful statistics, 
and if there is anything in the remarks of the paper, which I 
listened to with very great pleasure, it was the remark about the 
trade that Great Britain has with her Colonies. It cannot, I think, 
loo often be placed before the people of Great Britain that the 
trade of the Colonies is the best piece of trade that they havo got. 
(Hear, hear.) An immense amount of crass ignorance about 
Antrtralia prevails in Great Britain ; and it is not confined to what 
w« may call the operative class, or the working-men class, or any- 
thing of that kind ; but it is found in the hovels of the agricultural 
labourer &ni in the Parliament of Great Britain. To dispel this 
let as take the mere geography, which is utterly unknown in Great 
Britain. (Hear, hear.) I should have thought that that very 
cartoon habit which the boys of Great Britain have introduced of 
collecting postage stamps would have had the beneficial effect of 
teaching the people that Queensland is not South Australia, nor 
Tasmania New South Wales. (Laughter.) I mention these facts 
it is a matter of daily and hourly occurrence for me to 
ire b-tters from people begging me to tell them where their 
relatives are in New Zealand ; and, representing as I do the Colony 
of Sooth Australia, I am obliged continually to give very dis- 
appointing answers. (Laughter.) The next question in the paper 
that attracted my attention, and it is one of great importance, is 
that of irrigation. Great as this irrigation may be to aid the pro- 
duce of India, assuredly it would be as great in Australia ; and in 
this paper attention is called to what is a growing, and will be a 
very great, question in Australia — the question of irrigation. 
(Hear, hear.) The introduction of large boring machines, sinking 
for wells on the artesian and other principles, is now pretty nearly 
universal in all the Colonies of Australia, and I hope by this means 
the small produce of wheat in some districts will be increased and 
become larger than hitherto. I have heard in ray time some very 
extraordinary statements about wheat-growing. I have been told 
that certain land will not grow wheat which has year after year 
produced large crops of it ; and I would simply Bay, with the old 
prover b , that the proof of the pudding is in the eating— that that 
is the only one which applies to the question of wheat-growing in 
Australia. (Hear, hear.) Try it, and try it again, and I think you 
edl And generally that you will be able to grow grand wheat crops 


England's Colonial Granaries, 

where you have been told that no Buch crops would be found. 
There is another element hardly dwelt upon sufficiently in the 
paper ; that is the question of freights in the Colony. (Hear, 
hear.) Many of us will remember the time when £5 or £6 for a 
home freight was looked upon as the only amount that would pay 
the shipowner, but the introduction of other ships and other 
scientific discoveries have reduced the price from that far distant 
land of Australia very materially, and wheat is frequently brought 
home from Australia at from 80a. to SUs. per ton Then, again, 
we have another great element in our success. That is the telegraph. 
Ships going out there with cargoes telegraph their owners in a few 
hours as to whether they shall accept or refuse freights at such and 
such a price in Australia and other places. So that if we want 
ships, instead of having to write for them or wait for them, we 
have them by telegraph, and get our orders more quickly despatched ; 
and so we can avail ourselves of the markets of the world by means 
quicker than formerly. Greatly connected is the question of 
emigration with that of wheat supply ; and long may it be when 
the question of emigration may cease to be a subject of great im- 
portance to the Australian Colonies. We have all got our different 
feelings on this subject ; but to a young community an increase in 
her population is an increase in her wealth. (Hear, hear ) And I 
am sure that those who, like your Grace, visit Australia, can do no 
better work than by continually telling the people there that they 
want population, and by assisting the people here as far as they can 
to get out there. {Hear, hear.) I have to thank the gentleman who 
read this paper for the very kind reference he has made to the 
Colony I represent. If we, as I have said before, have made any 
mistake in growing wheat a little farther off than we should have 
done, we shall rectify that without any delay ; but that Australia 
will become one of the great granaries of the United Kingdom I 
have no doubt whatever. (Hear, hear.) And I have been pleased 
to notice in the last two or three years a gradual and increasing 
feeling that Great Britain is not England, Scotland, and Wales 
alone, but contains within it the great Colonies of Australia, South 
Africa, and many others. {Cheers.) 

Mr. Halcoube : With your Grace's permission, I rise to make a 
few remarks on the able and highly-interesting paper with which 
we have been favoured by Mr. Webster, and which gives very 
valuable information in a compendious form easy to be understood, 
not only with respect to the production of wheat in various parts 
of the world, but also with respect to other subjects of great 
interest. It seems to me, looking at the matter from a Colonial 

England's Colonial Granaries. 


point of view, that this question of the food Bupply of Great Britain 
opens up some of the largest questions that England can consider. 
< Hear, bear.) The tabulated statement placed before us shows that 
more than half of the wheat imported into this country comes from 
the United States. This fact alone suggests that there is a very 
important question of policy — viz., our relations with the United 
State* — underlying those figures which we see before us. (Hear, hear.) 
Then Mr. Webster tells us that, as far as the consumption of 
British manufactures is concerned, one Australian (and I presume 
that the New Zealand colonists, of whom I am one, are included 
in this term) is as good a customer as sixteen Americans. I have 
just oome through America, and I learned there that every month 
there is pouring into the United States an addition of from fifty to 
sixty thousand to their population, and the bulk of those immi- 
are drawn from the United Kingdom. These forty thousand 
are so many additional competitors with the English farmer 
in raising agricultural produce, and there is no corresponding 
advantage to the English manufacturer. It strikes me that an 
attempt should be made to divert a portion of this stream of emigra- 
tion to our own Colonies, where they would to a very small extent 
compete with the English farmer by adding to your foreign food 
♦apply, and they would certainly be the largest consumers of 
English manufactures that yon can find. (Hear, hear.) It was 
suggested by the lecturer that England might increase its food pro- 
duction ; bat, after all, we must look at things as tbey are, and there 
be no doubt that England's prosperity depends upon the 
of its position as a manufacturing country (Hear, 

EAs, therefore, it is shown that the colonists are England's 
customers, it is self-evident that England's wisest policy is to 
out a larger proportion of her surplus population into the 
use — whether to Canada, Australia, or New Zealand does not 
er. The Colonies have again and again shown their desire to 
assist in such a work. Many of them, and notably New Zealand, 
have defrayed the whole cost of the removal of emigrants from 
F«gUn«< to their shores, and if we have been willing to do this, 
bow much more should England find it a good investment to assist 
in adding to the numbers of its best customers ? It mnst not be 
lost sight of that there is an immense field in the Colonies for the 
employment of labour and capital, and also for the production of 
very many other exports than wheat As to the area for occupation 
it must be remembered that Australia is quite as large as the United 
States; and bis Grace the chairman is able to testify to the 
quality of the soil and the variety of climate which he found in his 


England's Colonial Gntwtrii's. 

Colonial tour, and which would enable the Colonies to make many 
additions to the food supply of England. In Chicago I Baw a 
butcher slaughtering 4,000 pigs a day, of which a very large pro- 
portion found their way to England in the shape of bacon and hams, 
which the Colonies, with more capital and more labour, might 
easily produce. I also found in California that the preserving of 
fruit for the English market was a very important industry. We 
can and do grow equally good fruit in Australia and New Zealand, 
and there is no reason but the want of population which prevents 
our doing this trade. I also look forward with great interest to the 
adoption of the refrigerating process for the purpose of sending the 
dairy produce of the Colonies to England — an export which would 
be exceedingly profitable, especially to the New Zealand farmers. 
I trust I may not be considered to have taken up the time of the 
meeting unnecessarily in my endeavour to show how wide a field 
for reflection has been opened by the paper which has been read 
tbis evening, and in the expression of my belief that the Colonies 
are capable of supplying a much larger proportion of the food 
which England requires. I am convinced that, by working together 
in the way I have indicated, England and her Colonies will become 
more and more united, and that it is more advantageous for England 
to send her surplus people and some of the surplus capital she now 
finds it so difficult to employ with those people, to the Colonies, 
instead of allowing them all to drift into foreign channels. 

Dr. Rae ; May I venture to say a word or two about one of the 
Colonies that have been alluded to in the admirable paper that has 
just been read ? I have been pretty well all over Manitoba and 
Canada, and certainly for wheat-growing I cannot think there is 
any place in the world to excel it. (Hear.) I have seen lands 
on the banks of the Bed River that have been cropped con- 
tinuously for twenty or thirty years without having been manured, 
and producing on an average thirty bushels of wheat, forty of barley, 
or sixty to seventy bushels of oats per acre. The farmers carted 
all their manure on to the ice in the river, to be carried away by 
the spriDg floods, Baying that if they put the manure on the land 
the straw would grow too rank, and the grain would not ripen. 
But I will refer to the mode of getting the crops out of the country. 
Mr. Webster has spoken of the Hudson's Bay route. I would wish 
exceedingly to see that outlet opened up, and I think it might work 
satisfactorily. There is no difficulty at all in carrying a railway 
down from Manitoba to the mouth of the Chnrchill River, which is 
a much better port for 6hips than the Nelson. The harbour is 

England'* Colonial Granaries. 


and it is a beautiful clear stream. The entrance is a little 
a sailing-vessel, but would not be troublesome to a 
What I should imagine would be a difficulty is the ice in 
Straits of Hudson. I have passed three times through Hudson's 
Bay, once out and twice home-bound, in sailing vessels. On my 
first visit we found the Strait so blocked with ice that we were shut 
op for three weeks. There were two ships beset about two miles 
eaeh other, but tbe ice was so closely packed together that 
lady passengers in one of the vessels could walk across the 
without difficulty to the other. No steamer could have forced 
way through tbe ice on this occasion until it opened. This 
was unfortunate, and kept us so late in the year that, in 
■mpting to return, we found the ice fields completely blocking 
the entrance of the Strait and being glued together by newly - 
ice. As the captains received a gratuity for bringing their 
aafe home tbe same season, they made every effort to force a 
ineffectually ; so both Bhips had to bear up for winter 
in the southerly parts of the bay, the great quantity of ice 
to their bows and forecastle setting them down two or 
feet by tbe bead. On the next occasion we got through the 
without difficulty ; but the third time, in 1864, there was so 
ice in the way that a consultation was held about the lulvisa- 
lty of putting back again, to avoid the danger of being frozen up 
n tbo Strait. Fortunately, after a time, we found a lane of water 
lt the shore, and got through it. I do rot Bay that the same 
icalties would be felt with steamers, but the steamers for such 
must be built of wood, and the insurance would be much 
than on ordinary voyages. I think that in every voyage an 
tee of perhaps three or four days would have to be made for 
m ; therefore I do not think there would be much gain as 
to time by this shorter route over that by the great lakes and River 
..awrence, which is longer, but in all probability open for naviga- 
tion two months longer each summer than the Hudson's Bay passage. 
The Welhtnd Canal has just been enlarged, so as to allow ships of 
1.000 or 1,200 tons to pass through — ships which would be quite 
of crossing the Atlantic with their cargo ; much smaller 
vessels having often made the voyage to Liverpool with 
of timber. Dr. Bell, who has most carefully examined and 
a considerable portion of Hudson's Bay, is sanguine enough 
think that navigation may, on the average, be open for five or 
■ix months between Hudson's Bay and England. I should think 
fear months of navigable sea a fair, if not a high, average for this 
itler route. I know a gentleman who is thinking of fitting out a 


England's Colonial Granaries. 

steamer to go next year up to Hudson's Bay and examine this route. 
Whether he will carry out this plan or not I do not know. Although 
at variance with my own opinions, I should like to see this northern 
route successfully carried out, for it would be a good opposition line 
to the one now being established, which will otherwise be a 
monopoly ; whereas, if there are two lines it will keep down freights 
and be a boon to the people settling in the North-West. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. E. Hepple Hall: Comparison has been drawn by the 
lecturer between India, Canada, and Australia as wheat-producing 
countries. I think it is only fair, after the kind of reception you 
have given to both our friends of South Australia and New Zealand, 
that the strong points of Canada should be equally shown. Dr. line 
referred to the probability of navigating Hudson's Bay. That is a 
question of future importance which we must leave to be decided 
hereafter. Certainly there is one point on which we must all 
agree — that is, that Canada is the only weapon with which we aa a 
great Empire, raising food for its own population, can possibly 
combat our competitors. The way to keep pace with the immense 
and aggressive steps made by the United States is through Canada, 
and through Canada at present alone. It has been urged by several 
speakers on this and on previous occasions that emigration is a 
question on which we ought to be able to compete with the United 
States. I think that one fact, and an important one, is lost almost 
from view in all these discussions, and it is that, whereas the 
wheat area of the United States is always under a slow but steady 
process of diminution, the area suited to growing wheat in Canada 
is always on the increase. I think it is a point worth remembering 
that we have in our own Home Colony an extent of wheat-produc- 
ing area unequalled in the world ; and the fact that she is our own 
Colony, and connected with our system of ocean navigation, will 
give Canada a considerable benefit in the future over all other 
wheat-growing countries in the world. (Hear, hear.) This is a 
point, I say, we should not lose sight of. The lecturer has given 
bo suggestive a paper that it is impossible to do justice to all the 
topics and details of so large a question as he has raised. I think 
it is one to which ample justice should be done, and you will pardon 
me for rising to speak upon it. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Saul Samuel, C.M.G. : It was not my intention to have 
addressed any remarks to this meeting ; in fact, I came here as a 
listener, but I have been so much interested in the able paper read 
to-night that I cannot abstain from saying a few words. I quite 
admit, as every one must, the desirability of promoting in every 
way the production of grain in the British Colonies, so that wo may 

England's Colonial Granaries. 


not, is has been said, be dependent at any time entirely on foreign 
apply. Rut I have asked myself the question, IIow i« this to be 
brought about ? The Colonies are gradually doing all that can be 
They are producing wheat in large quantities ; they are 
their own requirements, and ore sending you their sur- 
pluses. To take the case of the Australasian Colonies, although I 
with great respect differ from your Grace, as did my friend Sir 
Arthur Blyth, I am certain that the Australasian Colonies are 
hitely to bo large producers of grain. 

The Chairman : I said it would take time. 

Mr. Saul Samuel : I agree with your Grace that it requires time. 
Those Colonies, with a population altogether under 8,000,000— not 
more than 2,750,000 — and a large portion of that population 
engaged in various other pursuits, do export a very considerable 
quantity of wheat, as their production exceeds their own require- 
ments. Well, when you find a mere handful of people doing this, 
I think they are doing a great deal, and it speaks volumes in 
favour of the agricultural capabilities of the country. (Hear, hear.) 
Bat how are you to increase this quantity, and do what is said to 
be so desirable, that you should not be dependent entirely upon 
foreign supply ? I say that is something very far distant, and how- 
ever great the progress may be that your Colonies are making, it is 
idle to expect that for imu, y years to come this country can rely 
absolutely upon them for the whole of the grain that is required 
(Hear, bear.) I do not like to follow what is commonly 
the practice of persons interested in the Colonies, and to indulge 
what Mr. Anthony Trollope calls " blowing ;" but your Grace 
given as your experienoe of your visit to these Colonies. There 
I much, as you say, that you did not Bee, and I assure you that 
the lands of these Colonies are capable of producing wheat in large 
I well recollect, in the district of Wellington, where I 
many years, it was Baid that wheat would never grow, or 
thai you could not grow a cabbage there ; but the time came when 
the land was thrown open for occupation under the Land Act of 
1861, when settlers took up this land and farmed it. It yielded 
forty bashels of wheat per acre, and that land to this day is pro- 
wheat, although years have elapsed since it was first 
cultivated, without having an ounce of manure put upon it. ThiB 
land is cultivated year after year without the aid of fertilisers, and 
it is this wretched state of farming that prevails throughout the 
Colonies that prevents their crops being larger. (Hear, hear.) 
That it will be in the future greater, I think those who know the 
will not deny, and that it will continue to supply gram 


England's Colonial Granarie*. 

to the Mother-country. But I am not, as a Free-trader, desirous of 
seeing the Mother country dependent on any one country alone for 
her supplies. We hear continually that the English farmer dreads 
the supply of foreign and Colonial wheat coming into competition 
with him, and in order to meet this dreadful phantom there is a 
large party who desire to establish what they call " Fair Trade." 
But they altogether lose sight of the fact that in bringing wheat 
and other produce from the Colonies and other countries there are 
heavy charges. There is the charge for freight, for land carriage, 
for storage, commission, and other expenses, which amount to a 
very large protection; and if the English farmer cannot compete 
with the foreign producer, with this large amount of protection 
that he has in the shape of charges, he ought to give up farming 
altogether ; so that he never need dread that the foreign supply 
can be delivered here at so low a price as to endanger in any way 
his chance of growing wheat at a profit, if wheat is to be grown at 
all in England. (Hear, hear.) With regard to the other products 
of the Colonies, we know their value, and how much they are 
contributing to the greatness of the trade of the Empire. I may 
mention that during the first ten months of this very year — no less 
than 488,000 tons of shipping have left the United Kingdom for the 
Australasian Colonies, including 117,000 tons of steamers. This 
represents an enormous trade with one group of our Colonies, a 
trade the importance of which cannot be in any way over-estimated. 
The colonists themselves desire to preserve in every way their 
connection with the Mother-conntry. Ab your Grace knows, they 
are loyal in every possihle way— more loyal, I venture to say, if 
possible, than the people of this great country. (Hear, hear.) On 
every occasion they seize the opportunity of displaying their 
loyalty ; they did so on the recent visit of the young princes, the 
royal sons of the Prince of WaleB. They mark their sense of affec- 
tion for her Most Gracious Majesty by regarding her birthday as a 
general holiday, and you will not find a single place of business 
open on that day ; so that, so far, yon have the best assurance 
that they are bound to you by the closest ties that can exist. It is 
useless talking of endeavouring to draw them closer — you cannot 
do it. Those Colonies having responsible government have the 
largest powers of self-government, and they will not brook any in- 
terference with their fiscal arrangements. To increase their pro- 
ductions, they require an increase of pnpuhttion. Both will come 
in good time, and with beneficial effect to the Empire of Great 
Britain, the unity of which it is the great desire of colonist* to 
preserve. (Applause.) 

England's Colonial Granaritt. 


Mr. Labh.likrs : I do not rise for the purpose of speaking, but of 
: an inquiry. I think it would be to the interest of this dis- 
cussion if some gentleman connected with South Africa could give 
us some idea of what proportion of that country is capable of 
contributing to the grain supply of Great Britain. The proximity 
r South Africa makes it a convenient territory for the supply of 
grain, if there is only land there, as I have always understood there 
in sufficient quantity for its production. 

Mr. H. £. Montgomery : If the system of Protection should be 
out in Australia, I should not for one regret it, if it had 
ne issue as in Canada, for since the establishment of their 
tive tariff, the result has been that the imports from the 
d States to Canada have decreased 24 per cent., and the 
from Canada into the United States have increased by 
16 per cent. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. Ahtbub Dooolass (Cape Colony) : I am not going to take 
np Um challenge thrown down by Mr, Lahilliere, and speak of the 
wheat- producing capabilities of South Africa, but one important 
of this subject has not been touched upon, either by the 
of the paper or those who have followed him. I think 
will admit that the ColonieB are quite capable of pro- 
all tbi> \sheat that will ever be required by Great 
ice seems to have come to the conclusion in 
r recent tour iu Australia that the climate is so arid and 
dry that many parts where Australians fancy they can grow wheat 
not capable of it ; but we find as a fact that the growth of 
year after year extends more inland, and that wheat is 
ly grown in parts where the very idea of growing it 
formerly utterly scouted by old colonists. The extent to 
which the wheat- producing powers of England's Colonies could 
increased is almost fabulous, if a little judicious inducement were 
oat to them. And England ought to obtain all her foreign 
from them, admitting, as we must do, that the colonists 
are much better consumers, in proportion to their numbers, of the 
lafactures of Great Britain than the United States are. Why 
i that 1 Because the Colonies have not yet large manufac- 
turing power, and are therefore not yet competitors with 
gland. But the day will come when the Colonies will wish to 
their own manufacturers, the same as the United States are. 
fact, with all Colonies, after the first flush of success following 
on the taking up of their land, and the money being made on the 
first-fruits of the virgin soil, there comes a time when the colonists 
to become manufacturing countries too, and they turn with 


England's Colonial Granarieg. 

a natural instinct to protecting their own manufactures. (Hear, 
hear.) We cannot help seeing that there is a sort of instinct in 
all new countries, in spite of all that political economists can 
write to the contrary, which makes them turn to Protect! 
(Hear, hear.) Just as America haB turned to Protection, so have 
Victoria and Canada. 80 we have to meet the question, If the 
Colonies could produce all the grain required in Great Britain, 
would she be better off than by being supplied from America f 
Very little so. Because, as the colonists went in for protective 
duties, they would be no better consumers of British manufactures 
than the United States are now. I therefore think that we ought to 
consider the question whether the real policy of Great Britain 
would not be to federate in some way with her Colonies, and 
admit Colonial corn free of duty, while she taxes all foreign corn ; 
and at the same time the Colonies should agree not to protect 
themselves in their manufactures as against Great Britain. If 
confederation means anything, I think it must mean Free-trade 
amongst the different states of a United Empire. (Hear, hear.) 
We will grow the grain you want with a population drawn from 
Great Britain, and at the same time we will take your manu- 
factures free, with no protection, as against each other, but free 
to protect ourselves against foreign competition. (Loud applause.) 

Captain Bedford Put : I think this discussion is so important 
that I should like, with your permission to adjourn the debate. 
I suppose in the future volumes of this Institute there will be no 
paper that will take a higher rank than that of my friend who 
has read hi3 paper to-night ; and as the question of Free-trade 
has been raised, and we have strong opinions on that point, I 
Bhall, with your permission, move that the debate be adjourned. 

Mr. Frederick Young: Perhaps yon will allow me to say one single 
word on what Captain Bedford Pim has said. It is now only five 
minutes past ten, and we do not usually adjourn until half-past, 
and, unless there is likely to be a great accession of speakers, I 
think it would be desirable that we should close the discussion, if 
we can, to-night. 

The Chairman : Perhaps Captain Bedford Pim will make any 
remarks he may wish now. 

Captain Bedford Pim : It seems to me that the real question we 
have to decide is the unity of the Empire. That is the sort of 
thing we want to go in for in this Institute, because there seems to 
be the very greatest division between the Colonies and the Mother- 

<untry, inasmuch as the Mother-country is a Free-trader, whilst 

e colonists are strict Protectionists — and small blame to them. 

England'* Colonial Granaries. 


(No, do. and hear, hear.) I am very glad to find they are Protec- 
tionists I think aa Protectionists they are much more likely to 
advance their own interests than by any other system ; but, never- 
theless, there is that feeliug between the Mother-country aud the 
Colooiee, and I think it is a great pity that there should be such 
dirTerroces. When one sees the amount of grain they are capable 
at — "«*ing into this country, it is enough to make one's mouth 
water ; hot I agree with the last speaker, that if the United States 
continue to send us grain they will oarry off the trade, because the 
Colonies have much farther to send their grain than the Americans. 
I do not see how the Colonies are going to compete unless we bind 

to the Mother-country '* with hooks of steel " — admitting 
grain free and taxing the foreigner, otherwise there is no hope 
whatever of our obtaimug from them the grain which we want. 
What inducement can we hold out to the Colonies to become Free- 
traders ? Can we protect them in any way ? I venture to say, as 
»muhu who has seen a great deal of hard service, that we are at 
present utterly and totally incapable of protecting our Colonies. 
We have not got a single ironclad in the British navy at this 

it capable of blockading an enemy's pores in the winter 
(Laughter, No, no, and Hear, hear.) I suppose there is 

aan in this room who would say that I do not know my 

i, and therefore I say, show me one single ironclad capable 

performing this work. Then, again, I say we have not any 

capable of convoying a hYet of wheat ships from San 
Freocwco. (No, no.) Gentlemen may say " No, no,'' but these 
axe facts. (Renewed laughter.) I challenge anyone to tell me one 

anarmoured cruiser in Her Majesty's service capaple of con- 

a fleet of grain ships from California. Well, if we are 

i to defend our Colonies, do you think the Colonies care to 
be talked to by a worn-out old creature like us ? (Laughter.) It 
it (air to look at both sides of the question. There must be a quid 
pro fee ; the Colonies are the gems of the British Crown, but the 
Mother-coon try is totally unable to defend those Colonies in any 
(Oh, oh.) I pledge my reputation that there is not a single 
el in Her Majesty's navy capable of doing the duty I have 

ued to-night — not a single one I I should like to have seen 
this debate continued. I rose simply to move the adjournment of 
the debate, so that men more capable than myself might have gone 
into the particulars of the question. My only desire is earnest, real 
love of my country ; and I am quite sure that if the Colonies were 
really united to the Mother-country we could defy the whole world ; 
and »uroly that is a policy that any Englishman ought to try hi* 



England'* Colonial Granariet. 

wry beat to carry out. (Hear, hear.) Yon cannot do that unless 
yoa o»n give your Colonies some qw'd pro quo. We have nothing to 
offer them. If yoa cannot say to your Colonies, " We will defend 
you against all comers," how can you expect the Colonies to be 
brimful of patriotism and devoted to you ? They are finding out 
that they must paddle their own canoe. I believe the feeling is 
growing every day stronger and stronger of estrangement between 
the Colonies and the Mother-country. (No, no.) I don't care 
what anybody says ; I have seen it, and I believe it ; and I believe 
this, that gentlemen who are saying " No," feel the truth of what 
I am saying in their hearts. (No, no.) What those ought to do 
who value our Colonies is to do their utmost to make them rich 
and powerful ; but we are not doing anything of the sort The 
gentleman who spoke before me advocated going to the cheapest 
market, irrespective of national feeling. I have always looked 
upon everything cheap as being nasty ; what you really want is 
your goods at a reasonable cost. No one can object to pay a 
reasonable Bum for a good article ; but we don't do that at all, 
and the consequence is adulteration everywhere. As to English 
Free-trade, can there be anything more monstrous than the whole 
thing? (Roars of laughter.) Gentlemen may laugh, but I am 
quite prepared to prove that our Free-trade in its inception was a 
falsehood from beginning to end. I am prepared to prove this. 
The three F'a of British Free-trade are the falsehood, the fallacy, 
and the failure of Free-trade. (Laughter.) It will ultimately 
estrange oar Colonies from us. (No, no.) There is no question 
about it ; no other nation has followed our example. Every 
prophecy that Messrs. Cobden and Bright uttered about Free-trade 
has turned out to be incorrect. We were told that we should 
have no more wara, for example. But ever since I became a 
grown man, say since 1850, we have had a war declared on the 
average every two years and a half in this country. Do you call 
that a proof that Free-trade must produce goodwill among nations, 
as boldly asserted by Cobden and Bright ? 

Mr. Frederick Yoctnq : I do think we cannot go into these great 
party political questions at our meetings 

Captain Bedford Pim (deprecatingly) : Young, I have sat down ; 
don't fire ; you need not go on any more ; I shall not say another 

Mr. Young resumed his seat, and so did the gallant captain, 
amidst a roar of laughter. 

The Chairman : Before I refer to Mr. Webster's paper, I must 
assure Captain Bedford Pirn that in all my travels in Australia 

Engbind'a Colonial Granaries. 


an I New Zealand, I saw not only no symptom of any estrange- 
■t from the old country, but very much to the contrary, as I 
link with the Hon. Saul Simuel that thev are more demonstra- 
tively loyal than we are in England, and I hope they will remain 
Cheers.) Sir Arthur Blyth took mo to task for the few words 
I said about the " selectors." Now in the course of ray obser- 
I could not refer to South Amtralia, for, unfortunately, 
I saw very little of that Cuonv. I know it is a great wheat- 
: country ; bnt all the experience I had of South Australia 
was a visit to Adelaide and a shipwreck. (Laughter.) And when 
[ spoke about selectors, I was thinking more — in fact, I was 
only— of those in Victoria, New S >uth Wales, and 
id ; and I said that the system in Queensland was much 
for their occupation. Instead of throwing the whole 
atry open to selection, they only open certain selected districts 
eh they consider most available for selection, and these are 
districts which are, either from climatic circumstances, or 
proximity to markets and better means of communication, 
in which the selectors are more likely to thrive. What I 
id fault with in New South Wales and Victoria was the in- 
aate manner of selection. The corn-gTowers have been 
very successful in some instances. There was one, I remember, 
Wellington, a wealthy, substantial man, and proud of his 
j he met me there. I also saw on the river that ran down 
to the Vfacqnane from the North, a magnificent crop of wheat 
ig on the land near that river. So that I have no doubt in 
places, where the circumstances are suitable, the selectors 
in New South Wales and Victoria, have been eminently 
But still I think that as a general principle the way in 
rhich selection has been managed in New South Wales and Victoria 
not been so good as that in Queensland Then there is 
question with regard to population. Now, Sir Arthur 
lyth teemed to me to wish me to bear my testimony in favour of 
population. I am most willing to do so. Not only would 
itinn from this country greatly relieve the congestion of popu- 
i winch is experienced here, but it would be to the great advantage 
i themselves to go out. Nevertheless it is, as Sir Arthur 
Blyth said, the one thing which the Colonics require, and I think 
be no greater mistake made by anyone than is made by 
i working classes of the Colonies, namely, their jealousy of other 
coming out and settling among them. They fancy 
er working-men wonld compete with them, and reduce their 
Now, I am certain there can be no greater mistake. The 

52 England's Colonial Granaries. 

more labour there is there, as long as there is capital to employ it 
the more employment there will be, ami the existing working-men, 
if more of their class come out, will then become employers of 
labour instead of remaining working-men. I am most willing to 
bear my testimony in opposition to the delusion which, I fear, is 
very prevalent in the majority of the constituencies in the Colonies 
on that subject. Mr. Halcombe referred to the production of fruit, 
and I can bear out every word he said. In the New England 
district of New South Wales fruits of all kinds are excellent. After 
all, the Colonies are not so backward in their knowledge how to 
preserve fruit. I have eaten the most delicious preserved fruit, 
which had been preserved by a man named Skinner in Brisbane, 
as well preserved as any tinned fruits that I have seen in any 
part of the world, not too sweet, but well done ; the pine-apples 
were excellent, and their preserved turtle, for soup, was equally 
good. Well, Mr. Webster referred to the reclamation of waste 
land. Now, I have no doubt that any land that is worth reclaiming 
would be, and has been, reclaimed, long ago. The land that is 
not reclaimed is that which is not worth it, and is better left in the 
wild state, to feed a few sheep or rough cattle upon, than to go to 
the enormous expense of trying to prepare it for agriculture. He 
mentioned the Duke of Sutherland. The reason why the Duke 
spent enormous sums of money in reclaiming his land was that he 
might have some for agriculture to put with his sheep farms. I 
believe his reclamation was equal to the fee -simple of good land. 
With him it was a useful expense, for it made his sheep farm much 
more valuable pasturage for the sheep. Mr. Webster went on to 
say the best way was to take the people to the land, instead of 
bringing the land to the people : in that I agree. I think I have 
nothing more to do but to thank Mr. Webster for his able and 
interesting paper, and I congratulate him upon receiving sue 
encomiums from everyone who has spoken. (Loud applause.) 

Mr. Robert G. Webster : My Lord Duke, ladies, and gentle 
men, — lean assure you I deeply appreciate the honour you have done 
me, and I will be brief in acknowledging the same. As you are 
aware, I have endeavoured to-night to point out the sources from 
whence our extraneous supply of grain is derived, and have al»o 
indicated that in the future we may anticipate an increased and not 
a diminished demand for cereak in this country. I have also 
Bhown that from British Colonies (so to speak, " grown out-of- 
doors ") a large percentage, if not all, our demand for cereals could 
be supplied. I noticed that one speaker raised a subject foreign to 
the question before this meeting to-night — that was, the respective 

KnijhuuVt Colonial Granaries. 


advantages of Free Trade or Fair Trade ; in fact, it was like shaking 
a red rug in the face of ahull. (Laughter.) The result has been the 
remark* my gallant friend has just addressed to you. But, I contend, 
the development of " England's Colonial granaries" has very little, if 
any, connection with this moot question. The increase of the wealth 
of our Colonies ought to be a question we should all unite in advocat- 
ing, for that increase in their wealth could he clearly proved to 
add also to our own. We all know a good harvest in England is 
the beat impetus to our manufacturing industries. The day may 
aria* when a good harvest in " Greater Britain " may be acknow- 
ledged also to be a great advantage to ourselves. (Hear, hear.) 
Success, 1 acknowledge, does not, from various reasons, attend all 
who emigrate or invest their capital in the Colonies. Still, thousands 
have succeeded, and these pioneers of progress in civilisation and 
wealth in the fair lands of Oreater Britain have already reaped, and 
will in future probably to a greater extent reap, a golden harvest 
from the vaat resources of England's Colonial granaries. (Applause.) 
I again tender my thanks to this representative assembly for the 
favourable manner in which the remarks I have had the honour to 
make to-night have been received. (Cheers.) 



The Second Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held on 
Tuesday, the 13th December, 1881, at the Grosvenor Gallery 
Library, 186, New Bond Street, W. In the absence of His Grace 
the Duke of Manchester, K.P., Chairman of Council, Sir Hbnrt 
Barely, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Member of Council, presided. Amongst 
those present were the following : — 

Captain Reginald Hart, V.C., R.E. ; Eon. William Grant, M.L.C. 
(Sierra Leone), Messrs. G. Molineux, T. A Wall (Civil-Commandant, 
British Sherbro"), Samuel Weil (Cape Colony), Stephen Cracknall, H. P. 
Hackman, W. H. Wilson (Queensland), J. A. W. Wallinger, John Lane, 
G. Watson, Captain J. C. R. Colomb, R.M.A. ; Captain H. F. Richmond, 
(Assistant Colonial Secretary, Sierra Leone), Messrs. H. Carrington 
Wilson, J. B. Gill, Mr. Robert G. Webster, Captain Seaheld Grant (Duku 
of Cornwall's L. I.), Captain J. 8. Hay, Messrs. W. G. Lardner, W. H. 
Robinson, W. T. Evans, F. Evans, C.M.G. (Sierra Leone), Alexander H. 
Grant, Rev. Ponsonby A. Lyons, Captain E. Knapp Barrow, C.M.G. ; 
Messrs. John Shaw (late Madras), C. W. E. Pineo, E. K. Blyth, Fred. 
Dutton (South Australia), Commander Cameron, R.N., C.B. ; Mr. W. F. 
Wilson (Queensland), Mrs. James Martin, Miss Murray, Dr. J. J. Lam- 
prey (West Africa), Mbsbtb. Edwin AdolpbuB (Police Magistrate, Sierra 
Leone), C. L. Payne (British Guiana), George Wedlake, W. L. Shepherd, 
Ernest H. Gough, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Cockburn {British Honduras), 
Messrs. John Lees (New Zealand), A. C. Lees, F. P. Labilliere, Edward 
Chapman, John S. Southlan (Sydney), G. Onnond (New Zealand), A. S. 
G. Carlyon, Hon. J. H. Phillips, M.L.C. (British Honduras), G. G. M. Nicol. 
B.A. (Sierra Leone), Louis de Sonza, Alexander Sim, J. R. Boyd, Paget 

A. Wade, Henry K. Davson (British Guiana), N. E. Lewis (Tasmania), 
Walter J. Clark (Victoria), C. H. Beard (St. Kitts), Alexander Landale 
(Victoria), T. Walters, John Munro (Victoria), C. E. Atkinson (Cape 
Colony), Lewis A. Vintcent, M.L.A. (Cape Colony), J. V. Irwin, F. 
Bowles, Alexander Rogers, Mrs. A. A. WehBter, Mr. and Mrs. C. Graham 
Rosenbush (late of Sierra Leone), Messrs. A. Weldou, S. H. Shepherd, 
T. B. Splatt, Miss Sachett, Mr. J nines R. Saunders (M.L.C, Natal), tEm 

B. Saunders (Natal), Miss Rea, Mr. E. W. Hervey, Captain Sandwitn, 
Mr. W. R. Gray, Miss E. M. Gray, Messrs. A. Hebron (Sierra Leone), 
G. J. Lumpkin (Sierra Leone), H, E. Eardley, A. S. Giles, J. S. Smith, 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Blecknra, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Brown, Mr. and Mrs. 
Viotor Bauer, Mr. William Griffith, Captain Stevens (Natal), Messrs. H. 
G. Hooks, A. Mackenzie Mackay, Walter Paton, Rev. R. Lane, Messrs. 
Sidney Webb, Charles Webb, Major aud Mrs. Allinson, Mrs. W. Carey 
Hobson, Mr. and Mrs. T. J. AHdridge, Miss Alldridge, Mr. Edward 
Morrice, Lieut. W. G. Grant (2nd Bat. Lincolnshire Regt.), Richard 
Lloyd, Mr. Francis WalliDger, Miss Marion Wahinger, Miss Iv\ \\ al- 

Second Ordinary General Meeting. 


r, Mr. John Colebrook, Mr. Frederick Young (Honorary Secretary), 
Osrptain J. J. Kendall (late Colonial Secretary, Sierra Leone), Messrs. F. 
Gwynue. C. Pfoundea, Alex. Stavely-Hill, Q.C., M.P. 

Mr. Fekoskick Yoono (Honorary Secretary) read the Minutes of 
Pint Ordinary General Meeting, which were confirmed, and 
announced that the following gentlemen had been elected Fellowa 
■dm the last Ordinary General Meeting : — 

Beaident Fellowa : — 

R. B«aaehamp Downall, Esq. (late M.L.C. Ceylon), Richard Lloyd, 
Eaq.. G. M. Men vale, Esq. (New South Wales), F. J. Mouat, Esq., M.D., 
H. Moocneff Paul, Esq., W. J. Russell, Esq., C. W. Sanson, Esq. (late 
M.L.A. New South Wales), A. F. Somerville, Esq. 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Walter Bolus, Esq. (Cape Colony), Hon. H. W. Chantrell (Trinidad). 
Chariest Grant, Esq. (Jamaica), Captain J. J. Kendall (late Sierra Lnone). 
Thomas King, Esq. (South Australia), H. A. Keep, Esq. (New South 
WalM.l, H. L. Stables, Esq. (Cape Colony). 

The following donations of books, pamphlets, &c, have been 
presented to the Institute by the undermentioned : — 

The Government of New South Wales : 

Parliamentary Debates, 1881. 
The Government of Victoria : 

Parliamentary Papers, 1881. 
The Government of Western Australia : 

Blue Books, 1880. 
The Legislative Assembly of Quebec : 

Sessional Papers, Vol. XIII., 1879. 
The Agent-General for New Sonth Wales : 

Registrar-General's Report on the Vital Statistics of Sydney. 
The Agent- General for Queensland: 

Parliamentary Papers and Reports, 1881. 
The Manchester Public Library : 

Twenty-Ninth Annual Report, 1860-81. 
The Nora Scotia Historical Society : 

Annual Report of the Library Commissioners 1880. 
The Royal Geographical Society : 

Proceedings of the Society, December, 1881. 
U. H. Black, Esq., M.L.A. : 

Statistics on the Seventy-sis Working Sugar Estates at 
Mackay, Queensland, 1881. 
C- D. Collet, Esq. : 

The Diplomatic Review, 1B71 to 1877. 
Sir Joho Coode : 

Photograph of Colombo Harbour, Ceylon. 

56 Second Ordinary General Meeting. 

W. T. Thistleton Dyer, Esq. : 

.Report on the Progresa and Condition of the Royal Gardens 
at Kew, 1880. 
H. W. Freeland, Esq. : 

Elegy on the Death of James A. Garfield. By the Donor. 
H. H. Hayter, Esq., Government Statist, Victoria : 

Census of Victoria, 1881. 
Mrs. Edward Henty : 

Portrait of the late Mr. Edward Henty, Pioneer of Victoria. 
Dr-Emil Holub: 

The Colonisation of Africa (Pamphlet). By the Donor. 
Falconer Larkworthy, Esq. : 

New Zealand Revisited by the Donor (Pamphlet). 
W. J. Patterson. Esq. : 

Proceedings of the Dominion Board of Trade, 1879. 
Henry Prestoe, Esq., Trinidad: 

Report on the Botanic Gardens, 1880. 
C, Graham-Rosenbush, Esq. : 

Sierra Leone : its Commercial Position and Prospects. By 
the Donor, 1881. 
J. 8. Segre, Esq. : 

Supplement to the Jamaica Gazette, October 20, 1881. 

The Chairman then called upon the Hon. T. Eibely Griffith, 
Colonial Secretary of Sierra Leone, to read the following paper, 
entitled :— 


There has been eo much variety of opinion and controversy 
respecting Sierra Leone, from its foundation to the present day, 
that I must confess to a feeling of some difficulty in doing justice 
to the subject within the limits of this paper ; but within those 
limits I will endeavour to give as full and trustworthy an account, 
as my experience in the Colony, more particularly in taking the 
recent census, and some research, enable me to do. 

The Colony is situated on the Western Coast of Africa, 8° 80' 
north of the Equator, and 18" east of Greenwich. It consists 
chiefly of a peninsula, formerly called Romarong by the natives, 
about 18 miles long by 12 in breadth, containing an area of 800 
square miles, that is, about the size of the Isle of Wight. Its 
boundaries on the north and east are the rivers Sierra Leone and 
Bunco, and on the southern and western shores is the Atlantic 
Ocean. Besides this, there are the Quiah country, British Sher- 
bro', a most important territory, annexed in 1862, and several 
islands, the largest of which are the Isles de Los, about one degree 

Sierra Leone: Past, Preterit, and Future. 


north of the Colony ; the Bananas, about three miles from Cape 
Shilling ; the Plantain Islands ; and a strip of land on the Buliom 
•hore, nearly opposite Freetown, the capital. These additions 
bring up the total present area to thousands instead of hundreds 
of square miles. The peninsula is mountainous throughout ; the 
highest peak, Regent or Sugar-loaf mountain, is about 3,000 feet 
•hove sea-level. The soil is in some places a reddish-brown clay, 
in others it is rocky or gravelly, with an admixture of ferruginous 
earth, strewn with granite boulders. In several places there is 
found in the lower grounds a cavernous kind of stone, very easily 
worked, largely used for building purposes, and covered with an 
alluvial soil. Iron is known to exist, and samples have been sent 
to Eogland. The Colony was fouuded nearly a hundred years 
ago as a settlement for the released victims of the slave trade, and 
it wu hoped that their presence on the African coast would 
prove a certain means of extending civilisation over the whole 

The earliest mention of the peninsula now called Sierra Leone is 
•apposed to be contained in the Periplus or account of the voyage 
of Haono, the Carthaginian traveller in the sixth century b.c 
There has been much disputation as to the exact places visited by 
but it seems to be certain that Sierra Leone is the locality 
aee he carried the skins of the gorillas — long supposed to 
fabulous creatures until their re-discovery by Du Chaillu — 
where he witnessed, to his surprise, the burning down of the 
vegetation by the natives in the dry season, a system of 
followed to this day, but which he described as burning 
jtains running into the sea. This first contact of the country 
civilisation, however, led to nothing, and this part of Africa 
I i te unknown to mediaeval Europe until the fourteenth 
ifter Christ The Portuguese are usually called the first 
but their claim is disputed by Labat, a French writer, 
iys that two companies of Norman merchants at Dieppe and 
made, in the year 1305, new establishments at Serrehonne, 
on the eoaet of Malaguette, the one being called "Little Paris," 
and the other " Little Dieppe," from the towns which were formed 
in the environs of the forts of the merchants. 

The Portuguese, under Captain Pedro de Cintra, one of the 
gentlemen " of Prince Henry the Navigator, visited the place for 
first time, probably about 1462, shortly after that prince's 
In the account of the voyage written by Cada Mosto, 
frum his MS., in the collection of Kamusio at Venice, in 
(CO, we find that they gave to the Cape afterwards known as 



Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

Cape Tagrin, and now Cape Sierra Leone, the name of Cape Liedo, 
" that is," says he, " brisk, or cheerful, because the beautiful green 
country about it seemed to smile." From Cape Liedo, he continues, 
" there runs a large mountain for about fifty miles along the coast, 
which is very high and covered with lofty green trees ; at the end 
whereof, about eight miles in the sea, there are three islands, the 
largest not above ten or twelve miles in circumference. To these 
they gave the name of Saluezze ; and to the mountain, Sierra Leone, 
on account of the roaring of thunder heard from the top, which is 
always buried in clouds." This quotation is, to my mind, decisive 
as to the origin of the name, which has been variously attributed to 
the roaring of the waves upon the shore, the lions or leopards 
found in the country, and to the supposed resemblance of the 
mountain crest to the shape of a lion couchant. This very com- 
mon notion was first published by Villault in 166G. Voyagers of 
strong imagination believe they can see the form of this lion, but 
my imagination haB not yet been powerful enough for the purpose. 

William Finch, merchant, who visited the place in 1607, found 
the names of divers Englishmen inscribed on the rocks, among 
others those of Sir Francis Drake, who had been there twenty- 
seven years before, Thomas Caudish, Captain Lister, and others. 

In 1666 the Sieur Villault tells that up the river from Cape 
Liedo were several bays, the fourth of which was called the Bay of 

The English had a email fort on the river Sierra Leona in 1695, 
whence they traded to the east as far as the Foulah country for 
slaves, ivory, and even a good deal of gold. This fort, however, 
was not long after abandoned. 

The next account of the country is given by Mr. Smith, surveyor 
to the Royal African Company in 1726. He tells us : " It is not 
certain when the English became masters of Sierra Leone, which 
they possessed unmolested until Roberts the pirate took it in 1720." 

Smith named one of the bays near the cape Pirates Bay, in 
memory of the burning of a ship there by Roberts the pirate ; a 
name which it still retains. 

Down to the year 17W7, the chief, almost the only, business of 
the English at the spot was to carry on the slave trade. Mr. 
John Matthews, lieutenant in the Royal Navy, resided at Sierra 
Leone during the years 1785-7, and has left us very interesting 
accounts of the country and its neighbours as they existed at 
that time, with full particulars of the methods followed at Sierra 
Leone of carrying on the traffic in human flesh. 

The idea of the present settlement was a direct consequence of 

Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 59 

the munormblfl decision of Lord Chief Justice Mansfield, delivered 
on the 21st Jane, 1772, that no person could be lawfully detained 
m a slave in England. In virtue of this decision many negroes 
vera deserted by their former owners, and left in Loudon 
mnprovided for. A charitable society, of which the celebrated 
Jooaa Han way was chairman, was formed for relief of the 
blacks in London, and the most feasible plan suggested 
the formation of a settlement at Sierra Leone to receive 

In the year 1787. a large sum having been subscribed, the 
promoters, by Captain Thompson, their agent, acquired from 
King Tom, or Naimbana.a chief of the Timmanehs, who occupied 
the country, a title to the Peninsula of Sierra Leone for a sum of 
thirty pounds, which waa duly attested by a deed signed with the 
mark of that monarch, and confirmed at a grand palaver of the 
tribe two or three years afterwards ; and although the opponents 
of the scheme subsequently raised a laugh at this transaction in 
the House of Commons, Mr. Buxton declared that the mark of a 
Kino; Tom or a King Jamie was to him infinitely more satisfactory 
than the abominable practice of seizing upon territory by driving 
the inhabitants from their country. In 1787, the first batch of 
immigrant*. 4oi) freed negroes, under Captain Thompson, sailed 
in the ahip Sauttltu. which thus became in some sort the May- 
of the new settlement. Numbers died on the journey, and 
fell victims to the climate or their own intemperance 
shortly after landing. The remainder built themselves a town — 
Freetown. In the year 1700 the new colonists were attacked by 
a body of natives, in revenge for the burning of a town belonging 
to King Jemmy, a native chief, by the crew of a British vessel. 
They wore scattered about the neighbourhood, and were collected 
from their hiding-places, with some difficulty, by Mr. Falconbndge, 
who was sent out from England in the beginning of 1791, and 
whose wife, Mrs. Falconbndge, wrote an account of the new 
which is most interesting, being written from an 
lady's point of view. 
In 1791, the company — hitherto called the BL George's Bay 
Company — succeeded in passing through Parliament an Act, 81 
Geo. ILL, e. 55, incorporating them under the title of the Sierra 
Company. Among the ninety-nine names named in this 
I constituting the first body of proprietors, the foremost are 
Granville Sharp. William Wilberforce, William Ludlam, and Sir 
Carr Glynn ; and these deserve to be remembered as the 
of the settlement. They spent in its establishment 


Sierra Leone: Pa*t, Present, and Future. 

and development a sum of £111,500 in the first two and a half 
years of its existence. 

The directors of the company organised a system of government 
under an English officer, Lieutenant Glarkson, R.N., as nearly 
possible resembling the British constitution. 

In 1792 a considerable addition was made to the settlement 
by the arrival in sixteen ships of 1,881 negroes from Nova 
Scotia. These men had served under the English flag during 
the American war, at the close of which they had been placed 
by the Government at Nova Scotia, but, finding the climate 
unsuitable for them, arrangements were made to locate them 
permanently at Sierra Leone. The Nova ScotianB, however, 
had been trained under the American system of slavery to 
look upon agricultural labour as so exclusively fit for slaves, that 
they considered it rather degrading to engage in it; and lam sorry 
to say that a notion of the same kind appears to be far from 
uncommon in Sierra Leone at the present day, and to be at the 
root of much of its want of progress. From these mistaken ideas 
chiefly arose the complications and troubles which disturbed an< 
retarded the infant settlement. 

The Company made special efforts to encourage the practice oi 
agriculture. They offered annual premiums to encourage the 
building of farmhouses, the rearing of cattle, the raising of all 
kinds of provisions and articles of exportable produce, and they 
engaged an eminent botanist, Dr. Afzelhis, who afterwards held a 
high position in the University of Upsal, to investigate the natural 
history of Sierra Leone, and established a garden of experiment 
under his superintendence, besides forming experimental farms in 
several parts of the Colony for the instruction of the inhabitants. 
To these establishments they forwarded for cultivation a large col- 
lection of valuable plants of the East and West Indies and the 
South Seas from Kew Gardens, and a gardener trained in England 
to superintend their naturalisation in the Colony. 

All these efforts were entirely destroyed, as the Colony wi 
attacked by a French squadron and great damage done in 1794. 
In that year Zachary Macaulay, father of Lord Macaulay, the 
historian, became Governor for the first time. By the year 1791 
Freetown contained about 300 houses, besides public buildings. 

In 1791 the Sierra Leone Company made their first effort to open 
up trade with the interior by the despatch of a mission consisting of 
two of their servants, who penetrated 800 miles inland as far as 
Timbo, the capital of the Foulah kingdom. In consequence of 
this mission a deputation of chiefs from Timbo visited the settle 


Sierra Leone: Patt, Present, and Future. 


to propose terms of trade, and a small beginning was 
made of an internal commerce which, had it been properly 
developed, would have proved the best means of carrying out the 
object* with which the settlement was formed. 

The next memorable event in the history of the Colony was 
the arrival of the Maroon settlers in October, 1800. They were 
in number about 550, natives of Jamaica, who claimed their 
fr ee dom when the English took that island from the Spaniards : 
aa they had long lived independently in the mountainous districts 
than, and did not bear the reputation of being a peaceable people, 
it waa thought best by the British Government to locate them in 
Sierra Leone. These Maroons, notwithstanding their distaste for 
agricnhure, became industrious men and useful members of society. 

la 1800 the Sierra Leone Company obtained a Charter of Justice 
the Crown, authorising the directors to make laws not repug- 
to those of England, and to appoint a Governor and Council. 

Up to the year 1803 the slave trade had not been legally for- 
to British subjects, the first law for its abolition being passed 
88 of that year. An English slave barracoou and slave depot 
had accordingly existed on Bunco Island in the Sierra Leone River 
up to that date. Its dismantled remains with some of the guns 
which formerly defended it, the cellars wherein the slaves were 
confined, and some curious inscriptions on the tombstones remain 
to this day as relics. I visited the spot myself in company with a 
picnic party in December of last year, and we spent some time in 
contemplation of the change from former white barbarism. 

It will of course be impossible within the limits of this paper to 
dwell upon many details of the early history of the settlement, 
although there is much that is both instructive and interesting. 
But I fflut pass all over with the simple statement that the Com- 
pany, having found itself unable to carry on its designs owing 
to unforeseen circumstances, such as war with the natives and 
t. an Act of Parliament (47 Geo. III., c. 44) received the Royal 
t August 8, 1H07, whereby the possessions aud rights of 
the Sierra Leone Company were transferred to the Crown from 
Jenuary 1, 1808. In the debate on the third rending of this Act, 
Mr. Thornton concluded his speech by remarking that in whatever 
•pom tho Colony might be said to have failed, he thought they 
had afforded proof of tho practicability of civilising Africa, and it 
would be for the Parliament and the Government to act hereafter 
aa might, under the circumstances, appear expedient. 

Thus formally ended the first company of philanthropists who 
founded the settlement. No doubt they set out with lofty hopes 

to no 

by foresight and 


this Company 

in the British 

a day or two ago, 

the words, 

• Hs» guardant, 

on the rim, 

of the Colony, 

50 and SO. are two 

«€ England and 

its princi- 
«■ of George HI., 
the chairman ; and 
tha hard-working and unpaid 
by Mr. Perehmi. Mr. Canning, Lord 
*« the Government, bnt subject to 
**»• whole of its existence, 
and partly from misunder- 
of the conditions of the settle- 
looking oyer the 
these old controversies, 1 cannot help 


•ad most 
w""* opposition and 
partlr from interested 
standings and general 
merit I most ol 
pamphlets relating to 

noticing that many of the difficulties of this Company and the 
preceding one arose from their own too ■anguine and mistaken 
estimates both of the climate and of the capacity of the people for 
pelf-advancement Bnt. on the other hand, their opponents were 
far more violent in the opposite direction. The truth lies be- 
tween the two extremes : negroes are neither so bad nor to good 
as they have been painted ; they have their shortcomings in common 
with all other races, and those are their best friends who speak 
of thpm in a kindly spirit. 

The fir«t Governor appointed by the Crown in 1808 was Thomas 
Lmllrtm. Esq . and since his time to the present there have been 
so maftja^hanges as almost to justify the witty observation of 
^L that Sierra Leone always had two Governors, one 
n the Colony and the other jast arrived in England 
, change has been of course very detrimental to the 
It would be impossible to enter upon a detailed account 
esa changes which have taken place. One of the most 

Sierra Leone : Poet, Present, and Future. 68 

popular and energetic Governors was Sir Charles Macarthy, who 
bald the post for nearly ten years — an unusually long period — 
beginning in 1814. His name is still remembered with great 
9n by the natives, and Mr. A. B. C. Sibthorpe, a native 
writer, who has jn«t published a history of Sierra Leone, 
of it as "the glorious era of the Colony." The leading 
idea of his government was the promotion of intercourse 
with the interior of Africa, as the best means of encouraging 
and industry, and he sent out several expeditions for the 
the chief of which was under Major Laing. He was 
unfortunately taken prisoner and murdered by the Ashantees in 
January. 1824, which nation, barbarous as it is, still reveres the 
irfmr of Governor Macarthy as an example of all that is brave and 
gnat Other names held in special remembrance by the inhabitants 
an those of Sir Stephen J. Hill (1660-2), Sir Arthur Kennedy 
(1852 4, and again 1871-3), and Sir John Pope HennesBy (1873). 

The present population of the original settlement, including 
British Quiah, which was annexed at a very early date, is 68,862 ; 
and of the dependencies, Isles de Los, Tasso, Eikonkeh, and British 
Bberbro'. 6,684 ; total, 60,546. Probably the population is much 
larger. I judge that an additional 4,000 in British Sherbro' would 
be within the mark. The difficulties of taking a census among half 
civilised people are very great, and the officers who assisted 
me in this labour found considerable obstructions from groundless 
rumour* and the superstitions of the people. 

:he total sixty and a half thousand inhabitants, only 
168 are whites resident, to whom at the time of the census li>8 
i added of floating white population, being crews and pas- 
of ships in harbour. The remainder consisted of the 
fsjlnwintr remarkable variety of races, which render this small com- 
munity a sort of epitome of all Africa, no less than sixty languages 
: spoken in the streets of Freetown . — Mandingoes, 1.190 ; Tim- 
», 7,443; Joloffs, 189 ; Baggas. 840; Mendis, 8,088 ; Sherbros, 
Gallinas, 697; Limbas, 4^8; Soosoos, 1,470; FouJahs, 
£; Iyiecos, 1.454; Serrakulies, 129; Bulloms, 129; Eroomen, 
01". The«e fourteen names comprise all those who may be 
classified with any exactness as to their specific African nation- 
ality. But in addition to them are large numbers of other races 
inextricably intermixed ; descendants of the liberated Africans, 
who number 85.480, being more than half of the whole popula- 
tion ; West Indians, 893 ; and miscellaneous tribes, who together 
■amber 4.132. 
The Timmanehs were the aboriginal inhabitants of the country, 


Sierra Leone: Pott, Present, and Future. 

the purchase of the original site of the settlement having been 
made from their chief, Naimbana. 

They principally inhabit the Quiah country, and spread a con- 
siderable way into the interior. Though their country is divided 
into petty kingdoms, they speak the same language throughout with 
but slight variation. They are pagans, though some profess the 
Mohammedan religion in name but not in practice. Though hard- 
working themselves, they make their slaves grow most of the pro- 
duce, and they bring large quantities of rice, ground-nuts, benni-seed, 
and other articles into the settlement, which swell the exports of the 
Colony. I would willingly ascribe to the nearest of our neighbours, 
and their representatives in Freetown, of whom there are many, some 
virtues if they possessed any, but, unfortunately, taken as a people, 
they have been too truly described by able and observant writers as 
dishonest and depraved. Though not naturally of warlike dis- 
position they bave engaged in many wars, both internal and 
incursionary, which have done more to retard the progress of trade 
than an j thing else. 

The Mendis live at the back of the Sherbro' country. They 
are warriors ; they almost live by war, and are ready to hire them- 
selves out as war men to almost any tribe or nation willing to pay 
them for Buch services, or without pay where they can plunder for 
reward. The English have, however, found them to be most useful 
allies at times. They fought for us as far back as 1838, and upon 
several occasions since their services have been proffered and 
accepted. In the Ashantee war of 1873-74 about 800 of them 
were engaged on our side, and gave every satisfaction. Only as 
lately as the recent Ashantee difficulty they made an offer of their 
services. They are out and out pagans, but are useful as neigh- 
bours in the Sherbro' country, where they carry whatever produce 
they have to dispose of. They are glad to see a white mi 
amongst them, and think highly of the English. 

The Mandingoes are Mohammedans in religion, and follow 
various pursuits ; they are skilful as tanners and blacksmiths, and 
as they are of a shrewd nature, many of them become brokers and 
interchanges of produce in Freetown for the other less intelligent 
tribes. Their habits and religion produce a better state of existence 
than other uncivilised tribes. The Assistant Arabic interpreter of 
the Government, a Mandingo by birth, teils me that destitution is 
almost un known in their country and that age is treated wil 
veneration. Of all the tribes who come to us the Mandingoes 
least mendacious. The care of their aged leads to the belief that 
there must be some good in these people. 



Sierra Leone: Pant, Present, and Future. 


The Soosoos were originally emigrants from the Mandingo 
tribes ; they came to the Mellicourie, Fourricariah, and Soombuy&h 
co tin trie*, and intermarried with the aborigines, who were Bulloms, 
Touko Limbas, and Baggaa. Being better educated in the Koran, 
which appears to be the standard of education, they Boon became 
powerful enough to command the country to which they had 
originally immigrated. Some time since the Government of Sierra 
Leone were obliged to help the Timmanehs against the Soosoos, 
notably in 1858 69, when they were unable to combat with this 
then powerful tribe, but more recently the Timmanehs have 
acquired greater strength and matters are now reversed, the Soosoos 
being unable to stand against the Timmanehs. The Soosoos bring 
to the settlement produce of all kinds, but particularly ground-nuts, 
bsnnie-seed, and gum ; they are reckoned, as Africans go, to be a 
bard- working peeple, and continue Islamites in religion. 

Of the Kroomen as a race of hard-working men I cannot say too 
much. Very shortly aftor the formation of the Colony, the Kroo- 
appear to have settled in large numbers in Freetown, and in 
year 1816 an ordinance was passed authorising the purchase 
from one Eli Ackim of certain lands which were devoted to these 
people, and where they at present reside in the portion known as 
Every mail steamer that comes from Europe and touches at 
Leone takes a certain number of Kroo-boys on board, who 
the work of unloading and loading, painting, scraping, and 
generally during the voyage down the Coast and until the 
return, when the European sailors again turn to. Each 
of- war takes a complement of them and they perform the same 
i of work, relieving the white sailors from exposure to the 
In oases of disobedient, punishment is awarded and adminis- 
by the headman, whose authority over his boys is thoroughly 
As boatmen they are exceptionally good. Those resi- 
dent in Sierra Leone are under a king or chief chosen by them, 
disputes and adjudicates in minor cases of larceny, Ac, 
themselves. The present occupant of this office is King 
Tom Peter, who is also a first-class police-constable under the Colo- 
nial Government, his sphere of duty being assigned to the locality 
of bis own people. Taken as a people they are the hardest workers 
the Africans, and they are much appreciated on board IlVr 
s ships on the West African Station. There is no mistaking 
for they all have the broad blue band tattoed on their faces, 
which commences at the top and oentre of the forehead and 
in a straight line to the tip of their noses. They make ex- 


Sierra Leone: Pott, Present, and Futurr. 

cellent carriers, and are engaged on all expeditions which start from 
Sierra Leone. They look up to the English, whom they regard as 
parental in every sense, and I believe they would willingly hand 
over their country to Great Britain if the smallest promise of pro- 
tection and support were made to them. They are pagans, but 
many of those resident in Sierra Leone have embraced Christianity. 
Frequently they adopt the most absurd names, such as Pea Soup, 
Bottle-of-Beer, Jack Never-fear, and Tom Two-glass. The men 
are of very little use at farming, nor do they make good house 
servants. In other respects their services are indispensable to 
commerce in this part of the world. They are broad-chested and 

The liberated Africans and their descendants are of a number of 
tribes whom it would be an endless labour to endeavour to classify. 
The most numerous and important are the Akus, a word signifying, 
according to Dr. Robert Clarke, how-d'ye-do, and Eboes. The 
country of the former is in the neighbourhood of Lagos, whilst the 
Eboes inhabit the eastern banks of the Niger. To weld all these 
races into one has been always the great task of the Government. 
In former days tribal riots were not uncommon, but have loug 
happily ceased. The last disturbance of the kind took place in 1834 
in the Second Eastern district Both these tribes are, however, 
singularly clannish. 

The Government of the Colony has undergone various changes. 
From the very firBt some Bhare in Government was committed to 
the native Africans, of course under European superintendence. In 
1868 an Executive Council, consisting of four members, nominated 
by the Crown, was created by Royal charter, and a Legislative 
Council. In 1866 it became tlio centre of Government for all the 
West African settlements, but in 1874 this was modified, and the 
Colony is now under a charter dated 17th December, 1874. There 
is an Executive Council, consisting of the Governor, the Chief 
Justice, the Colonial Secretary, and the Officer commanding the 
Forces, and very lately the Crown Solicitor has been added. The 
same officials with four others appointed by the Crown, form the 
Legislative Council ; of these hitter, three were Africans. The 
settlement is divided into districts, each presided over by a 
manager. British Sberbro' is under a civil commandant, as also 
Kikonkeh, whilst the IbIbb de Lob are under a sub-collector of 
customs, all appointed by the Governor. 

The principal towns of the settlement are Freetown, the capital, 
founded in 1787 ; Waterloo, Kissy, Leicester, Gloucester, Regent, 
Wilberfcrce, Goderich, York, Kent, and about 20 others. 

Sierra Leone : Past, Pretent, and Future. 


Freetown is pleasantly situated, facing the harbour looking north ; 
it occupies a space extending in length for about three miles, and 
contain* about 22,000 inhabitants. It is remarkably well laid out. 
The streets are wide, though the houses are somewhat uneven in 
point of size. The majority of the houses are built of stone to a 
height of from eight to fourteen feet, the upper part being wood- 
work, many with galleries or verandahs in front. A great number 
of better class houses have sprung up of late years in Freetown. It 
is a feature of the people to invest their savings from trading in 
house property. There are several public buildings of importance. 
St George's Cathedral, a substantial brick building, with clock tower, 
hau lately been re-modelled, and is about to be re-seated in modern 
style. Government House, once Fort Thornton, occupies a promi- 
nent position, and is pleasantly approached through a handsome 
avenue of mango trees. 

The military barracks are on a hill of about 300 feet high, and 
are built in a commodious and superior manner. There are at 
present about 400 rank and file of the 1st West India Regiment, 
whose presence adds considerably to the importance and security of 
the settlement. Churches and chapels of various denominations 
I, and the educational establishments are well built Free- 
conUins the best market for vegetables in West Africa. 
The exhibition of fruits and vegetables along the well-filled stalls 
would do credit to many a large town in England. There 
is alio a good butchers' market, well supplied with beef and 
on alternate days, beef being sold at 6d. a pound, and 
at 9d. There is a good supply of poultry, ducks fetching 
2». 6d. each, turkeys from 10s, to 15s., and fowls from lOd. to 2s. 
The pork is unfit for European consumption. 

There is probably no place along the Western Coast of Africa 
where such excellent water can be obtained as at Sierra Leone, 
•ad the supply is abundant. Water pipes are now laid down in 
most of the principal streets, and in many cases it has been 
carried into the houses of the residents. The bringing of the 
water into Freetown from the hills and springs near the town is 
of immense advantage, and a convenience which the inhabitants 

EMtate greatly. The benefit of pure water in an African town 
ot be over-estimated, and much of the sickness, more particu 
dysentery, which is to be met with in other towns on tho 
l» may be largely attributed to the impurity of the water. 
As to the occupations of the people, out of 159 classed as 
belonging to professions, HO are ministers of religion, very few 
being Europeans. The great number of traders and 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

hawkers is a circumstance sufficiently surprising and important to 
claim the closest attention of the Executive and the Legislature ; 
nor can the ordinary observer fail to be impressed with such a 6tate 
of things. On the peninsula of Sierra Leone there are returned 
58,862; of these, traders and hawkers number 10,250, or about 19 
per cent., but as many of the Bo-called school children and persons 
who describe themselves as of no occupation are also hucksters, 
say nothing of the transient traders, the percentage under t hi 
head can safely be put at 28. Little good can result to a country 
as long as one-fourth of its people are dependent for their live- 
lihood upon what they sell to the remaining three-quarters. 

It seems desirable that some measures should be adopted to 
induce them to discontinue occupations so manifestly prejudicial 
to their own advancement as well as to the country generally, and 
oblige them to engage in labours of production. An attempt in 
this direction was made in 1879 by Sir Samuel Rowe, who pro- 
posed an ordinance for the imposition of market and hawking 
dues, but the opposition of the trading community was so strong 
that it had to be withdrawn. The same tendency to engage in the 
work of distribution rather than the production of wealth seems to 
be a general characteristic of the negro race, well deserving attenti 

Farmers, farm labourers, and market people principally belong 
to the Quiah and Second Eastern districts, and as a large number 
do little else than purchase vegetables in the districts and bring 
them into the town to sell, the class of people who are most 
needed, namely, the agriculturists, is reduced considerably below 
the minimum of the number required. 

The fishermen produce little more than enough for the s 
sistence of their own families, and the quantity offered for Bale 
the markets is comparatively small in proportion to the amo 
which this kind of industry might produce. 

The real number of artisans or mechanics, who have any right to 
the term in the true meaning of the word, is very limited ; and it is 
to be regretted that in Sierra Leone, where the people are apt to 
learn and tolerably quick to apply, when they give care and atten- 
tion, there is not a greater number of thorough workmen to te 
their handicrafts and become examples to the rising generation, 
youth who has been two years with a carpenter, boat-builder, 
blacksmith, or mason, arrogates the title to himself without any 
compunction, and frequently, whilst he is learning from an 
indifferent teacher the rudiments of his trade, he sets himself up 
aa a master of his profession. There is hardly a single trade that 






Sierra Leone: Past, Preterit, and Future. 


can tarn oat half a dozen men who would be certificated by any 
European firm for possessing a thorough knowledge of it. Of all 
trades in Sierra Leone, and certainly in Freetown, that of tailoring 
is, I think, the most patronised, but this arises from the love of 
drew, which is inherent. 


•very matter connected with Sierra Leone, the question of 
forms a most important consideration. From its 
pineal position, the heat is necessarily excessive for 
The usual temperature of dwellings is from 78 to 
86 degrees. The seasons of the year are practically two, the 
wet and the dry, and I cannot give a better idea of the weather 
which may be expected by those who propose visiting that 
part of the world, for agriculture or commerce, than may be 
from the following table of rainfall, from observations 
records carefully made at the Colonial Hospital, Freetown, 
during the year 1860 : — 


















2 10 



















, , , 



































































1 34 






























































































1 67 























1 17 










1 46 






St . 












a* - 












ss . 
















































1 17 




























- ■ 
















It will be noticed that the rains commence to fall about May, 
and (Motion* with tolerable regularity during the succeeding five 


Sierra Leone : Past, Pretent, and Future. 

months, and the dry season is embraced in the months from 
November to April. The total average rainfall for the past five 
years has been close upon 155 inches, or about five times greater 
than that of England. The most sickly portions of the year are 
those immediately preceding and directly following the heavy 
rains. The reasons for this are obvious. The struggle, as it were, 
between the sun and the rain is much greater, for whilst during the 
heavy rains the sun is much leas powerful, and the water, falling in 
large quantities, carries all impurities before it, in the intervening 
dry season, there is just a sufficient quantity of rain falling to be 
acted upon by the heat of the sun, and consequently the miasmatic 
vapour arising from the ground is much increased. Many 
older residents prefer the rainy to the dry seasons. I must confess, 
however, a personal predilection for the latter. The objection to the 
rainy season is the extreme dampness which permeates everything ; 
even wearing apparel and books are affected by it ; nothing escapes. 
Charcoal fires have to be kept in the houses and offices to counter- 
act its influence. On the contrary, in the dry Beason, although the 
thermometer is a few degrees higher, there is nothing to make it 
objectionable. The climate at this time of the year may be likened 
very much to that of the West Indies ; indeed at all times I am 
inclined to think there is no very great disparity, more particularly 
if the hills around Freetown be chosen as a residence. There are, 
however, two peculiar features — tornadoes aud the barmattan. 

The tornadoes of Sierra Leone are certainly a grand pheno- 
menon. They generally take place after the weather has been 
unusually sultry. Distant thunder is heard at intervals for days 
previously, accompanied each evening with lurid, sulphurous 
forked lightning; in the eastern horizon clouds may be seen 
gathering, and a long arch of dense black clouds stretches 
across the sky, until at last the wind, which up to this time has 
been remarkably still, bursts forth and continues for some time, 
together with very heavy rattling rain. The thunder is extremely 
loud, and the lightning most vivid. Tho wind is very powerful 
while it lasts, which fortunately seldom exceeds an hour. When 
it is over the delightful coolness of the air for some hours fully 
repays for the inconvenience it has caused. 

The harmattan is a wind that blows at intervals for about two 
months, in February and March. It has a remarkably desiccating 
tendency, and, though disagreeable, is by no means unhealthy. It 
comes across the Sahara, and consequently brings with it a fine 
dust, which has been known to be carried out to sea for many miles. 
Sailors have given the name of " the smokes * to these clouds 

na Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 


Article* of furniture may be heard to crack under its pene- 
tratiag influence, paper and the covers of books are bent by it, 
ink in open stands evaporates, and even glass is rendered more 
brittle. The natives dislike the harmattan, and complain of cold. 
I do not think it very much affects Europeans. 

The question of the influence of the climate upon Europeans 
w. however, most important On the one hand, I think the 
expression " white man's grave " — bo common that it is repeated 
■t o n in the elementary school-books of England — is both ex- 
aggerated and mischievous. " Give a dog a bad name and you 
may aa well hang him," is a proverb applicable in many ways 
to Sierra Leone. The pioneers of civilization and the earlier 
readout** suffered to a fearful extent, but I do not hesitate to say 
if they had adopted the rules of living which are now 
tried, they would not have added so many names to 
the long roll of deaths ascribed solely to the climate. Even at 
the Tory first, Mrs. Falconbridge pointed out that sickness was 
tea quite as much to want of care as to the climate. Dr. James 
Boyle, in 1881 reported to the Colonial Office that '• the most ex- 
aggerated notions " prevailed among men of science on the subject. 
In 1BSO, Mr. John Cormack, merchant, who had resided at Sierra 
Leone from 1816 up to that date, stated to a Committee of the 
of Commons, that out of twenty-six Europeans in his service, 
had died, seven remained in Africa, and twelve had returned 
to England, all of them but two or three in good health. In 1880 
we meet with a medical opinion that not one-fourth of the deaths 
■» merely from the effects of the climate. Many Europeans have 
resided in Sierra Leone in the enjoyment of health for many years. 
Governor Kenneth Macaulay, a younger brother of Zachary Macau- 
lay, lived there for twenty years, Mr. Reffall lor fifteen years, and 
I us personally acquainted with several who have resided there 
for many years, and who have enjoyed a large portion of health, 
fact is, the climate of Africa is often made the scapegoat 
- ipean recklessness, and if Europeans who go there would 
lake proper precautions, we have it on the beBt medical 
authority that much of the nicknesa and death might be avoided. 
Great improvement has taken place of late years, in some degree 
owing to the use of quinine, a medicine quite unknown to the first 
aettoa] appreciation of this improvement is 
by the Directors of the Star Life Insurance Society, who 
have reduced the very heavy rates formerly charged for insurance 
of Uvea in Sierra Leone. I admit that the climate is bad and dan- 
though not to the extent which should deter any man of 


Sierra Leone, Past, Present, and Future. 

ordinary English courage from the attempt to serve bis country 
and benefit the natives of Africa in a region where, without 
European supervision and guidance, progress would be impossible. 
The climate has been most ably written upon by Dr. James 
Africanus B. Horton, and I can only refer you to his works 
for further information and instructions for guidance in relation 
to the preservation of health in the climate, and the degree to 
which Europeans suffer by the neglect of necessary precautions. 

Efforts have not been wanting in this direction. Sir John Pope 
Hennessy appointed a separate Department of Public Health, 
Attempts have been made to introduce the cultivation of the 
t'uatlyptug globulus, with a view of counteracting the ill effects of 
the marshy soil, but without success, from the carelessness or 
ignorance of the planters. A better state of house accommodation 
has begun to prevail. In 1879 the Colonial Government passed 
an ordinance compelling the owners and occupiers of lands and 
buildings not only to cleanse their houses in a most effectual 
manner, but to check the growth of vegetation which might produce 
malaria, with many other sanitary regulations, and full power is 
given to the sanitary inspector to enforoe a rigid carrying out 
of the ordinance. The difficulty of carrying out strict regulations 
is, however, known only to those who are acquainted with the 
peculiar ways of the people of Africa. The dry earth system ia 
gradually becoming general, and will, no doubt, be productive of 
good. A plan has aleo been lately proposed by the Colonial 
Office, upon the recommendation of Sir Samuel Rowe, for the 
establishment of a residence for Government officials on the hills 
at Leicester, about three miles from Freetown, some 800 feet 
above sea level, and where the temperature is much milder than 
below. The only drawback to the proposal is the daily journey 
to and from Freetown, in all the vicissitudes of weather. 

The Agricultural question has always been a crucial one in Sierra 
Leone. The proper cultivation of the soil is, and must alwaye be, 
the true foundation of prosperity in any country. The shop cannot 
flourish unless the farm supports it ; and the friends of the Colony 
regard with anxiety the centralisation of capital at Freetown. I 
have been gratified, however, to notice, that the desire to acquire 
land and cultivate it has lately increased to a very great extent, 
and I regard it as a hopeful sign for the future. The Colonial 
Government are desirous of fostering and encouraging cultivation. 
But the people, however, want two things — capital and scientific 
agricultural knowledge. The native implements are still of the 
rudest kind, their hces little more than sufficient to scratch 

Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 


the ground, and their only other implement a cutlass to oat 
down the bush. Ploughs are unknown, and spades little used. 
Wheelbarrows are detested, although they are not quite unknown ; 
the people would much sooner " tote " the soil in a box on their 
head, and instances are on record where the negro has " toted " 
the wheelbarrow itself, wheel, handle, and all. 

The aoil is still prepared for seed in the ancient method of burn- 
ing down the bash, and merely scratching among the stumps and 
root*. There are some exceptions to these practices, but we who 
know how obstinately the British farmer himself once fought 
against new-fangled notions on his farm, need not wonder at a like 
difficulty with the African. 

The soil of the country is fertile, though hardly in a high degree, 
and it is an unfortunate circumstance that no qualified authority 
has yet been employed to prepare a thorough report on the subject. 
I think it very undesirable that any British Colony should exist 
without a full and trustworthy account of its soils and minerals. 
The soil is understood to be least fertile in the neighbourhood of 
Freetown and the mountain district, but along the valley to the 
river from Wellington to Waterloo it is good, and the same may 
be said of British Quiah and of Sherbro'. 

Among the plants which might be most usefully culti- 
vated, I would mention in the first place cocoa and coffee. It is 
well knowu that cocoa requires a moist soil, and from what I 
havo soon of its oultivutiuu in the West Indies, I am con- 
vinced that portions of the territory of Sierra Leone are 
peculiarly adapted for its growth. It is possible that the 
native* may object to it, for it is very hard to induce 
them to enter upon any industry which requires several years' 
waiting for profitable results, and the cocoa tree requires five or 
six. Bat considering the great demand for cocoa, and the 
suitability of soil and climate, I oonsider its introduction of the 
gioalcel advantage. Mr. Thomas Bright has established a 
coffee and cocoa farm at Murray Town. Native coffee was dis- 
covered in Quiah in the year 1796, and a reward given by the 
Colonial Government to the Nova Scotian settler who found it, 
bat it has not since been cultivated to any extent. Attention is 
now being given to the production of Liberian coffee. The follow- 
ing account of the farm of Mr. Win. Grant, with which he has 
recently favoured mo, will bo interesting. It is situated at Hast- 
iugs, on land which he obtained from the Colonial Government 
at atndtng sum, on condition that he would devote capital and 
labour in developing agriculture : — 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

" The plants in my plantation, when I left Sierra Leone, were all in a 
healthy state, and t continue to have good accounts from the manager since 
my arrival iu Eugland. I have nnder cultivation at present over 400 acres of 
land, of which LOO acres are in sugar cane. I have also 40,000 cocoa plants, 
from 9 to 18 months old ; 5,000 Liberian coffee plants, 9 months old ; 2,000 
cocoa-nut. plants, 6 months old ; and a very large area in maize, caMada, 
and ooooo, sweet-potatoes, yams and other native vegetables. I may also 
mention that to shade the cocoa plants, I have planted over 15,000 plantains 
and banana-plants, some of which are now bearing." 

Mr. Samuel Lewis, barrister-at-law, a native gentleman, has 
established a farm, principally with a view of studying the best 
methods of agriculture, and is doing much to influence his country- 
men in favour of agricultural pursuits. A lecture on the 
Agricultural Position of Sierra Leone was read by him at 
Freetown, in April of this year, and contains many interesting 
statements and recommendations on the subject, which time and 
space forbid me to enlarge upon now. One peculiar production 
is the highly valued cola-nut. The Mahommedans of Africa have 
a singular belief that if they die with a portion of this nut in their 
stomach, their everlasting happiness is secured. It is used as a 
sign and token of friendship all over Africa, corresponding to the 
" pipe of peace" among the North-American Indians. It has the 
curious property of indefinitely postponing the feeling of hunger, 
and one nut, it is said, will sustain a man's strength during a long 
day's march. The cola trees bear twice a year, and the nuts, 
which hang in pods from the branches, are some of them not 
unlike an English chestnut. They are grown extensively for the 
African market. The value exported in 1860 was £2,445 ; in 
1870, £10,400 ; in 1880, £24,422 : so that the product iB an in- 
creasing one. The other productions of Sierra Leone which may 
be mentioned, are cotton, but of which very little is grown, ginger 
in large quantities, malagetta pepper, arrowroot, castor oil, maize, 
cassada, eaten only by the natives, and ground-nuts. These are 
the principal productions of agricultural importance ; some of them 
are grown to a very slight extent. 

I had prepared a rather complete list with the botanical names 
of plants in the Colony, but must forego mentioning them for want 
of time. There are, however, many now quite overlooked which it 
has occurred to me might be advantageously cultivated, and be 
the means of opening out new trades and industries. I will only 
instance the mangrove plants, which overgrow the swampy shores 
of the Sierra Leone and Sherbro' rivers. One variety of this 
species is much used in Bind and other parts of Asia for tanning 
purposes. A portion of the export trade of Sierra Leone is in 

Sitrra Leone: Patt, Present, and Future. 


raw hides, but if these trees could be utilised, the hides might be 
manufactured into leather within the Colony, which would thus get 
• new industry and an increased revenue. I mention this merely 
a* a sample of what a thorough botanical survey might bring to 

Of industries specially connected with agriculture, I have just 
fcurned that Mr. Grant is preparing to introduce a BUgar mill to 
manufacture the sugar now growing in his plantations, and also an 
ice-making machine to work by steam power, which, I need hardly 
■ay, will be of the greatest medical usefulness in such a climate. 

A model farm, managed by Europeans, for the instruction of 
natives, the introduction of improved implements, and modes of 
cultivation, but, above all, the popularisation, so to speak, of agri- 
cultural pursuits in preference to trade and barter, are the main 
want* of the Colony in this department. A system of agricultural 
such as were tried in the early days of the Colony, would 
be well worth a trial. I may say that, in common with most 
observers, I have never found the African race unwilling to 
labour when they feel that a good profit will be the result, though 
Uwy are wanting in patience to wait for the result 

Tu lhit»e who are supporters of missionary work, Sierra Leone 
is an interesting spectacle. Seventy years ago it was a heathen 
land : to-day it is filled with places of worship. In its earlier days 
Urn bearers of the Gospel to the heathen located there met with 
many trials from climate, ill-will, and opposition from slave traders 
and chiefs : to-day the various Christian sects are vying in Christian 

In the fifteenth century we read that the Portuguese commenced 
efforts on the West Coast, but whatever successes 
them have long since disappeared. Early attempts to 
establish Methodism near Sierra Leone were made by Dr. Thomas 
Coke in 1796, but they failed. The Nova Scotiau settlers, who 
arrived in 1 792, embraced amongst them Wesleyans, Baptists, and 
member* of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, and each sect claims 
that period as the era of its commencement in the settlement. 

The Church Missionary Society, founded in 179'J, sent the first 
Sierra Leone missionaries (Messrs. Rentier and Hartwig) out in 
1804 — German disciples supported by English funds. As years 
vent on their numbers increased. In 1811 the first ordained 
WesJsyan missionary arrived in Sierra Leone, who has been 
followed ever since by an unbroken succession of Europeans. In 

■ I the Church Missionary work was entered upon in good earnest, 
and their labours were devoted, in common with the others, to the 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

liberated Africans, who were now located here in large numbers. 
Among many names in early missionary work may be mentioned 
those of Nylander and W. A. B. Johnson, whose hard work and 
untiring zeal with a people whose belief was a degrading super- 
stition produced the happiest results. A long roll of names of 
Christian labourers and their wives who died at their post is to be 
read in the various published accounts. In twenty years, from 
1815, out of seventy who were Bent out, thirty-seven died, or were 
invalided, in less than a year. 

By these efforts, and those of other denominations, was Sierra 
Leone christianised ; and what is the result to-day ? According to the 
censuB returns there are 18,660 Episcopalians, 17,098 Wesleyans 
and Methodists, 2,717 Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, 888 Baptists, 
and 869 Roman Catholics. There are still, however, many pagans, 
with whom the various denominations are combating. 

To the Church Missionary Society, Sierra Leone owes muck 
In 1839 they erected a stone church at Kissyroad ; in 1849 that 
at Pademba-road. They have spent close upon half a million of 
poundB in Sierra Leone ! They withdrew their grants in 1862, 
and at the present moment give about £300 a year only ; a large 
amount is collected amongst Church members and the various 
Dissenting bodies for their own support. The first bishopric was 
established in 1852. 

Latterly, the Native Church Pastorate, established by Bishop 
Beckles in 1861, has taken over the ecclesiastical functions of the 
former Episcopal Missionary Church ; the constitution of the 
Native Church is identical with that of the Episcopal Church of 
England. The late Bishop, Dr. Cheetham, whose vacation of the 
bishopric has just been announced, did much to farther the cause 
of the Church in Sierra Leone, and his removal will be a great loss 
to the Colony. 

The question of the success of Christianity in Africa is a very 
momentous one ; let us hope that the dream of Sir Charles 
McCarthy will be realised, and that Sierra Leone may be the base 
whence future operations may be extended step by step to the heart 
of Africa. I would recommend, from whatever point it is ap- 
proached, that the system adopted should be that carried on by 
the Basle Missionary Society, who combine Christian teaching 
with practical instruction in useful handicrafts, and thus implant 
with the knowledge of the Gospel the belief that labour is digni- 
fied and profitable. 

I now come to speak of education. In 1880 eighty-two schools 
were in existence ; the number of scholars on the roll being 8,543, 

Sitrra Leone : Past, Present, and Fat>ir,\ 


of whom 4,711 were boys and 8,882 girls. They were principally 
supported by the various religions denominations. Of the above 
eighty-two schools, forty-five were in connection with the Church 
of England, and thirty-seven with other bodies, principally the 
Wesleyan Methodists. 

Of the schools for higher education, Fourah Bay College was 
built by the Church Missionary Society, and opened on the 18th 
February, 1828, with six pupils, one of whom was Bishop Crow the r, 
of the Niger. At times it has been closed, but for the past thirty 
years has steadily carried on its work. It is about a mile and a 
half from Freetown. It is affiliated to the University of 
Durham, and its students, by keeping the necessary terms and 
passing the required examinations, may attain all the degrees of 
thai University without leaving the shores of Africa. Many are 
now graduates of Durham. 

The Church Missionary Grammar School gives a superior educa- 
tion to native boys. It celebrated the thirty-sixth anniversary in 
April last. The most promising boys of the common schools pass 
Uia one, and the best of thorn to Fourah Bay College. It is 
both a boarding and day school, and since its opening over 1,000 
boys have been admitted, many of whom now fill important posts. 
The curriculum is that of an ordinary English grammar school, 
establishment is now self-supporting, and has an invested 
nut of which the tutors are sent to England for further 
on. I had the pleasure of attending an examination of the 
boys of this school in December, 1880, and I was much struck 
with their general proficiency. 

The Weeleyan High School for Boys is also an excellent 
institution. Like the Church Missionary Grammar School, 
it receives youths from neighbouring Colonies, who derive instruc- 
which conld not be obtained on other parts of the coast. It 
opened in 1*74, and is very prosperous. 

The Wesleyan High School for Girls was opened in 1879. 
The idea of a superior school for girls originated with Mrs. 
God man, the wife of a Wesleyan missionary, on her arrival in the 
Colony. But it was cordially taken up by the natives, and 
they subscribed the entire funds for its establishment. It 
was thought best to adopt the commercial principle, but as yet 
no one has asked for profit, and the school shows signs of good 
p to gKt s and prosperity. The principal teachers have been engaged 

The Annie Walsh Memorial School for Girls, under the fostering 
of the Church Missionary Society, was established from a 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

bequest made for the purpose by the English lady whose name 
it bears. 

The efforts of the Roman CathoUcs in aid of education are Tery 
praiseworthy. The priests have a large school for boys, and the 
sisters educate girla and young women. The Mohammedans also 
Lave their schools, where, in addition to the Koran, both English 
and Arabic are taught. In common with their fellow-religionists 
of the interior, they show a great desire to obtain knowledge. 

A desire to gain knowledge characterised the negroes of 
the Peninsula at the time of the first settlement, although 
not from a very worthy motive. A common proverb of 
those days was, "Bead book, and learn to be rogue so well 
as white man." We may safely 6ay that the better example 
Bet them by the white man of these days has induced a higher 
motive by this time. At all events, they show a great anxiety to 
get learning of a certain kind, unhappily not always the most prac- 
tical. Poor people will make any sacrifice to give their sons a 
knowledge of Greek, Latin, and even Hebrew, but the attendance 
of the children at the elementary schools is very irregular. The 
desire of the people is rather to enter upon professional occupations 
than to work at handicrafts, and this affects the standard of edu- 
cation aimed at. I think a larger development of industrial 
teaching is much wanted throughout the Colony. There are 
negroes of pure African blood in connection with the Colony and 
on the West Coast who have fully attained to the high standard of 
intellectual culture we reach in England, and have gained the Uni- 
versity degrees of Oxford and Durham. These men afford an in- 
contestable proof that the negro race is not hopelessly incapable ; 
and a great responsibility rests upon them, which, from personal 
knowledge, I may say they fully realise, as intellectual representa- 
tives of their race before the people of Europe and America. But, 
at the present moment, what is most required in Sierra Leone is 
the raising the whole mass of the people, by giving to their teach- 
ing a more practical turn, which shall induce habits of industry, 
economy, and self-reliance, and in proportion as we thus encourage 
handicrafts, trade, and agriculture, we shall make the country less 
dependent upon European teachers. Governor Havelock since his 
arrival has taken up the subject of publio education very 
earnestly, and passed a new educational ordinance, the principal 
feature of which is the encouragement of industrial teaching ; 
and I may add, that every effort in this direction will have my very 
cordial and active support, so long as I am connected with the 

Sierra Leone ; Past, Present, and Future. 


I mait not omit the important departments of trade and 
commerce. One of the main objects of the founders of the settle- 
ment was to make it an outlet for the trade of the interior with 
Europe and the rest of the world. In this sense, Freetown, which 
possesses the only convenient and safe harbour for hundreds 
of miles along the surf-beaten coast, has been aptly called the 
Liverpool of the West Coast of Africa. Its trading operations, be- 
yond the export of its own productions, embraces the collection of 
commodities from surrounding countries, and their export, There 
are very huge possibilities in such a position : what are the pro- 
spects of their fulfilment ? 

No less than seven-tenths of the Freetown revenue is derived 
from trade passing through the Lokkoh and Boquelle rivers. If 
good roads could be made through these border regions, and if 
travellers could be secured from molestation arising from the inter 
DMSDe wars of our neighbours, a much larger trade might be done. 
The best efforts of the Colonial Government arc constantly used 
in the direction of preserving peace among them, and a feeling of 
amity and goodwill is sedulously cultivated with those who are 
more distant, by the entertainment of their chiefs and messengers 
who visit Sierra Leone, by the Government. They are seldom 
allowed to leave the Colony without being the bearers of a message 
of friendship, and substantial tokens of goodwill, in the shape of 
presents to their chiefs at home. Apart from sentiment, it is felt 
that in promoting peace and friendship with these barbarous neigh- 
bours, we increase their demand for our own goods, and in advanc- 
ing their welfare we also promote our own. 

Expeditions have at times been organised into the immediate 
interior with the same object. But, in spite of all efforts, trade is 
very much hampered on our borders by internal wars. As an illus- 
tration of this, the recent war in the Quiah country has helped to 
reduce the quantity of ground-nuts exported from (308,000 bushels 
in 1079 to 247,000 in 1880. These wars are not directed against 
os, although we are the sufferers. The cultivation of the country 
in which tbey occur is neglected, industry is paralysed, and the 
unhappy belligerents have nothing to export. 

The accession of territory known as *• British Sherbro,' " in 
1861. has helped to increase trade to a considerable extent, and 
it has been termed the " milch cow " of the settlement. 
Time will not permit me to give this important addition the 
it deserves, but I may state that twenty-two rivers and 
form a confluence near the island of that name, and the 
. native produce brought down is very large. 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

The principal imports of the settlement of Sierra Leone, 
which pay no duty, are Manchester cottons, woollen goods, wearing 
apparel, and haberdashery ; tinned provisions, flour, candles, and 
oil, salt, hardware, and beads. There is a great importation also 
of spirits and tobacco, the dutiea npon which form the largest 
portion of the revenue. The total value of the imports in 1880 
was £446,858 ; of this sum the United Kingdom supplied £321,529, 
or nearly two-thirtls ; America, £45,486; while France and Ger- 
many supplied £88,918 and £26,208. Some five months since I 
counted no less than eight steamers in the harbour at one time, 
besides a goodly number of sailing vessels. This means business. 

This may appear a trivial number, but I am speaking of a email 
Colony. The following table of vessels entered and cleared 
1875-80 will show the increase in shipping :— 
























































































At present three lines of steamers run to Sierra Leone. The 
original African Steamship Company and the later British and 
African Navigation Steamship Company ; between them they furnish 
a weekly service, besides occasional intervening South Coast boats 
which call there. The distance from Liverpool to Freetown is 
8,078 raileB, and the journey occupies sixteen days. There is 
another line from Marseilles, belonging to Mods. Terminck, which 
provides a ateamer every three weeks. The two firBt-named have 
excellent, though limited, passenger accommodation. 

I find the value of imports and exports, taken from official 
records for the last six decades, stands thus : — 

Valub or Imports. Valinc of Exfoi 

1830 £87,261 £71,076 

1840 73,939 65,868 

1860 97,892 116,142 

1860 284,485 304,393 

1870« 280,864 350,317 

1880 446,368 375,986 

* Including British Shurbro'. 


SUrra Leone . Pott, Present, and Future. 


The principal articles of export for the last five years are 
shown in the following table : — 




UJ.wA bu«. 

*.M6 1 3 

313,760 lb*. 
JW.Tv* iritli. 
cwt. qT. lb. 
lB.730 ZZ 
«a,006 1bB. 


M,ll*i baa. 

LITI i'kf. 
•an.wuz bua. 

cwt. qr. lb. 

4.9M 1 I 

17(1.831 lb*. 

cwt. qr. lb. 

n.otf i s 

.**,>.-, lb*. 


«o,B47t bus. 
MM pkgl 
S67.&0U bus. 
cwt. qr. lb. 
3,904 1 14 


cwt. qr. lb. 
19,321 1 26 
HS7.134 lb«. 


WtMt i ■■.- 

aoa.Bn bw 


.VI,'*" IdM 
440,176 trait. 
613,168 bui. 
cwt. qr. lb. 
37,114 7 



21.?00 bn». 
1.331 pkCT. 
247,707 bui. 
cwt. qr. lb. 
6,86» 21 
W.MS hide* 

StW.SlB bun. 
cwt. qr. lb. 

in, on o it 

MM ,838 IIih. 

Rate of 

Id. tmj. 
6*. cwt. 
Id. bna. 

Z». cwt. 
td. each 
Id. (r«.l. 
Id. bin. 

A large and increasing export is india-rubber. In 1878 only 
1,760 lbs. were collected. There has since been a gradual in- 
ked in 1880 Sierra Leone exported 829,080 lbs. This 
is much prized in the English market, where it fetches 
it Is. 8d. per lb. 
respect to the distribution of produce, Great Britain took 
France £148,640, and America £25,651. Nearly all the 
nuts are exported to Marseilles, where there are extensive 
factories ; and much of the oil consumed under the name of 
oil is the produce of the ground-nuts of Sierra Leone. 
America takes the hides. Gum-copal was exported in 1880 to the 
valno of I 18,281, cayenne pepper to the value of £642, and when I 
tell you that I can purchase in Sierra Leone twelve quart bottles 
of cayenne pepper for eight shillings, you may form some idea of 
quantity that is grown. 16,629 lbs. of beeswax were also 

revenue and expenditure of the past five years have averaged, 
respectively, £68,869 and £59,283. The liabilities of the Colony 
ob the first day of this year amounted to £50,687, being the 
balance of a debt principally incurred in connection with the 
harbour works. It is in course of reduction, and the policy of the 
late Governor, Sir Samuel Rowe, tended very much to the increase 
of trade, and the liquidation of the debt oi the settlement. 
The revenue is principally derived from a tax on wines, spirits, 
tobacco, and a wharfage duty of 10s. per ton. The export duties 
axe also light There are no assessed or house taxes. 

Some months ago a prospectus appeared concerning a new bank 
far West Africa, at Sierra Leone, with branches at Sent gal and 
It is much to be regretted that it fell through from internal 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

reasons, and not from any want of support on the part of the public. 
I learn from good authority that the idea has not been allowed to 
drop, and I am further credibly informed that two prospectuses will 
shortly be issued, each having a similar object. As I am personally 
unknown to any of the promoters, my opinion will, I trust, be 
taken as a purely disinterested one, when I say that there is a 
good and profitable field for such an institution, provided it be 
judiciously managed. 

A late Governor of Sierra Leone, Sir Stephen J. Hill, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., in writing recently upon the subject, says: "In my 
opinion a bank is greatly required to open and increase trade in 
Western Africa, and the accommodation afforded by such an 
establishment would tend to increase mercantile speculations, and 
induce tbe natives to industry, and largely increase the exports of 
that country, and with strict supervision and caution in dealing 
with the native traders, the bank should pay good dividends 
shareholders." With this opinion I fully coincide. No town 
the West CosiBt can compare in civilisation, intelligence, and com- 
mercial activity with Freetown. 

Generally speaking, from my own observation, I believe tha 
very few of our commercial men are alive to the importance 
advantages which Sierra Leone and the WeRt Coast of Africa pre 
Bent for trade. The few who have recognised these advantage 
are making large profits, and if their number was increased gre 
benefit would result, both to themselves and the Coast. 

We are not without trade rivals on the Cuast. The French ar 
pushing in every direction, both on the shore and by land expe 
tions to the interior. Owing to French encroachments in the 
northern rivers, more particularly their temporary occupation of 
Matacong, the Colonial Government have recently acted upon their 
rights under the Treaty of 1826, with the king of the Fourricariah 
and Mellicourie country. From my official position I refrain from 
further remarks on this subject. 

Among the features of social life I may just mention that a clut 
similar to those of gentlemen in England, has been recently forme 
in Freetown. It is frequented by European officials and 
chants, and most of the prominent native inhabitants. It supplie 
a want long felt, and has every prospect of successful continu- 
ance. Seventeen of its members are also Fellows of 
Institute. A public savings bank will be opened on the li 
«»* * ->uary next year, in virtue of an ordinance passed some 
ice. It is hoped the people will largely avail themseh 

Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 


loyalty of the inhabitants is unbounded. In 1861, the 

>uke of Edinburgh visited Sierra Leone, and the date of 

lis Tint, October 10th, is still kept every year as a public 

M>lid&y. A town was renamed Prince Alfred Town in his 

special honour. The negroes thoroughly identify themselves 

w>lh England, and claim a share in her greatness. It is within 

my knowledge that Winwood Beade's anecdote of the African 

nlieeman't> boast to a Frenchman, "Hi sar. I tink you forget me 

liek you Waterloo," is a literal fact. There are two newspapers 

in Freetown, the Wett African Reporter and the 

, written and printed entirely by natives. 

In the not distant future I hope to see not only Sierra Leone, but 

West African Colonies, connected with the rest of the 

by telegraphic communication, which I am sure the various 

sovernmeots would largely subsidise, and, speaking of electricity, 

me that it is not too much to hope that Freetown may 

long be lighted by the electric light. 

On the relations of the European population to the negroes, 

would only remark that the West African Civil Service has 

much more popular since the Government has granted 

tits' leave of absence on full pay to their officers, after 

months residential service ; and although there has 

sickness amongst the European officials, I 

point to a single instance of a death, from climatic 

only, during the past two years. There is, therefore, 

bone that in virtue of this new arrangement, and with 

attention to sanitary regulations, to which I attach the 

importance, and further encouragement to officers to re- 

tbere will be a greater continuity of European service in 

be Colony. This will conduce to stability of purpose in the 

•obey proposed and executed, and if future governors and officials 

n the real interests of the settlement at heart — as I know those 

ibe present and immediate past have— they will be able to train 

a generation of natives loyal to Great Britain, and self-reliant 

to dispense, in course of time, with much of the present 

superintendence. The natives are shrewd enough to 

between the man, whether official or merchant, 

baa the interest of their country at heart, even while 

working for himself, and the man who is working 

ends alone ; and I can aay from experience 

they will put confidence in anyone whom they know 

to be their friend. We have a great responsibility, 

not only towards the people of Sierra Leone, but to those of all 


Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Futurr. 

Africa, to undo the ill effects of the bad moral example of the 
traders of the past generation. I have quoted the old proverb in 
relation to education, and I cannot resist the temptation to relate 
a short anecdote which I have fonnd in a manuscript volume of 
reports to the pious founders of the settlement, and which shows 
the contemptuous spirit in whieh even their emissaries treated the 
black man : — 

" Oar guide, Motisa Monsa, wag alao a Maodingo man, but be would not only 
pat at all hoars, but drink gin at all union, and my friend Grey diverted him- 
self with making him renounce hia religion every day, before he would give 
him a dram, which the old boy did very readily rather than want it," 

Traditions of similar treatment have had much to do with the 
non-success of Sierra Leone as a centre of influence in its 
neighbourhood. The liberated Africans of the Colony and their 
descendants, of course, have other and better feelings, but their 
influence with the pagans in and around the Colony must be 
reduced in consequence of past rudeness and contempt of English- 
men. Those days have, however, long gone. Slavery and the 
slave trade, so far as European traffic is concerned, are things of 
the past, except in a contraband and illicit manner. We have 
everything to gain and nothing to lose by a pure, a peaceful, and 
an enlightened policy. There is no occasion to pet and pamper 
the negro, or for a high-strung sentimentality in dealing with 
him. The scars of the slave chain are wearing away from bis 
skin, and the iron which once entered his soul has given place 
to grateful feelings towards England — the nation of slave libera- 
tors. But it is for us now to complete the good work whioh our 
forefathers begun, and to show to those whom they taught us to 
call men and brethren, that they are indeed our brethren, capable, 
if only they are willing, of helping themselves and of progressing 
towards a brighter future as we ourselves are at home in 

In conclusion, I have to thank you for the patience and kind 
attention you have given to this paper. I am aware of many 
defects and omissions in it- I trust that much that I have left 
unsaid will be discussed by gentlemen that I see in this room, who 
are better qualified to address you than I am. 


The Rev. Ponsonby A. Lyons, in opening the discussion, said: 
Sir Henry Barkly, ladies and gentlemen, — You have heard this 
very interesting and instructive paper on the Colony of Sierra 
Leone. You have heard — and, no doubt, have been impressed by 

Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 


the very important fact — that it possesses the only port, for 
hundreds of miles along the coast, which is always open, and 
which is free from the tremendous surf of the Atlantic breakers. 
Bat there is another important fact relating to Sierra Leone to 
which I would call attention. It is not only the best port along 
that eoast, the Liverpool of Western Africa, bat it is the nearest 
point through which communication can be made with the 
UDOMOae and fertile district of the Soudan. The Spaniards have 
• pro verb which says that with sun and water it is easy to make 
I*aradi*p. Now, in the Soudan you have this : you have the 
three great conditions requisite for great fertility — deep, rich soil, 
abundant water, and the warmth of a tropical sun. From Siena 
to the Niger is not more than 400 miles, and a way might 
easily be opened to it without great expense. Our Govern- 
ment ought to give the same facilities to our Colonies which the 
French give to theirs. (Hear, hear.) They should assist them by 
farming ports, by opening communication through the country, 
aad forming friendly relations with the natives, by making rail- 
ways and by maintaining peace. (Cheers.) The French have 
done much in Senegambia. They have formed the great port of 
Dakar — a port with a splendid harbour, which possesses jetties 
capable of having 180,000 tons of shipping alongside at one time. 
They are now making a railway from it to connect the Senegal 
with the Niger : a railway which will be at least 820 miles long, 
and which will be guarded by a line of forts where it extends 
beyond their own territory. Some of these forts have already been 
constructed with the full approval and co-operation of the native 
tribe*, who have been wearied out by long and wasting wars. 
Now, as 1 have said, Freetown is less than half that distance from 
t. The Soudan, the basin of the Niger, is an immense 
plain, very rich and fertile and thickly populated, although 
devastated by constant wars. The population even now has been 
estimated at 40,000,000. It is an agricultural and industrious 
population, ready, if a market is opened for it, to grow any quantity 
of sgncaknral produce which may be wanted — produce of the 
isfj kind, the value of which is now scarcely understood and 
be estimated. It is also rich in mineral products — iron, 
and gold. The Niger affords a water-way for many 
id miles ; that is to say, the Niger and its Benue and its 
tributaries. Wo have, to a certain extent, opened navigatinti 
the Niger for about 800 miles, but much of that part of the 
p is ■hallow, and the pestilential swamps which lie between the 
of the Niger form one of the most deadly districts in the 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

world. Now, a railway from Sierra Leone, which is about 1,500 
miles west of the delta of the Niger, would avoid these dangerous 
and deadly swamps, would at once arrive at the upper waters ol 
the river, and would afford a sanatorium for the white population 
of Sierra Leone. For three generations we have been endeavour i 
to put down the slave trade. At great cost and by great sacrifices 
the external slave trade, except with certain Mohammedan coun- 
tries, has been ended. The great work which still remains to be 
done is to put down the internal slave trade which is carried on 
with Mohammedan countries — (cheers) — the trade which devastates 
the country, wastes the population, and destroys all peace and 
confidence among men, which gives only too good reason to dread 
the approach of any stranger, which causes every tribe to be at 
war with its neighbours, and to surround itself by a ring of 
desolation. Our work is to put down this slave trade and open the 
country, and this is best to be done by commerce. (Hear, hear.) 
Tbe British Empire is perhaps the largest in the world, and its 
dependencies are certainly the most numerous, widespread, 
flourishing, and vigorous. They are becoming more important 
and more powerful every day, and I trust and hopo that the time 
is not very far distant when we shall see the Colonies cease to be 
dependencies and become integral parts of the British Empire— 
(cheers) — when we shall see the authorised representatives of the 
Colonies sitting in the Imperial British Parliament, and delibera- 
ting on Imperial questions. (Loud cheers.) I am aware that 
there are many and great difficulties in the way of such a plan, 
but I am sure that every day that elapses diminishes those diffi- 
culties — (hear, hear) — while it makes the necessity more urgent 
and more imperative. (Cheers.) When this great assembly shidl 
be constituted, then a great step will have been taken towards the 
unification of the whole world ; then we shall come nearer than 
anything the world has yet seen to the realisation of that glorious 
vision of our great living poet : — 

" When tbe war-dram throbs no longer, and the battle Hags are furled 
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world." (Applause.) 

The Hon. William Grant (member of the Legislative Council of 
Sierra Leone) said: Sir Henry Barkly, ladies and gentlemen,— 
You must take me with all my defects. I am a stranger to your 
language. I may mean more than I wish to convey ; but I wish 
you to supply what I am not able to express. (Hear, hear.) My 
"end the Hon. Mr. Griffith has exhausted the question : but, in 
inking over the matter, there are one or two points which 1 

Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 


met bring before you. In the first place, be speaks about tbe 
exaggerated idea entertained about tbe badness of tbe climate of 
Sierra Leone ; and it baa been an unfortunate tbing for tbe place 
that this idea bas prevailed. But, like everything else in tbe 
shape of prejudice, it bas taken hold of tbe minds of tbe people — 
the real facts are passed over, and tbe prejudice remains ; and I, 
as a West African negro, feel it has been a drawback to tbe pro- 
gross of my country. (Hear, bear.) It has been unfortunate that 
that book bas been published by which Sierra Leone bas been 
called " The White Man's Grave." (Hear, bear.) But if the truth 
is looked at and discussed fairly, it will be seen how exaggerated 
the statement is. The fact of men leaving their own country for a 
climate to which they are not accustomed, where tbe social life 
and habiu of the people are so different to their own, and vet 
doing all things as if they were in England — you cannot wonder if 
they get ill. These and other facts have so operated as to affect 
the health of the white man ; and if you look at it closely you can- 
not attribute it all to climate, and therefore it was not justifiable 
to call it what it has been called. (Hear, hear.) I mention that 
for this reason — that wherever I go in England, and my country 
forms the topic of conversation, when I express my surprise 
that so very little interest is taken in my country by tbe wealthy 
people of Eugland, I am invariably answered : " Ah, but it is called 
• The White Man's Grave.' " (Hear, bear.) What have I to say 
against such prejudice? I remain always silent. (No, no.) I 
aay, if you look at it closely it is true that it is a wholly different 
climate to your own ; but if you go there and take care of your- 
selves — as I must do when I come to your country or I must be 
short-lived — (cheers) — we shall not hear of its being the white 
man's grave. (Renewed cheers.) I assure you that, comparing 
the climate with that of other tropical places in India, West Indies, 
end Sou tl» America, it will bear a favourable comparison. (Hear, 
beer.) When I look at the different British possessions, and think 
of Hong Kong, Calcutta, and other places in India and South 
America, which are most unhealthy, I find nothing is said about 
them. (Hear, bear.) Well, I would wish to say that there is such 
an amount of indifference in tbe people of this country for Sierra 
Leone — whether it is due to the climate or not I do not know — 
bat that indifference seems not to recognise the fact that it is a 
portion of tbe British Empire. (Hear, hear.) I should like to Bay 
that although we are in a climate which you represent as bad, yet 
the people of that climate, and the inhabitants of that Colony, look 
opon themselves as British subjects. (Cheers.) And I can assure 


Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 

you that they are as loyal to the British Crown and people as any 
other of the peoples of the other Colonies in the British Empire. 
(Renewed cheers.) There are three other points that we shall 
have to grapple with in view of the future of Sierra Leone. Now, 
we have to look at them closely. In the first place, education ; 
secondly, agriculture; and thirdly, capital. (Hear, hear.) Educa- 
tion, I am glad to say, has been taken hold of by the present 
Governor, Mr. Haveloek. From all accounts, he has shown great 
energy in what he is doing, and from the ordinance which has been 
passed I think it means really earnest, good work. (Hear, hear.) 
But education from the point I allude to is that practical education 
which develops the man and makes him what he is — not the educa- 
tion which makes him simply the blind imitator of what he is not. 
(Hear, hear.) Of course the education, aa originally introduced 
into the Colony, was an experiment, and a grand experiment it 
was. They eaid, " There are these people, and we will educate 
them as ourselves." (Cheers.) It was a good idea, but it was 
defective, because there is as great a difference between the negro 
and the white man as there can be. He is capable of doing any- 
thing that the white man can do. But then, to get him to do that, 
you must educate him in himself. You must bring him out by 
himself; you niuBt not educate him otherwise. He must be educa- 
ted to carry out a proper and distinct course for himself. (Hear, 
hear.) The complaint has been general of the want of success in 
the education of the negro ; but it is not his fault ; the fault is from 
the defect of his education. He fancies, by the sort of education 
that you give him, that he must imitate you in everything — act 
like you, dress in broadcloth like you — (cheers) — and have hia 
black 1 nit like you, (Laughter.) Then you see the result is tha 
he is not himself; he confuses himself, and when he comes to 
within himself as a man he is confused, and you find fault that 
he has not improved as he ought to do. But if he is properly 
educated you will find him of far greater assistance to you than 
you have any idea of. (Cheers.) Then comes the next point, 
agriculture, which is one of those things we all know that cannot 
exist without taking proper hold of it. It has been the ground 
work and the secret of the successful progress of every nation in 
the world, but which we, however, in Sierra Leone, have neglected. 
(Hear.) Everybody who knows anything of the natives of the 
interior of West Africa is well aware that they attend to agriculture 
to a certain extent to supply their wants, and that during the 
for preparing their farms for planting you cannot get 
to do any work, however much you pay them. But we in 




> act 





Sierra Leone : Patt, Present, and Future. 


Leone have found out, unfortunately for us, that money is 
quickly made by trade — bo we give no attention to agriculture, 
but go on pottering in trade, which we have now found to be a 
mietake. We find out that after fifty years have been spent in 
by the people — although, true, they have succeeded in 
a little money, and built fine houses — yet they have not 
— oeedid to the extent which they otherwise would hod agriculture 
the groundwork of the movement of the people. And now 
tbe people of the Colony have recognised this fact, I 
am glad to tell you that they have resolved to devote their 
attention exclusively to agriculture ; and we now ask the 
Government to give us their assistance in fostering it The 
people are anxious to go to work in a proper way by plant- 
tag coffee and cocoa and growing cotton, which you get from 
and America. Why should we not Bnpply you with a 
portion of the cotton you use in Manchester ? {Cheers.) 
Why should we not supply you with a great portion of your coffee 
rhich will save you from consuming such an immense 
of adulterated stuff— (laughter) — which you get in this 
country ? (Cheers.) That is where it would be of great advantage 
to yon if attention were directed to it ; besides which, it would be 
of great assistance to the mercantile interests of this nation and to 
the well-being of the inhabitants of these islands. Then, with re- 
gard to capital — there you are! (Laughter.) Well, in thinking 
about agriculture we are thinking about ourselves. But we are 
pone We then say to yon, " Will you give us assistance? Give 
u# a helping hand to begin this great change." (Cheers.) And 
I any the Government ought to do all in its power to carry out this 
financial arrangement by which to assist the people in Sierra Leone 
tn Una new development of an important idea. There are a lot of 
people anxious to go about the work, and there is now a field that 
will bring a large and profitable return to those who see their way to 
go into it ; and there are fields for investment far better than the dia- 
aad gold mines of India, where you have given millions of 
and which, up to this moment, have not resulted in a 
penny -piece dividend being returned to those who have invested in 
just within 8,000 miles of you, and only fourteen days' 
from Liverpool, a few thousands would yield yon 20 or 80 per 
and you would be doing good to your own people, who are 
British ■nbjecte like yourselves, and who are doing all they can to 
aariat in promoting the welfare of this country. (Cheers.) We 
hope that this discussion to-night will be the means of inducing 
the Government to give support not only to education, but to agricul- 


Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 

tore, and to encourage capital in going to the country, because it 
would do a great deal to assist not only the negroes, but to intro- 
duce much of the manufactured goods which you have in this 
country and at the same time open the eyes of the capitalists of 
England to the fact of the existence of this new and profitable field 
for the investment of their money. Sierra Leone is the central 
point, and she must be the point where you have to penetrate into 
the interior of Africa. (Hear, hear.) Had the French, as a 
Frenchman told me a short time ago, the possession of it, they 
would Bee a different thing, because they know the importance of 
it ; and yet for a few thousand pounds the agricultural and financial 
progress of the whole Colony could bo developed in an astonishing 
manner in a very short time, and the whole benefit would be 
conferred on the British nation. Taking the negro as he is he feels 
grateful to the English people ; he is anxious to work with them ; 
he looks upon them as a father — as, in fact more than a father ; 
and be reveres them as one who is superior to himself. (Cheers.) 
When we come, as negroes, to see the great act of your nation to 
the negro race— that great act which no negro can think of or 
speak of without bowing his head with reverence and gratitude to 
this great nation — (cheers) — we do not know whether it is thought 
of here in the way we think of it ; but if you look at this act, which has 
induced a whole nation to subscribe millions of money, to sacrifice 
hundreds — ay, thousands — of valuable lives for the purpose of 
relieving a down-trodden race of a whole continent from degrada- 
tion and death — (applause) — if you look upon it in the light that 
he does, you will find he says, " What has all this been done for? 
Nothing ! You gain nothing from us. (CheerB.) You simply do 
it as an act of justice, and it is an act of kindness and an act of 
God -like goodness." And 1, as a representative negro, stand here 
and bow down my head in token of reverence to this nation for 
what they have done fpr my people and my country. (Loud applause.) 
And we are at any time ready to do all we can to listen to you, aud 
do all in our power to forward anything for you — never mind how 
difficult — to do all we can to gain your goodwill, and to support 
what you have done, and to assist you in doing all we can for our 
own people. (Loud and long-continued cheering.) 

Mr, Frederick Evans, C.M.G. : Mr. Griffith remarks about the 
climate of Sierra Leone : that it is perhaps not quite so black as it 
is painted, I am prepared to admit But, from my own personal 
experience, I can confidently assert that it is far from being an 
earthly paradise. Let anyone anxious to test the nature of the 
climate go to Eew Gardens, and sit for a week or two in one of the 

Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 


houses there ; I can assure him that he will by no means 
Dm) in robust health when he leaves. I cannot think of a better 
simile than this. I think that the fact of there being so few deaths 
in the last two years is not entirely due to any improvement in the 
cliznaU* consequent on the increased sanitary measures which have 
been recently adopted (and during the last three- or four years 
great steps have been made towards increased sanitation), but to 
the fact that the facilities for getting away from Sierra Leone when 
sick are greater than formerly. A mail calls every week, and 
there is a Colonial yacht at the service of the Governor. An officer 
who gets very ill is now sent off to Madeira or England as soon as 
poc-ibli:-. I bftTC s»H'n Mr. (in filth DO 03M OMMUND. so ill that it" hi 
bad not had this facility for leaving Sierra Leone and going to 
Madeira, I am of opinion that none of us would have had the 
pleasure of hearing this valuable paper whioh he has read to-night. 
(Laughter.) 1 ean call to mind three or four deaths amongst 
Europeans whioh have occurred during the last two years, but that 

deaths have been entirely due to climatic causes 1 am not pre- 

to say. I am at one with the Hon. Mr. Grant as to the 
loyalty of the Sierra Leone people towards the British throne. 
They all hold Her Majesty in great reverence, and will not yield the 
palm in this way to any. Before sitting down 1 will mention one 
fact bearing somewhat on this. It will be found difficult in 

Leone to pass auy British coin bearing the image of any 
previous sovereign. 1 once myself attempted to pass a shilling 
coined in the reign of George IV., and was met with the remark. 
** Maoaa he no good ; dat king done die." (Laughter.) 

Mr. A. 1L Grant : Being interested in this discussion I am glad to 
be called upon to address you, if I may be considered not to take the 
wind oat of the sails of my namesake, who has done all for the 
of Sierra Leone that one could wish on this occasion. I 

that possibly the reason I have been called upon to speak is, 
that I have had the opportunity of noticing some of the educational 
p rogre ae of the Colony, which is represented by a gentleman, not 
pres e nt this evening, but who is known as the first negro graduate 
o/tbe University of Oxford. I am sorry he is not here ; and I was 
going to make some special remark ; but knowing the discursive, 
allusive, and alliterative nature of the negro mind in all things 
exoept coming to the point, I would say that, however 
uneducated he is, let the next negro who aspires to honours go to 
Oxford mathematically acquainted beforehegoes there. The inspira- 
tion of thesurrouudings of Souegambiaoftengive one a tropical sort 
of exuberance. (Laughter.) 1 am glad to see that I have been 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

commiserated in the sense of exciting a little sympathy. (Hear hear. ) 
I would just throw out a couple of hints : first, that if the native 
mind is cultivated in this country, as 1 know it is aspiring to be 
done, that we might have a little more of the corrective nature of 
mathematics drummed into us ere we aspire to the honours 
of Oxford. I speak of this, seeing it is one of the defects we 
labour under when coming to this country to graduate. (Hear 

Mr. G. G. M. Nicol, B.A. (Sierra Leone) : Mr. Chairman, ladies 
and gentlemen, — I was only apprised of this meeting this afternoon, 
and I am very glad to be present here to-night, because, as a native 
of Sierra Leone, I take the greatest interest in my country : 

" Breathes there a man with bouI bo dead, 
That never to himself hath said, 
* Tht* in my own, my native land ' Y " 

When I hear, therefore, of a meeting like this, called to discuss my 
country and its inhabitants, I am very pleased indeed to be present. 
I have listened with great attention to the paper which has been 
read, and I say for myself, and in the name of all my African friends 
here to-night, that I am very much obliged to Mr. Grifhth for it — 
it breathes such a truly generous, kind, and noble spirit. (Cheers.) 
I have not the pleasure of knowing Mr. Griffith — I have never 
spoken a word to him ; but after hia paper, I conclude that he ia a 
perfect gentleman and a man of education. (Laughter.) I do 
not say this as a thing which admitted of any doubt before, but 
simply to bring out the fact that, whenever you find scorn and con- 
tempt for the African, generally speaking it comes from those who 
are neither gentlemen nor men of education. We have heard of 
Englishmen who spend their time in disparaging West Africans, 
especially those of Sierra Leone. Not long ago I was talking to a 
gentleman who was advocating the claims of Lagos over those of 
Sierra Leone, and he hazarded the opinion that the English people 
did not care about Sierra Leone, because, forsooth, its people are 
descendants of slaves. (Laughter.) But, sir, we are not descendants 
of slaves at all, but of a freed people, and looking at the matter in that 
light, putting race and nationality aside, we can compare favourably 
with the Australian. But let us look at the matter a little more 
closely, for I wish the true position of the slaver to be appreciated. 
Is he not a coward for going to another man's country and stealing 
him? On him, therefore, should rest all the obloquy, shame, con- 
tempt, and scorn. I do not think, however, that any such wild 
idea exists among the English people ; and I am convinced that if 
we state our case sensibly, we shall be listened to, at least by some. 

Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 


Tint a man like Mr. Griffith ghoul d be in Sierra Leone, and take 
•nob deep interest in the Colony as his paper evinces, is a matter 
for much congratulation ; and I hope that there will be many other 
gentlemen to follow his example. (Hear.) I have been in this 
country several years, and am therefore somewhat of a stranger to 
Sierra Leone. I cannot speak very accurately about the place, but 
I can speak generally of the people, and what is wanted for us at 
home. Mr. Griffith says, " Without European supervision and 
guidance progress would be impossible." In that opinion I entirely 
concur. There is an old saying — "The hand washes the hand 
and the finger the finger; a town saves a town, and one city 
another." Can yon exist without communication with Franco, 
Germany, Austria, America, and other parts of the world ? You 
tire by one another. When one country has an invention it trans- 
mit* it to another. When the electric light was found out in one 
place it was at once carried to another. Therefore I say, without 
European supervision and guidance, progress in West Africa would be 
impossible. With regard to education, I will just say that it has been 
proved beyond all doubt that the African is capable. The first mis- 
sionaries who went out to Sierra Leone went against public opinion ; 
for the idea then prevalent was that the negro had no brains at all. 
And this perhaps will account for our first teachers being men of 
no great education. The education at Sierra Leone, in consequence, 
bat not reached such a high standard as could be wished. Still, 
the people are very anxious for superior learning. When they 
have passed through the day-schools and grammar schools, they 
want something higher to fit them for after-life. There being no 
collages on the coast where they could get that training, they come 
over to England for three, six, and even nine years, to perfect their 
education, so as to be fit to take a proper position on their return. 
What we feel most is the want of a regular educational establish- 
t. There are many day-schools in Sierra Leone, but they are 
ly supported by voluntary enterprise. I venture to think, sir, 
education should be national. It now forms, I believe, a con- 
ent part of political science, and there are few countries where 
it is carried on by voluntary aid alone. In India there is an 
elaborate educational machinery, supported by the Government ; 
■neb a thing we should like to see on the West Coast. The nixt 
thing I will mention is the encouragement of the natives. When 
you have educated them, what then ? When a man has been 
through the University, taken his degree, and so on, he expects a 
rejpectable position ; and I venture humbly to think that the Go- 
Tamment should encourage such men to join the service, so that 


Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 

there should be, as it were, a motive and an object in studying. 
I do not say that they should be appointed when they are not fit ; 
all I am contending for is, that their education should be not away 
from, but in that direction which would lit them to hold positions 
of trust, in however remote a period, and so participate in the go- 
vernment of their country. I will again thank Mr. Griffith for the 
kind way in which he has spoken about us and our country. 

Commander V. Lovett Cameron, R.N., C.B., said : Mr. Chair- 
man, ladies and gentlemen, — After listening to Mr. Griffith's most 
instructive and interesting paper one need say very little about 
Sierra Leone. One thing which has given me great pleasure this 
evening is that sitting cloae to me is a native of Sierra Leone, from 
whose lips have fallen some of the truest words of wisdom about 
Africa it has ever been my lot to hear. A man like this, who can 
truly appreciate what has to be done in the way he does, can say 
that at present and for some time to come the minds of the natives 
of Africa will, to a certain extent, differ from those of Europeans, 
and cannot be moulded in the same mould, and that therefore the 
development of the African must be different from the development 
of the European. As rice, wheat, and maize require different 
modes of culture,so English, French, Germans, white men and black, 
also require different modes of mental culture. Ceremonies and 
methods change, customs and climateB change ; so will the forms 
of civilisation change. When I go to Africa I do not wear a black 
coat, but dress in the way I consider most suitable to the climate ; 
so we must not try to force Africans into the iron bonds of a civil- 
isation fitted only for our climate. 1 was glad to hear the Hon. 
Mr. Grant recognise this, as I believe all sensible people will recog- 
nise it : the people of Africa have been brought up from generation 
to generation in a manner entirely different to the English, and it 
will take some time to change them. Heredity has something to 
do with this. As certain talents run in certain families, bo in 
nations certain traits always exist : we have been growing up in 
certain traditions which beoome intensified by long usage. The 
African who till lately has been shut out from free contact with 
civilisation has had the disadvantage of growing up under differ- 
ent traditions. A man like Mr. Grant proves what the natives are 
capable of, hut still we must not be disappointed if all do not attain 
to his level or that of Mr. Nicol. The Soudan has been spoken of 
to-night. Soudan (Hnrr rl Sodam) may mean the whole continent, 
it may mean the Egyptian province lately governed by Baker and 
Gordon, and usually means the countries between Darfur and the 

Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 

Niger. Sierra Leone can scarcely be called the Liverpool, therefore, 
of tiio Soudan, but it is, without doubt, both the Liverpool and 
London of a large aud important portion of Africa. However, at 
Sierra Leone, as all over the world, we have got to look to the action 
of a neighbouring and friendly power who is everywhere pushing 
bar oommeroe and extending her empire. England at present 
regards the operation of this other Power with apathy. France in 
Senegal, in funis, at the Gaboon (whence they have outflanked 
Stanley), in the Pacific, in Syria, and in the Mozambique, is every- 
pushing forward. The trans- Sahara railway is no mere 
project ; the flooding of the Shotts behind Algeria is decided 
on, and, if we may believe Bruce, who first won his spurs as Consul 
General in Algiers, and his successor, Colonel Playfair, this will 
have a most beneficial effect on this great French Colony. The 
annexation of Madagascar {Sntre [rule a twits) has been discussed 
■a esMwre by leading French statesmen ; and now all the islands 
be t we en the future canal across the Isthmus of Panama are being 
subjected to her flag. When I was at Loanda the honour of our 
flag vaa upheld, and Lisbon statesmen not permitted to encroach 
ground. Now they have annexed northwards from 
to the mouth of the Congo, and that noble river itself is 
being left at its embouchure to the Belgians and Dutch. A short 
i ego a French trading steamer was scarcely ever seen on the 
low they are common ; and the Americans are contemplat- 
ing alerting a line from New York. The effect of this will be to 
moat valuable trade out of the hands of Englishmen and away 
British ports. The Gold Coast Colony was a short time ago 
closely connected with Sierra Leone than it is now ; but still 
e few words about it may not be inappropriate here. I was out 
there tins spring, and am shortly going again with Captain Burton 
to revisit it. Burton calls it an " old new California "; but from 
what I have seen, and what I eipect to see, I do not believe that 
California, India, Australia, Midiun, or any other gold producing 
region of modern or ancient times can pretend to compete with the 
Guinea or Gold Coast. The name Guinea (there were once two 
Guinea*, one farther north) is most probably derived from their 
having been discovered by Genoese mariners, who called them 
Genoa in honour of their native state, and Guinea is a corruption 
of Genoa. The climate of Africa has been much abused ; it is not 
M bad as it is painted ; I have done things in Africa I could never 
have dared do in England. I have heard a half-baked Yankee, 
calling himself an Australian, say that the British flag blighted 
wherever it flew : I think that is rather different from 


Sierra Leone : Patt, Present, and Future. 

the opinion of thoBO here to-night. I believe that the British flag, 
whatever mistakes may be made by our Government, will always 
protect commerce. I believe that the English nation will always 
be bo true to itself that honour will be its first and principle 
its second guiding star ; that under no Government, whether 
Tory, Whig, or Radical, will it wave over less territory than it 
does now, and perhaps in a short time over more ; and that, as 
hitherto, it will always prove true to those over whom it 
floats. (Applause.) 

Mr. Colin Graham-Rosenbush (late Consul for Italy and Holland 
at Sierra Leone) said : The subject has been ably treated by Mr. 
(iri tlith in the admirable paper he has just read, and has also 
heen well spoken to by Mr. Grant and the previous speaker : I will 
therefore make but few remarks. With regard to the climate, I 
should like to observe that, previous to the administration of Sir 
John Pope Hennessy, very little attention was paid to sanitation. 
In a paper read before the Society of Arts in 1878, Mr. Hennessy 
mentioned that on his appointment to the Government of the West 
African Colonies, he found the Bum of £161 a-year only was spent 
on sanitation in Freetown, the whole of which consisted of salaries 
— that is to say, £120 for the salary of the inspector, who was at 
the same time the Colonial surgeon ; £23 for the salary of his clerk, 
and £18 for a labourer ; and not one shilling was spent on the 
Colony itself. There is a long list of Governors, from Lieutenant 
Clarkson in 1797 and Mr. Ludlam in 1808, to Sir Arthur Kennedy 
in 1872, and not one of them had given a thought to the health 
and sanitary improvemeut of the Colony, and Mr. Hennessy was 
the first to set apart a sum of money — £1,200 — for the purpose of 
sanitation. With regard to commerce, that of Sierra Leone has 
not, in my opinion, received from previous speakers the attention 
it deserves. I do not depreciate the value of agriculture ; on the 
contrary, I consider it necessary to commerce. But in every coun- 
try there are certain centres from which foreign importations are 
distributed to inland towns, and from which home produce is sent 
to foreign countries. We must, therefore, alwayB have oertain 
trading stations on the West Coast of Africa, in order to diffuse 
our importations into the interior, and to collect and transmit to 
Europe the produce of the agricultural tribes of Africa ; and as one 
of these Sierra Leone is most important. The principal measure 
necessary to admit of such an end — that is, to the augmentation of 
the imports and exports of the Colony — is the facility for com- 
munication with the interior. These facilities are now very defi- 
•ieut. There are few sale and commodious roads into the interior 


Sierra Leone: Past, Present, and Future. 




the rivers are navigable to but a moderate distance ; and caravans 
which now come to the coast occupy fifty to sixty days on the jour 
ney, and pass through countries the chiefs of which levy taxes upon 
the produce and goods which traverse their territory. This tends 
to decrease, or at all events to prevent, a large augmentation of 
trade. What is wanted is a safer and better accommodation for 
and bettor roads. On the question of capital, there is no 
bi that more capital is wanted ; at the same time there is a 
large amount of wealth at present lying dormant in the Colony. 
It u well known to those who are acquainted with the Colony that 
large sums of money, in coin, are buried by nativeB in iron pots 
under the ground, simply because they have no facilities for the de- 
posit of their savings with any feeling of security : the consequence of 
which is that a considerable portion of the capital of the Colony is 
idle and unproductive. The increase of capital required by mer- 
chant* is for the most part temporary and periodical For instance, 
ita trading to the north of Sierra Leone require during the 
season a larger amount of capital than during the rains, while 
the trading season of those to the south is exactly the reverse, and 
eoneeqnen ll v they require the temporary aid of additional resources, 
■«eh as those of which traders in the north can make no use. 
What the Colony therefore requires are the means by which mer- 
chants and traders can periodically obtain the temporary accommo- 
dation they require, and which would not only bring additional 
capital into the Colony, but would reader that which is there at 
present useful and productive. 

The CiiAiaMAN : At this late hour of the night it becomes my 
doty to close this interesting discussion in the usual way by propos- 
ing a rote of thanks to Mr. Griffith for the able and comprehensive 
which he has read to us. I think we must congratulate our 
Mr. Frederick Young on being able to obtain so excellent a 
for the Institute on the subject of our West African Colonies. 
Bear, hear. ) I am free to confess that it was a subject on which 
I, in common with many members of the Institute, was very igno- 
rant before the paper was read It is not, as my friend the Hon. 
rant aeema to suppose, because the British people are indiffer- 
ent to the Colonies, but because they have such a great many other 
to think about, and are somewhat ill-informed as to their 
, and as to the West African Colonies in particular. We 
have heard a great deal to-night from Mr. Griffith of their resources, 
which seem to be considerable, and their trade, which is growing 
in importance. Their exports, inde d, d > not appear to have 
« rapidly as they ought to have done during the past 


Sierra Leone : Past, Present, and Future. 

twenty years ; but I am gratified to hear from Mr. Grant that that 
state of things ia not likely to continue, and that many of his 
fellow-countrymen are about to apply themselves in earnest to 
agriculture and other productive pursuits, and that we may hope 
soon to be entering upon a new era. (Hear, hear.) There is one 
point in connection with this subject which has not been alluded to 
either in the paper or the discussion, although I hoped that Captain 
Golomb, whom I see present, would have dealt with it, he being 
better able than most people to do so — that is, the great value and 
importance of Sierra Leone as the only safe and defensible harbour 
that Great Britain possesses on the route — I may say from this to 
the Cape of Good Hope- (Hear, hear.) Whatever the capabilities 
of Ascension and St. Helena may be in other respects, they are com- 
paratively open roadsteads ; and it is at Sierra Leone alone that 
our men of war can rely on being able to water and take in supplies 
and coal under any circumstances. In the event of a maritime 
war, which I hope is far distant, our cruisers would then be de- 
barred from getting the supplies of coal which they at present do at 
Madeira, Cape de Verde, and other neutral ports, and Sierra Leone 
will become the basis of the naval operations essential for the 
protection of the vast amount of commerce crossing the Equator 
into the south Atlantic. I think that this is one of the points not 
referred to which shows the great importance of Sierra Leone to 
the Mother -conn try. (Cheers.) I ask you to join with me in a 
vote of thanks to Mr. Griffith for his paper. (Loud and long- 
continued cheering.) 

Captain Bahbow proposed a vote of thanks to Sir Henry Barkly 
for his great attention and kindness in presiding over the 

The vote was honoured, and duly acknowledged by the Chairman. 


The Third Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held on 
Tuesday, the 24tli of January, 1882. at the Grosvenor Gallery 
Library, His Grace the Duke of Manchester, K.P., Chairman 
of Council, in the chair. Amongst those present were the 

The Right Hon. Sir TT. Battle E. From Bart., O.C.B., G. C.S.I. ; Sir 
Barkly. G.C.M.G.. K.C.B. : Sir George P. Bowen, G.C.M.G. 

I Buxton, Bart.; Messrs. Thomas 

•it (Agent-GenernI for Queensland 1 !, Hugh Jnmieson, H. A. de Colyar. 

lb* Rev. B. Bellamy, Messrs. <<■ Molineux, J. D. Thomson, J. Bergtheil 

(lata M.L.C., Natal), James F. Anderson (Mauritius), W. E. Grimsby, 

AtkinBOTi r- General, British Guiana), E. T. Delmege 

V Baldwin, W. G. Lardner, Major R. H. Vetch, P..F.., 

Mam. W. Freeheville, C.E. (Transvaal), William Bellasis, Alexander 

•i, Francis R< nshaw, James R. Boyd (Ceylon), Br. F. J. Mouat, 

fajnrGeneral R. W. Lowry, C.B. ; the Rev. Prebendary Cross. Lieutennnt 

'•wry (Ro\ Fusilier*), Mi-s«rs. J. Henniker Heaton (New 

A. W. Lett (New South Wale<1, Charles H, Broad, 

nut* Crawford (New Zealand), Stephen Bourne, F.S.S. ; J. G. Borro- 

diwU, ihf Rev. C. F. Stovin. Messrs. James A. Yonl, C.M.G.; Alfred 

. Sir Robert Torrens, K.C.M.G.; Sir Donald 

, M.P. ; Colonel Battye, Mr. and Mrs. Lee WYight. Mr. 

Mrs. Walter J. Sendall. Messrs. Wm. Martin Wood, Merrielees, 

A. Coekburn (Britiab Honduras), J. J. Bourne, C. Dugald Buckler, 
John Irving (Canada), Edward Snell (Natal), James Campbell (Cape 

r), Mr. Chaa. G. Cox and Miss M. J. Cox, the Rev. George Bloncowe, 

IB, Mr. W. M. Ash. Major H. Hall and Mrs. 

Means. H. B. Halswell. Arthur Nicholls, Earnest Charrington. 

P. Keep. J. Glyn, Hunt, r, W. B, Adlington. W. D. Campbell, 

B. Campbell, G. W. SvmrR. John Cnh-hrooke, G. Seholey, Charles 
Geonre Humphreys, W. R. Bobiaeon, Captain John Fulton, 

kod Mr-. Fnlton. Messrs. Henry M. Paul. Charles Brown (Cape 
. W. B. Brown (Care Colony), H. A. Brown (Cape Colouvl, Oaf- 
Cape Colony), Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Landal*, 
Ten. H. M. White (Archdeacon of Grahamstown), Messrs. A. M. 
M.D. ; J. Bunks Taylor, John Hughes (Ceylon), George Hughes 
i), Edward Wheeler (Canada). C. B. Saunders, C.B. ; J. J. Larn- 
fWert Africa), Mr. and Mrs. W. Westgarth. Messrs. W. E. Ores 

M. Paine, Rev. E. B. Prince, Messrs. Robert J. Wray, 
P, Whytfaw. D. C, Kennedy. W. R. Mewbnrn, T. Plewman (Cape Col 

R. Plewman (Cape Colony), Rev. Herbert Goodwin, Messrs. A. F. 
abe (New Zealand), F. B. Hanhury. W. H. Burton, T. n. Davis 
i Mrlbooroel. Catterson Smith, John Thomas, Henry Berkeley (Antigua), 


Third Ordinary General Meeting. 

W. L. Shepherd, C. F. Davison (Cape Colony), Morton Green (Nai 
James Gilchrist (Sydney), Walter Peace (Natal) , James Blackwood (Natal i . 
J. M. Peacock (Cape Colony), George Peacock (Cape Colony), John Las- 
celles (Victoria), Commander H. G. Simpson, R.N. , M.L.C. (Queensland'. 
Messrs. Ch&rlee North (Cape Colony), B. M. Crowder, E. H. Gough, 
Alexander Rogers (India), A. J. Wallis, John Payne (Natal), T. W. Irvine 
(Cape Colony), J. Goodall, F. P. Labilliere, H. T. Field (Cape Colony i. 
J. W. P. Jauralde, F. D. Deare (Cape Colony), H. B. Deare (Cape Color 
G. W. Kellar. A. H. Grant, the Rev. Ponsonby A. Lyons, Mr. T. A. Wall 
(West Africa), Mrs. Johnson, Sir Benjamin Pine, K.C.M.G. ; Mr. George 
Moffatt, Miss M- Moffatt, Messrs. George Reid, Robert Blag-den, Mr. 
Alderman Chambers, Messrs. Robert Stewart (Cape Colony), Alexander 
Turnbull (Jamaica). Samuel Shortridge (Jamaica), Lewis A. Vintcent, 
M.L.A. (Cape Colony), Captain J. H. Sandwith, R.M., Mrs. Saunders, 
Mr. and Miss Saunders, Miss Hamilton, Captain Tryon Wing, Mr. and 
Mrs. Parker, Miss Shatien, Messrs. A. H. Hogard (Natal), W. H. Cobley 
(Natal), John Hutchinson, Pring, Miss A. Saunders, Miss F. Saunders, 
the Rev. Dr. Townaend, Miss Townsend, Messrs. Howard, Calvoeruss, 
Archdeacon A. Robinson, T. Durant Phihp, Stone, E. T. Bentley (Natal), 
E. Cameron, Henry Kimber, E. Hepple Hall, C. Pfoundes, Major D. 
Erskine, late Colonial Secretary (Natal), Miss Young, Miss Ada Mary 
Young, Mr. Frederick Young (Hon. Sec.) 

The Honorary Secretary read the Minutes of the Second Ordi- 
nary General Meeting, which were confirmed, and announced that 
since that meeting the following gentlemen had been elected 
Fellows : — 

Resident s— 

John Bate, Esq., A M. Brown, Esq., M.D. ; Hutchinson H. Brown. Esq., 
A. Staveley Hill. Esq.. Q.C., M.P. ; W. P. McEuen, Esq., David Mackie. 
Esq., Francis Renshaw, Esq., W. R. Richardson, Esq. 

Non-Resident : — 

William Berry, Esq. (Jamaica), Walter J. Clark, Esq. (Victoria). James 
Gall, Esq. (Jamaica), Rev. Thomas M. Geddes (Jamaica), George le M. 
Gretton, Esq. (South Australia), Thomas L. Harvey (Jamaica), S. Leary, 
Esq., M.D. (British Guiana), James MocGeorge, Esq. (South Austral 
Louis Mackinnon, Esq. (Jamaica), Colonel J. T. N. G'Brien, C.M.G. 
(Governor of Heligoland), George Robinson, Esq. (Mauritius), A. C. Sin- 
clair, Esq. (Jamaica), Charles Smith, Esq. (New Zealand), W. Howard 
Smith, Esq. (Victoria), F. S. P. Stow, Esq. (Cape Colony), Lewi.v 
Vintcent, Esq., M.L.A. (Cape Colony), Robert Watson, Esq., I 
(Victoria), W. F. Wilson, Esq. (Queensland). 

The Honorary Secretary announced that the following dona- 
of books, maps, photographs, dtc, had been presented to 
ititute sines the last Ordinary General Meeting, by the 
entioned : — 

Third Ordinary General Meeting. 


The Government of British Guiana : 

Court of Policy Ordinances, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1881. 
The Government of the Cape of Good Hope : 

Votes and Proceedings, 5 vols., 1881. 

Acts of Parliament, 1881. 
Tbe GoTerament of Ceylon : 

Sessional Papers. 1872, 1873. 

Ordinances, 1790-1880. 
The Government of Natal : 

Blue Books, 1870-78 and 1877-78, 6 vols. 

Laws of the Colony, 1878. 
The Government of New South Wales : 

Votes and Proceedings, 1880-81. Vols. I., II., and III. 
The Government of New Zealand : 

Parliamentary Papers, 1881. 
Tbe Government of Victoria : 

Parliamentary Reports and Papers, 1881. 
Tbe Legislative Assembly of Quebec : 

Sessional Papers, Vol. XIV., 1880. 
The Agent- General for New South Wales : 

Financial Statemeut of the Hon. James Watson, Colonial 
Treasurer, November 15th, 1881. 
The Agent-General for Queensland : 

Beport on the Wild River and Great Western Tin Mines. 
By the Rev. Tenison Woods. 
The Government Statist, Victoria : 

Statistical Register of Victoria, Parte III., IV. and V., 1880. 
The Registrar- General, New Zealand: 

Statistics of the Colony, 1880. 
The Anthropological Institute: 

Journals of the Institute, Vol. X. No. 4, Vol. XI. Kor. 1 
and 2. 
Colonial Office : 

Almanack and Guide to the Bahamas. 
The East India Association : 

Journal of the Association, Vol. XIII., No. 3, 1881. 
The Leeds Public Library: 

Eleventh Annual Report, 1880-81. 
The Royal Geographical Society : 

Proceedings of the Society, January, 1882. 
The Social Science Association : 

Sessional Proceedings, No. 2, Vol. XV., 1882. 
The South Australian Institute: 

Annual Report, 1880-81. 
The Sydney Free Public Library : 

Supplementary Catalogue, Vol. I., 1877-78. 
The Toronto University : 

Examination Papers, 1861. 


Third Ordinary General Meeting. 

J. G. Bonrinot, Esq. : 

Canadian Monthly, December, 1881, 
Stephen Bourne, Esq. : 

Deficient Harvests and Diminished Exports. 
P. Byrne, Esq. : 

Facts and Testimony regarding Ontario as a Field for tho 
Enterprise of British Tenant Farmers. 
Rev. A. Caldecott : 

Syllabus of Twelve Lectures on Colonial History. 

Dr. John Chapman : 

The Westminster Review, January, 1882. 

Hon. Adam Crookes, Q.C., M.P. : 

The British Farmers' and Farm Labourers' Guide to 
H. A. Firth, Esq. : 

Annual Report on Emigration from the Port of Calcutta to 
British and Foreign Colonies, 1880-81. 
Hugh Miinro Hull, Esq. (Tasmania) : 

Progress Reports on Mines, By G. Thureau. 
W. G. Lardner, Esq. : 

History of Tobago. By H. J. Woodcock, 1 Vol., I860. 

Sixteen Years in the West Indies. By Colonel Ctvpadose, 
Francis Ormond, Esq., Melbourne : 

Report of the Council of tho Ormond College, 1881. 
E. A. Petherick, Esq. : 

Pamphlet on New Zealand, 1771. 
J. Stuart Reid, Esq.: 

Bradshaw's Guide to New Zealand. 
Julian C. Rogers, Esq. : 

Analysis of Returns relating to Colonial Timlier. 
Alexander Rogers, Esq. : 

Land Tenures in Bombay. 
George Robertson, Esq., Melbourne. 

The Melbourne Review, October, 1881. 
EL Ling Roth, Esq. : 

The Chmate of Mackay, Queensland. 

The Chairman submitted to the meeting the names of G. 
Molineux, Esq., on behalf of the Council, and W. Westgarth, Eisq., 
on behalf of tho Fellows, as auditors for the present financial year, 
in conformity with Rule 48. Both gentlemen were unanimously 

The Chairman then called upon Mr. James R. Saunders, M.L.C., 
to read the paper fur the evening, entitled — 

Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 



To avoid complicating my subject. I do not propose referring to 
the early history of Natal, or to its advantages as a field for emi- 
gration, nor need I trouble you with many statistical details. A 
few of a very general character will suffice ; and may be disposed of 
by stating that the revenue of the Colony has increased so rapidly 
that in 1880 it had nearly equalled that of the Gape Colony ten 
years before. Its railways, though undeveloped and crippled by 
the refusal of the Colonial Office to sanction their extension and the 
purchase of rolling stock, are already estimated to be paying interest 
on the loan. Its loans are quoted high on the Exchange, showing 
that the moneyed world has a good opinion of it. Its harbour 
admits of improvement; but, even as it is, it has proved itself 
capable of supplying the sudden requirements of an army of 20,000 
8MB, and horses in proportion. 

This paper will show that the wars which spread all round Natal 
after lb74 were wars with which the Colony had nothing to do, 
though it had continually warned the Home authorities of the result 
of yielding to the influences which were directing its policy. In 
truth. Natal was the only Colony whose natives remained loyal, and 
idy became exposed from the accident of its position, which 
made it the base of those military operations which commenced 
before Sir Bartle Frere reached South Africa. During these years 
the few colonists of Natal contributed from the revenue so large a 
sum for war and defence that, if a similar expenditure were incurred 
by the British nation in proportion to its population, it would 
exceed its National Debt. The loss of life of colonists, in similar 
ratio, was such that the destruction of the entire British army 
would not be larger ; whilst its volunteer levies will bear a fair com- 
pari*on with any forced conscription in Europe, as is shown by the 
▼ery number of war medals distributed, for which, by-the-by, the 
Colony was made to pay ! 

My subject, " Natal in its Relation to South Africa," takes us 
back to the great migration of Dutch farmers from the Cape in 
1685, to their wanderings through the wild lands of the Free State 
ihey reached Natal ; for, though Lieutenant Farewell settled 
Durban in 1822, and after his murder Fynn and others 
aed the chieftainship for a few years — though it was only pro- 
claimed a British Colony in 1848 — the first real practical settle- 
ment was that made in 1838, by Retief and the Dutch farmers. 

In the varied details I shall refer to, my main object will be to 
make them bear on the question of broad policy which directs 


Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 

events ; and to the proper understanding of what those influences 
were which controlled their rulers during the last half-century of 
war, bo as to discover a guide for the future by the exposure of the 

Before doing bo, I must dispose of the question of union in a few 
words. Union has been the aim of many men, whether honest 
enthusiasts or ambitious despots. History shows nothing has led to 
so much war as has the search after universal peace through the 
agency of united dominion. Union of British Colonies — union of 
all English-speaking people, in the opinion of some practical men, 
is within measurable distance ; but any union between varying 
interests requires knowledge, gentle handling, and to be left to 
work out its ends by gradual development. Look at the map of 
South Africa, with its confused mixture of peoples and races, mo6t 
of them varying in type, language, laws, and customs, and in all 
except their common barbarism ; and then let me ask you not to 
try over your snug fireplaces in London to build up a Utopia in 
Africa ; trust rather to Englishmen there who are no less English, 
humane, and practical than yourselves, even though they have crossed 
the line, and are now colonists. 

It is now thirty-five years since an old colonist wrote of the Cape, 
saying that " the great evil under which this Colony has laboured 
has heen the profound ignorance, both of the British public and 
governors, of the actual character, situation, and circumstances of 
its inhabitants. Had these been fully known, the disasters which 
have overcome this settlement never could have happened ; but, 
ruled as its affairs have been, the most extravagant fictions have 
been believed and acted upon. Partisanship has had in this country 
a wide field for its operations ; the British public has been deluded ; 
numbers of the Colonists ruined or destroyed.'' 

So wrote Mr. Godlington in 1847 ; and as these remarks are 
equally applicable to 1881, 1 felt myself called upon to accept Mr. 
Young's invitation, and make some remarks on " Natal in its Rela- 
tion to South Africa," in the hope that the discussion which any 
paper on this subject may evoke will of itself do good, irrespective 
of the merits of the paper itself. 

I shall have to refer to many cases which show how strong is 
the belief ' in the Colony ' respecting this ignorance. Addresses of 
colonists, records of their Legislative Council, as well as official 
reports of men who, though sent out to condemn, ended by defend- 
ing the Colony, prove thi3 ; not forgetting that most remarkable 
letter to the Times, in which nearly every clergyman and missionary 
in Natal (seventy-one) joined, irrespective of their difference in 

} in its Relation to South Africa. 


in denouncing the misstatements circulated in England 
the Langalibalele revolt as " being untrue, unfair, cal- 
to involve danger to the future." Here was 6een the most 
usual circumstance — clergy belonging to the Church, both those 
sed to Bishop Colenso as well as those serving under him, 
ealeyan, Presbyterian, American missionaries, Roman Catholic, 
gational. Swede, German, Dutch, &c, all uniting to con- 
" the statements of the Peace Society as based on an untrue 
misapprehension of the facts in England"; they regarding such 
ents with regret and indignation, and, further, supporting 
"action of the Natal Government as throughout humane, 
t, just, and urgently necessary." * 
Were this ignorance and these misstatements not so serious in 
results, many amusing instances might be related. It was 
ly last year that the commander of a man-of-war was instructed 
anchor as near as he could to Potchefstroom, a town in the 
svaal about 400 miles inland, but not to bombard it without 
farther orders. Incredible as this may seem to some present, 
other* on the spot know that instances of similar character are so 
numerous and well authenticated that this statement, when it was 
publicly made and not contradicted, became fully believed in ; and 
this belief in so strange a tale of itself points a moral (though, 
I admit without proof). I fully believe it myself. It occasioned one 
mote shrug of the shoulders, as further exemplification of what was 
to be expected if matters of peace, war, and negotiation were to be 
directed from England through the cable by men who had not 
learnt the very first lesson of their own ignorance, whilst informa- 
tion on which action had to be taken was costing 8s. 9d. per word. 
The settlement of Natal is so directly connected with the events 
which took place after 1835, and the migration of the Dutch which 
led to the foundation of that Colony, that I may fitly take that as 
my •tartiog-poiut ; from which a close parallel is to be drawn 
between the more recent events which follow after 1873 and 
at Majuba Hill, and that policy which controlled those 
In both we saw the Colonial Governors putting down 
war or native rising successfully ; and whilst Sir Benjamin 
in 183), received all but unanimous approval from the 
U, who saw in his acts a promise of long future peace, so 
it with Sir Benjamin Pine, in 1873. In both cases they were 
censored and dismissed, and their policy was reversed in consequence 
of an agitation got up in England under precisely similar circum- 

• Parliamentary Blue Book, c. II IV, 1876, p. it. 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

stances. In the one case Sir 6. Napier, who superseded Sir B. 
Durban, Bome years after stated : " So far as the Colonial Govern- 
ment and the colonists are concerned, never were treaties more 
strictly and pertinaciously adhered to ; but not so with the Kafirs, 
for they began from the first to plunder the colonists, and, not- 
withstanding every exertion, it was found impossible to prevent 
their depredations." In the other Sir Garnet Wolseley, who 
was Bent to replace Sir B. Pine, in 1875, wrote on the 
12th May, 1875, " I have no wish to attribute to those who 
adopt this policy any interested motive . . . yet I must 
say that, from the manner in which they refuse to believe 
all evidence that does not coincide with their own peculiar views, 
and from the fact of their regarding the condition of affairs in 
Natal from one standpoint alone, I am forced to consider them 
impracticable, and not to be relied on, as advisers, by those who 
are responsible for the good government of all classes. It is 
scarcely necessary for me to remind your lordship how easy it is to 
get up sensational accounts of events in countries like Natal. . . . 
Such sensational narratives, often based upon unsifted evidence, 
hud credence too easily by the people of England." Later he 
adds : " I have thought it advisable to enter into the subject at 
length, because I consider it essential to correct opinions formed in 
England upon one-sided, highly-coloured, and, in some instances, 
iucorrect statements, that have been made public in a sensational 
manner;*' and Sir Garnet adds, that " Kafirs had become a happy, 
wealthy, and prosperous community. . . . That, to retain 
Natal as a European Colony, it is essential to rule the Kafirs, not 
only with justice but with the utmost firmness, and to make them 
believe in our strength. "* 

I must add to the parallel between the two periods by stating that 
all this Colonial evidence was in both periods refused credence to ; 
and a long succession of wars followed each other (to which I may 
shortly refer in the train of events), whilst misrepresentation and 
ignorance, bo strongly complained of, ruled supreme in the forma- 
tion of public opinion and direction of the Imperial policy. 

Let us now go back to the earlier period I have referred to, 
which led to the Dutch migration.! It was on the nights of the 
2 1 st and 22nd December, 1884, just before Christmas, along thirty 

() Parliamentary Blue Book, o. 13*3, 1B76, p. 27. 

\ History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. By A. Wilmot and 
t -hi. 0. Ubaae, M.L.C., 1869, Cubb of the Colonic of the Eastern El« 
Hon. ^vlape of Good Hope in reference to the Kafir wax of 1836-36 and 1846. 
"< tff Xjdlonton, Cape Town, Jiita lSflfl. 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 


miles of frontier, that tha Kafirs had burst into the Colony ; and, 
in leas than fourteen days, forty-four persons were murdered, 
869 dwellings consumed, 261 pillaged, 172,000 head of cattle and 
stock carried off by the savages, who had oo cause of quarrel 
•gainst the peaceful inhabitants, but made this their reply to Sir 
Benjamin Durban's invitation that they should meet and enter iDto 
arrangeraouts with the Colonial Government, which should be 
advantageous to them. "I cannot," wrote Sir Benjamin, on the 
21st Janaary, 1835, "adequately point out the devastation and 
tenor these merciless barbarians have committed." " Already," 
wrote Sir H. Smith, a few days after, " are 7,000 persons depen- 
dant on Government for the necessaries of life ; the land is filled 
with the lamentation of the widow and fatherless. The indelible 
impressions made upon myself by the horrors of an irruption of 
savages upon a scattered population . . . are such as make 
me look on those I have witnessed, in a service of thirty years, ten 
of them in the most eventful period of war, as trifles to what I 
have now witnessed." 

Even after this, so anxious was the Colonial Government to avoid 
extremities, that it was only four months later that war was formally 
declared. Then, by a rapid series of military operations, this unpro- 
i invasion was driven back ; the Kafirs brought to pray for peace, 
the war concluded on terms almost universally viewed as a 
era of peace. Addresses were sent to England praying the 
Government to confirm the treaty. 

But what followed ? Already had rumours begun to circulate, 
from the Mission House in Cape Town, that the Governor's policy 
would be reversed ; when, ere very long, out came the fatal predicted 
dispatch, dated the 28th December, 1885, in which Lord Glenelg 
east the blame of the recent inroad on the colonists, writing : — 
■ In the conduct which was pursued towards the Kafir nation by 
thu colonists and the public authorities of the Colony, through a 
long series of years, the Kafirs had ample justification for the late 
They had perfect right to regard the experiment, how. m \ 
i, of extorting by force that redress which they could not 
expect otherwise t«» obtain/' adding, "as far as I am at present 
to judge, the original justice is on the Bide of the con- 
1, not of the victorious party." 

And what, may be asked, had happened before the inroad de- 
scribed ? Even had there been wrong, was no sympathy to be 
extended to the colonists in their terrible condition '? But there 
are facte which show that so pampered and protected were Kafirs 
from punishment for their offences, so weak had the British policy 


Natal in its Relation to South Afru-a. 

been, that during a period of ten years preceding the Ea 
depredations on the frontier-colonists averaged 74 horses and 
1,464 cattle per annum. 41 

It is not necessary to lengthen the tale. Sir B. Durban was 
recalled. That march of the wanderers into the desert began, to 
which Mr, Froude refers ; when writing of these Dutch, he says : — 
" They have long memories . . . Every family can tell of 
some or other of its members massacred, or of gallant achievements 
for the protection of their wives and children, or their properties ; 
ami, as a reward, they point to a dispatch of Lord Glenelg which 
laid od them the blame of every drop of blood which had been shed. 
Doubtless they, in many instances, had been to blame as well as 
the natives, but exaggerated censure was known to be undeserved. 
They relate, with special pride, how, worn out at last with calumny 
and indignation, 5,000 of their noblest and bravest farmers loaded 
their waggons with all that belonged to them, threw up their farms, 
and taking with them their docks and herds, rifles and their family 
Bible, travelled away, forty years ago, into the wilderness beyond 
the Orange Biver."t 

Alas, none so Mind as those whose interest it is not to see ! 
Already had the Government of England received frequent warning 
of what was pending. On the 26th of February the Governor 
had written that among the evils that would arise from a serious 
change of policy would be " a great migration of the Dutch farmers 
from the Colony into the interior, who would be afraid to remain 
longer upon the Eastern frontier." J Whilst leaving no doubt as to 
the causes which led to their migration, their leader, Retiof, who 
\va3 subsequently treacherously murdered in the Zulu country with 
every man of his party) left a manifesto, giving among their reasons 
— " the wholesale plunder by Kafirs and Hottentots desolating and 
ruining the frontier division . , . the unjustifiable odium cast 
upon the inhabitants by interested persons, whose testimony is 
believed in England, to the exclusion of all evidence in their favour." 

It is not difficult to explain what was meant by " the unjustifiable 
odium cast upon the inhabitants by interested persons." The doings 
of Dr. Philip, in 1838, then form a remarkably close parallel to Dr. 

• History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. By A. Wilmot and 
Hon. J. C. Chase. M.L.C., 1869. Case of the Colonials of the Eastern fro 
el the Cape of Good Hope in reference to the Kafir wars of 1835-36 and 1844. 
By R. Qodlonton. Cape Town, Juta, 1H69. 

t Parliamentary Blue Book, e. 1399, 1876. 

X History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. By A. Wilmot and 
J luii. J. 0. Chase, M.L.C., 1869. Case of the Colonists of the Eastern frontier 
of the Cape of Good Hops in reference to the Kafir wars of 1835-36 and 1846. 
By B. Godlonton. Cape Town, Juta, 1869. 

Satal in its Relation to South Africa. 


CoJenao'i in 1874. Both were aided by organised agencies of men, 
who. Melting to protect aborigines, were in truth real authors of 
their destruction. In the earlier period " Dr. J. Philip went to 
England, taking with him a Hottentot and a small Kafir chief, Jan 
TtaUoe. On their arrival they became lions, and were paraded 
through the length and breadth of the land, prompted to make 
ip— ODQg exciting indignation against these colonists, who were over- 
whelmed by calamity, their houses burned, fields desolated, families 
to penury and wretchedness ; and Sir Benjamin Durban was 
as false and inhuman." 
What wonder need there be if, by adopting such a course, men 
hop* to get, as those did, " entrance into royal palaces, shaken hands. 
with by royal children, and money,"* and even end, as Tzatzoe did, 
by joining the Kafirs in their later wars, leaving behind him in 
hi* hat the psuedo- philanthropic pamphlets which had worked on 
hit imagination, — what wonder if we find imitators in 1874? Strange 
would it be, where dupes are to be so easily and profitably 
if it were not so. 
The Dutch started on their migratory journey and reached Natal. 
I mail pass over their sufferings, of which there were enough, 
daring the succeeding fifteen years, to satisfy any atrocity-mongers 
without inventing; and such there will be so long as public opinion 
eooooragee them in seeing nothing but wrong and stifling defence. 
flow it was that from 1858 to 1873 there seemed a lull in this 
agitation, I will not say. During this period insubordination was 
promptly suppressed by Colonial authorities, offending chiefs were 
kept in prison till outside agitation led to their release, and they 
again found in rebellion some years after, and then came a 
iparaiively peaceable period of nearly twenty years. Was it that 
Peace Society had found occupation elsewhere — in the Crimea, 
li&n Mutiny, American Civil War, or in Austria, France, Turkey, 
, I will not discuss ; but the faot is there that, till 1874, when 
the guidance of the Bishop of Natal, they again woke up 
begau their professed work of protecting natives, from that 
the blood of natives and whites has flowed more plentifully than 
.■•• r whilst disasters which the British nation had not learned to 
b* accustomed to had befallen it, and seem to stare it in the face for 
the fa tore. 

were these results brought about for want of warnings from 
all elaaaes of Colonial society ; but the organisation had already 
frtttAffl* so complete and powerful, that every statement coming 

* Hmkovt of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Wilmot and Cluwe. 
. a, Jul*, 1809. 

day I 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

throngh that channel was received with favour, believed, and 
acted on in England, whatever everyone else might say to the 

Let me now direct yonr attention to the changes that had taken 
place on the map since 1884, and the position Natal occupied when 
the later agitation commenced. 

Natal holds a central position from which great civilising 
influences have spread. Its climate is good for Europeans, 
whilst it is evidently situated at no great distance from that un- 
healthy border-line which will for a time check European colonisa- 
tion. Already has it become a centre for trade and manufactures, 
with its workshops, foundries, and numerous mills ; and for many 
years past has been the goal to which natives come for work by 
thousands from distances of four to Bix hundred miles, and then 
return home again with their earnings, to speak of the advantages 
of the white man's rule and his love of justice. 

North of Natal is Zulu country, from which the native population 
of Natal has come, being almost exclusively made up of fugitives, who 
fled to it for refuge from the tyranny of the Zulu kings, till the popu- 
lation now exceeds that of the country they fled from. Since Ketch- 
wayo became practically supreme, the native population of Natal is 
three times what it was on that terrible day of December, 1856, when 
it was threatened with his invasion through the flight of 7,000 people 
under his brother Umbulaze ; when all the men, women and 
children who failed to escape the flooded river or the alligators were 
ruthlessly slaughtered in such numbers that for years after the 
and line of flight was white with their bones. 

Of that day I speak from personal knowledge, not only as bn\ 
witnessed the alarm of our natives, and the confidence they showe 
in colonists who offered to lead them ; but having been a memt 
of a Commission of Inquiry on these events, which sat sever 
days at my house, I had good opportunities of learning the fact 
It was on this occasion that John Dunn's name first came int 
note for the gallant way he and forty-five native elephant hunter 
who had crossed the Tugelaon a mission of peace, had, when (fan 
times attacked, thrown back Ketchwayo's advance, and then pro 
tected the fugitives in their flight. It was due to this defence tha 
any natives escaped the slaughter, and that the Colony of Natal 
then spared from invasion. Further results followed. Thia despe- 
rate defence of these few, aided by a chief named Jantie, with only 
100 men, produced a profound impression on natives of the white 
man's skill and power, and did much to secure future peace. Thi 
led to Ketchwayo's friendship for Dunn ; for, a few months after 

/ iii its Relation to Soutk Africa. 


admitted to an Englishman in my employ, who visited him, that 
one more such repulse as his advance had received, and his entire 
army would have been defeated. "Dunn," said he, " is a great man, 
and I must make a friend of him." This he did ; and that friendship 
continued till some months before Sir Bartle Frere came into Natal 
in 1877. Whan the question of war with England was being dis- 
eoaaed by Ketchwayo's chiefs, John Dunn was called before them to 
have the point distinctly put and answered as to which side lie 
would take in the event of war. He replied, strongly urging the 
less of resistance to the inexhaustible power of England ; 
i ended by saying, if, notwithstanding his advice to the contrary, 
war abonld take place, he would take the side of his countrymen 
again»t Kftcbwayo. " There," said the king, turning to his chiefs, 
did I not tell you he would not betray me ? Had he told me he 
would have joined us against his countrymen, I would not have 
believed him. but had him instantly killed." This was related by 
the lushest authority before Sir Bartle Frere's arrival, and was 
folly confirmed through other channels, and is referred to now only 
as tending to throw light on several points, as well as that very false, 
bat generally accepted belief, that there was no idea of war till Sir 
Frere came to Natal, and that he was the author of it.* 
are passing on to describe other tribes, I shall remark on 
Ion; continuance of peace with the Znln country. I have little 
in that diplomacy which pleads generosity, and takes credit for 
what it really letting " the dare not wait upon the would," but find, 
mm amogst Bavages, there are snch things as balances of power. 
Ketch wayo knew the strength the Zulu refugees would give to the 
Colonial Government. However much his men loved to " wash 
their spears • them into men's bodies), and make raids for 

this could not be done safely into Natal, where our natives 
th* art of war just as well as his warriors did, and might, 
provoked, help themselves from his side of the border instead. 
Another strong influence which was at work in favour of peace was 
the fact that cattle stolen from Natal would introduce the dread 
cattle dn-ax- of lung sickness into the Zulu country, from which it 
had been so far free. Whilst though practically supreme ruler 
daring bis father's lifetime, Panda still formed a centre round 
-h peaceable influences of the older men, who had experienced 
crashing defeats from the Dutch, still helped to balance the hot- 
henaodneas of the younger ; and, so long as he was able to find 
-hunting pasture for them, and to indulge their love of 

• PadiamraUiy Blue Book, c 1776, 1877, pp. 101, 103, apd 129. 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

stealing and fighting, he was comparatively able to check their 

This field he had, till very late years, on his northern border, for 
scarcely do I remember a year that we had not heard of his impis 
or regiments being out against Amatonga on the coast, Swazia in 
the interior, or some people of hi9 own. And this brings ub to a 
very material element which caused much irritation among the 
Zulus at the annexation of the Transvaal, which had the effect of 
placing the Swazis, the only tribe they could before that levy black 
mail on with safety, under British protection. As I shall presently 
explain, the Amatonga had some years before been practically 
exempted from these attacks, and it was the loss of this, the last 
field left him for his warriors to prey on, that led him to speak so im- 
ploringly to Mr. Fynney, the Government agent, on the 4th July, 
1877, saying, "I wish you to ask Somtsea (Shepstone) to allow me 
to make one little raid, only one small swoop ; it will not be asking 
much ; why will he not listen to me ? He knows where I want to 
go, and so do you too, only you won't admit it. It is the oustom of 
our country when a new king is placed over the nation, to ' wash 
their spears ,' and it has been done in the case of all former kings 
of Zululand. I am not king, but set in a heap. I cannot be a 
king until 1 have washed my assegaies."* Whether all the annual 
raids made on the bwazis counted for nothing, as compared to his 
kingly massacre in 185(3 and the " spear washing " of late years, 
I won't say ; but indignation is justly aroused that men, who know 
how this message was treated, persist in their slanders against Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone, and accuse him of having sought to all; 
the savage against the Dutch at the Transvaal annexation — a charge 
which has bad no little to do with increasing that ill-feeling of the Boers 
against the English Government, which has been fomented by means 
of outside agitation, whilst even sermons were printed to stir up dis- 
content; and there are now some who occupy the inconsistent 
position of disapproving the recent peace, not for the reasons 
others advance, but because it brings the natives back under the 
control of the Dutch, from which they had been freed by the very 
annexation they once condemned themselves. 

The sufferings the Amatonga and other tribes had been exposed 
to in their endeavour to reach Natal led the colonists to make ar- 
rangements to secure their protection.!- In 1873 terms were come 
to with Ketchwayo for securing them a safe passage through hi* 

• Parliamentary Blue Book, c. 1861, 1878, p. 38. 
t Legislative Council Proceedings. 

Xatal in its Relation to South Africa. 


which, indirectly, had the effect of gradually placing 
outside the field of Zulu raids. This coat the Colony some 
thousands a year, and so it happened that Ketcbwayo's warriors, by 
the Transvaal annexation, found their little game of spear-washing 

Farther north there are numberless other tribes, out of which 
streams of men found their way in search of money into Natal, 
and as a rule they have to keep back a monthly portion of the wages 
they earn — generally about 6s. a month— to pay, on their return, 
to their chiefs. To the south of Natal there are many tribes, all of 
which have gone on the war path against British authority since 
1076 ; whilst Natal — the best abused of all Colonies — and Natal 
only, has, with its natives, remained loyal. 

Adjoining the Free State is the Basnto country ; here, in 1852, 
G«o«ral Cathcart met a severe check, with the natural result that 
Basnto prestige increased all over South Africa, and became a menace 
after the war with the Free State in 1861, which arose from 
these Basnto raids and thefts, during the continuance of which British 
subjects were prohibited from rendering their assistance. Whether 
the proclamation calling on them to leave their fellow-colonists in 
thair distress was a mere sop to shut the mouths of English agitators 
at home, I don't know; but, I am glad to record that Englishmen were 
•tOl trn« to their instincts, and gave their aid in the desperate 
ttruggle to which these Dutch farmers were engaged in during three 
yean till the end ; and it was only when the Basutos, beaten and 
by them, must have submitted to their conquerors, that 
I Government took Basutoland under its protection. It has 
under the protection of the Crown that the Basutos have grown 
rich and powerful, and were permitted to keep up their military power 
and organisation, and acquire arms and strength. 

It is not two years ago that the Cape found to its cost, in the loss 
of lives of its people and millions of money, how formidable under 
England* fostering rule had this force become. Branded as 
colonials had been with seeking wars for England's money, all 
sted the idea of having the aid of a single British soldier. The 
did their best, and though they perhaps failed in effectually 
in six months the tribe which had checked General 
t,* they did succeed in defeating many frontier tribes which 
had simultaneously risen in that combined movement. 

Mr. Sprigg referred to this a few weeks ago :t and well may any- 
oos ask if it is consistent for a nation, which rightly refuses to 


• At Ui* Battle of Beraa. 

t Speech at the Empire Club, Deo., 1881. 



Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

Rome of its subjects nearer home the right to arm, to denounce the 
Colonial Government as it did ; or if there ia any civilised state 
which would sanction armed clans within its borders or could justly 
bl«me colonists who saw the danger near them and sought to correct 
it. It is lamentable to see how pandering to a false cry is alienating 
the affection of colonistB who claim, at the least, sympathy. The 
Transvaal Dutch have proved by their acts that, great as may be 
England's power to protect if it will, they will do without it, rather 
than have it on the terms offered ; and, rely on this, a similar 
course of action on the part of other territories not far off, is only 
to be measured by the time when they feel strong enough to resis 
the sordid meddling of irresponsible advisers at home. 

Between the tribes I have thus referred to, and dwelling 
round the borders of the two Dutch states and Griqualand W< 
IKimberley) there are wide tracts of native territory, which have 
been the scenes of hard fighting since 1875, when all natives began 
to believe there was a power behind tho Colonial Government which 
would come to their aid. 

With that tract on the map which Bhows the Dutch interior state 
I must deal rapidly. Look at the map of 1885, and contrast that 
of to-day. Then Natal was far removed from civilised borders ; all 
that large tract in the interior was blank : through what torrents 
of blood the change was made in which white and black Buffered, 
would be impossible for me to narrate in the time allowed. 

It was soon after the Langalibalele revolt and the agitation 
raised in. England by Bishop Colenso, which resulted in Sir 
Benjamin Pine's recall in June, 1B7K, when Sir Garnet Wolse- 
ley was administering the government of Natal, that the L 
tive Council resolved without a dissentient voice, that — " The 
interference of any private individual, having no civil or legal right 
or position qualifying him to do so, is calculated, as experience hnd 
proved in this case, to cause serious misunderstanding as to the 
real facts, to weaken the authority of the Government over the 
natives, and, indirectly, to endanger the safety of the country, as 
well as to prejudice harmonious relations between the white and 
black races." The Council further justified the action of tho Governor 
as being " lenient, and the only humane course open," and expressed 
regret " that privately circulated documents, which had been per- 
mitted to guide the home Government and public opinion of Eng- 
land to the harsh conclusions that had been formed, had not been 
placed within the reach of the Council or Colony."* 

* Parliamentary Blue Book, c 1342, 1875, pp. 47—51. 

Natal in tti Relation to South Africa. 


ily a abort time before this, the clersy had protested in the 
I have referred to, and addresses had been coming in to the 
effect from Grey Town and all parts of the Colony, all pro- 
" against deliberate garbling of facts." Borne from farmers 
among the tribes, one from Biggersberg " deprecating the 
action and writing of the Bishop of Natal. ... as having no 
foundation in fact, . . . the manifesto of the so-called Peace 
•a palpably nntrne : " whilst one of April, 1874, with 1,683 
" gives denial to such wholesale and reckless slander."* 
ly had the Cape Government, some time before the outbreak, 
intelligence showing that arrangements were being made 
Langalibalele and Basuto chiefs for his retreat in case of 
an with the Natal Government, and though this rising had 
naptlv suppressed that the proclamation of martial law, 
the 11th November, which announced the treacherous and 
slaughter of three volunteers and two natives, was 
eleven days after, and the rebel chief was a prisoner within 
. month, the agitation had been started from Natal so energetically 
thai we find the Anti-Slavery Society in London corresponding with 
the Government on the 20th January, 1874, and the Eumprnn MM 
of the 26th, publishing the sensational article before referred to, 
entitled '* Atrocities in Natal :" and among the many letters that 
poured in from these societies, in the face of the universal denial of 
their troth, one of the 4th May speaks of documents from (lie 
Bishop of Natal as ''therefore to be considered authentic," and 
aer a»ks for their " early insertion in the Blue Book," where no 
ibi they would leave their indelible mark long before the accused 
he heard. 

Benjamin Pine well describes the position, when, on the 1st 
June. 1874, he writes : " We were, in fact, blamed by our 
fmnente for not waiting till the natives had carried fire and blood- 
■bed into the Colony." But, fortunately for the Colony, Sir B. Pine 
d Sir B. Frere were men who had the horrors of the Christmas 
1884, which you have heard of, before them, and dared to risk 
position and reputation to save their fellow-countrymen from 
calamities. What may be in store in the future, unless 
in England wakes up to a knowledge of those who delude 
or colonists arm to protect their lives as the TranBvaal 
mo determined to do, is a prospect saddening to all who by 
etrcoxnstances are colonists, and wish, above all, to continue loyal 
and "British." 

(. I-Sl- 

Blue Book, c. 1025, 1974; e. 1119, 1875; o. 1121, 1875; 


Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 

Soon after these warnings, other events began to thicken. Wars 
of races commenced on the border of the Transvaal, soon to be 
followed by war on the Cape frontier, war within the Colony, 
beyond and around Kimberly, even to the very borders of Natal at 
Kokstadt, which would take too much time to refer to further than to 
say thousands of natives fell, and many white men too. Meanwhile 
Government had information of negotiation passing between the 
various tribes. Langalibalele, the great wizard, had, in 1873, 
communication with the Basutos.* Ketchwayo had Bent an embassy 
to Natal about him ; his messengers, too, had been reported in 
every direction — in one case offering £ 2,000 to Sekukuni — some 
were Bent to tri'bea between the Colony and the Cape. Yet, whilst 
all this was discredited by those who " refuse to believe all evi- 
dence that does not coincide with their own peculiar viewB," the 
mischievous influence was bearing its fruit fast 

To what extent this interference continued, when Sir Henry 
Bulwer was Governor, will appear from the narrative of facts, Borne 
of which -cannot fail to supply material by which to estimate at 
its value the information coming from the Bishop's station, and to 
this I shall at once refer. Already, before Sir Garnet Wolseley left 
Natal, a petition of grievances, of an insolent character, had been 
presented to him, professing to bear about 800 signatures of 
natives from the various mission-stations of the Colony ; but 
which, when repudiated from all quarters, was discovered to have 
been concocted by a leading native of Bishop Colenso's station, 
who admitted to have signed most of the names himself without 
any authority, even to including those of fifty or sixty dead men, 
who, he said, though dead, he knew were with him in spirit. When 
this petition was applied for by the Legislative Council to verify 
the truth of the report that a page of signatures was in a female 
hand, a copy, instead of the original, was supplied by Sir He: 
Bulwer, and inquiry thus stifledt 

It is important to proceed with what bears on this man's e 
dence. It was this same leading native who, two years after, pai 
a visit to Ketchwayo, soon after the TranBvaal annexation. The 
account of his visit waB published in Macmiltan, in March, 1878, 
with the Bishop's testimony to this man's reliability ; whilst it was 
he, the concoctor of this forged petition, who has ever been 
prominently referred to in the many cases brought against Sir B. 



• Parliamentary Blue Book, c. 1025, 1874, p. 38. 
f Proceedings «f Natal Legislative Council ; also letters in Natal 
July to September, 1676. 

S atal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


Pine and the Colony, and probably still misleads the British public 
and stray visitors to Natal. 

A short time before that, Major Brackenbury, writing by command 
of Sir Garnet Wolseley, communicated to Dr. Colenso, that " it was 
through the Klip River country that he, the Bishop of 
bad sent messengers into that country stirring up the natives 
the hope that the late chief Langalibalele would return to 
Natal, and applying to them for money to effect that return ; " that 
deposition* had been taken, and one of the messengers sent further 
» tiled. ** Yon are to send your children with money to him, and he 
will teach them to read."* It was also about this period that 
satire* of one of the rebel tribes (Putili), employed on public 
works under Colonel Durnford, had their wages doubled, and the 
increase (it was said with their consent) paid to the Bishop to 
form a fund to purchase land for them. AH these matters were a 
Utile later referred to in the Legislative Council without result or 

It is impossible from all this to avoid the plain conclusion, that 
the information which reaches England from this source is either 
to be relied on, worthless, or worse, and that there can be no honest 
inquiry without sifting it. After all, the grievance in South 
Africa is this day very much that stated by Reticf in the 
manifesto he left behind him in 1835, when he became a wanderer, 
via., ■ unjustifiable odium cast upon the inhabitants by interested 
parsons, whose testimony is believed in England to the exclusion of 
all endence in their favour." There is no lack of proof that this 
interference was constantly complained of, even by Sir Henry 

To proceed. It was soon after the Transvaal annexation that 
Xafema, in June, 1877, paid that visit to Ketchwayo, during which 
he says he told the king that Bishop Colenso's son had arrived in 
Natal " to take in hand in the law courts all matters concerning 
natives ;"', and, in connection with this, the Blue Book tells us of 
important events which I must refer to, being the key to the future 
Zola war and the confirmed hostility of the Dutch to that annexa- 
tion which had been effected wilh twenty-five policemen in the previous 
April. We first hear then of Zulu messengers stopping at the Bishop'B 
station, and sent on in December of the same year to his son, or, 
the Bishop's own words, " who naturally went to him." On 
1 1th, Messra Smith and Colenso claim to have been appointed 

• Parliamentary Blue Book o. 1342, 1875, p. 26. 

: ruceedinga of Natal Legislative Council, 1875. 
: MtmxlUm, March, 1876. 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

Ketchwayo's diplomatic agents to treat with the British Govern- 
ment on the boundary dispute, by virtue of a document signed by 
those same messengers that day. On the 14th the Colonial 
Secretary refused to acknowledge them. On the 28th December, 
Sir H. Bulwer reported to England, that Magema, a confidential 
native of the Bishop's, had been in communication with Eetohwayo ; 
that he had gone to the king's kraal and received cattle from him. 
He also referred in that despatch to the strange behaviour of the 
messengers who were said to have given this authority to Messrs. 
Smith and Colenso, and pointed out how seriously this interference 
affected the public service. On the 11th February, 1878, Sir H. 
Bulwer further reverted to the discrepancies between the statements 
made by the Bishop and those of his son, together with Ketchwayo's 
repudiation of the transaction, Ketchwayo stating that he had told 
the Bishop's son, when he was at his kraal, " the Zulus don't want 
you or your father to interfere in their matters." And the Governor 
further reported that the messengers themselves denied having 
been authorised to sign such authority as Unit claimed." 

Let us now note what was occurring during this brief and most 
eventful period, for though it was one little noticed, it was that 
in which the germ of the future war was planted. To deal with that 
period between Magenia'e visit in June .the claims of the Bishop'ssou 
Mr. Colenso, and his partner to be diplomatic agents on 11th Decem- 
ber, 1877, ard the Governor's report of the 11th February, lb78, it 
is a noteworthy fact that, but a few weeks after Smith aud Colensos'b 
claim was put in and rejected by the Governor, Ketchwayo sends, 
and that for the first time, an insulting message, in which Sir T. 
Shepstone is calleda " fire-brand," and Sir H. Bulwer asked to deal 
with the question in dispute instead of him. About the same period, 
on the Kith of November, we hear of the menace ; on the 22nd of tbu 
aggression of the Zulu army, 2,000 strong, on our border ; on tlw 
27 th of the loss and damage to the Dutch farmerBond their crop 
twenty farms were abandoned to the cupidity of the Zulus." On the 
1 lth of December, Sir XL Bulwer writes that " the king is claiming 
uow territory far beyond that ever known as being in dispute." 
On the 0th of December, 1877, that " the whole country 
watered by the Pongolo, and that between the Blood and Buffalo 
rivers, has been abandoned, one cause being the farmers see no 
support ;'' whilst on the 18th of December, all in the same year, 
Sir T. Shepstone writes to Messrs. Smith and Colenso that " the 
unauthorised meddling from Natal in the matter now pending 

* Parliiuiumt&ry Blue Book, o. 2073, 1878, pp. 67, 76, 89, 98. 

Xatal in U» Relation to South Africa. 


the Government of the Transvaal and the Zulu king, Lad 
already caused the evacution of scores of farms and loss of much 
property, and would contribute more towards shedding of blood than 
kee." And whilst this was going on, as a record to contradict 
ee who call Sir B. Frere the sole author of the war, we find, on 
13th of December, 1877, a year before the war broke out, 
em. Smith and Colenso themselves writing of hostilities as more 
it than was yesterday supposed, and on the 12th of January, 
1878, of Mr. Chesson, for his society, expressing " deep regret at 
■pact of hostilities between this country and Ketohwayo," whilst 
is a dispatch from the Colonial Office early in 1878, urging 
local organisation in Natal, whilst that of 4th December, 1877, 
iU " the critical position so created for Natal by any collision 
on the border).* 
Such were some of the events which occurred immediately after 
thi* vi-it in June of the now notorious Magema. Whatever real 
in he might or might not have had from Dr. Colenso, in black 
white or otherwise, no one can doubt the effect which his visit 
lost hare produced on the natives in spreading the seeds of future 
war ; for they knew well of the Bishop's personal hostility to Sir T. 
Bhepstone, the Transvaal Administrator. Unfortunately even in 
this caae, although Sir H. Bulwer condemned this interference, he 
lUnued to be guided by it ; for it was at Dr. Colenso's instigation 
i the Governor of Natal interfered between Ketchwayo and Sir 
gbepetone, and that at the worst possible time — just after the 
of the king's insolent message about the Queen's representa- 
j in the Transvaal. On this followed the unfortunate Boundary 
in, which practically gave the final blow to the lasthopefor 
As to its composition, it was at ouce everywhere generally 
condemned in the Colony as packed, and a weak yielding to the 
Bishop's influence. Its proceedings were watched and denounced 
freely whilst it was sitting for the unfair way in which it dealt with 
Dutch and Colonial evidence, t to such an extent that Mr. H. 
e, the Secretary of Natve affairs, reported on it, whilst, as 
he aeid, Zulus were treated with every tenderness. All this time, 
their arrogant manner was tolerated by the Commission, and was 
widely spoken of as a sign that the natives believed all that was 
bang done was through fear — an idea which is the straight 
road to war. A gentleman was present, who, five years before, had 
appointed, jointly by Ketchwayo and Sir T. Shepstone, to 

• Parliamentary Blue Book, a. 2079, 1878, p. G7. 
t Parliament*;/ Blue Book, o. 207S, 1878. 


Natal in, its Relation to South Africa. 

mark that very boundary-line, and could, therefore, give the best 
evidence of all ; but he was not called. In truth, the foregone con: 
cluaion seemed arrived at to pacify the Zulus at all costs, regard- 
less of the Dutch and their long-established homesteads. 

In the meantime acta of native aggression continued ; regiments 
kept coming into Natal, and being moved up, Sir A. Cunynghame 
applying for cavalry and artillery, all contradicting the assertion 
that no one thought of war until Sir Bartle Frere's arrival. Why, 
tbe Dutch farmers on that border were urging that, if we would 
not defend them, at least we would permit them to arm and call on 
their friends for aid. Later, in May, 1878, their appears a petition 
signed by them stating : " Your Excellency told us, in your procla- 
mation of the 12th April, 1876 (at the annexation), ' your property 
will be protected, and all change you will find will be in the 
direction of increased security.' . . . Ab your Excellency spoke 
of the weakness of our former government, we had reason to expect 
the stronger power would help us after twelve months' patience, 
instead of holding conference with thieves . . . As we see the 
weakness of the strong Power we repeat the offer made in the 
petition of February last to supply us with ammunition, and not 
prevent us from seeking help from our friends and countrymen, who 
might help us to resist these marauders."* 

The reply refuses, as the demand is " impossible for a civilised 
government to sanction." 

Even then, and for some time after, the Dutch discontent did 
not culminate, for before the Zolu war Sir Evelyn Wood was 
reported to have met the Dutch, and to have had a promise of 
large support from them; but, when the award of the Com- 
mission appeared, the injustice of which was denounced in 
every official document, except a weak defence of it from 
Sir H. Bulwer, from that moment the Dutch, who had not for- 
gotten their wrongs, and the Christmas of 1884, saw similar in- 
fluences at work in the deliberate proposal to hand over those 
farms, which had been long held by them, to the natives — from 
that moment European revolutionary agencies and outside agitators 
found in them resolute men, determined to resist that Power which 
refused them the right to defend themselves, and seemed resolved 
to sacrifice them all to the black. 

The rest is shortly told : Sir Bartle Frere's ultimatum, accom- 
panied by Sir Henry Bulwer's written and detailed approval of it, 
oven though its issue might lead to hostilities — the Zulu war — 

• Parliamentary Blue Book, o. 2 Hi, 1878, pp. 190, 191 

Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

the Zola Mttlement, and continued influences exercised by the 
aam<: parties ever able to get the English ear and sympathy — all 
this confirmed the work, and those able men who were seeking their 
opportunity in England's difficulty found their field ripe, and have 
worked it well. And let there be no delusion, they are trying to 
work it still further ; and in this they cannot fail to succeed, unless 
Englaud'8 common sense awakes from its delusions, and loams to 
loan trustfully on the wisdom and humanity of her sons, even 
though they be far away in Africa. 

It would be idle for me to deny the conviction that the position has 
bean more critical. Even now, whilst Rome is burning Nero 
u fiddling and creating further causes of discontent, playing the 
of Ketchwayo's release, which will most certainly be 
1; and let it be borne in mind, as a feature of native 
baling, that there has ever been a looking up to someone among 
native* as supreme, at one time Hintza, at another Ereli. After 
Sir George Cathcart's repulse, it was Moshesh, then Eetchwayo, 
now it is the Basatos who have shown an unexpected strength 
are a formidable organised military power, which has been 
by expressions of sympathy within the British Parliament 
in iU resistance to tbe Cape government. 

If natives and colonists, whether English or Dutch, can ever be 
got to believe in England's restored prestige, and its firm 
determination to check or assist in the repression of native revolt, 
and would look sympathetically on the troubles of the white 
i, even the Dutch would be loyal to her government and a 
?th to the Empire. If not, and the English and Dutch 
eoloniate unite, as they certainly will be forced to do, for their own 
protection, it will be in a union which no one who values the 
integrity of tbe British Empire could view without alarm. 

[ have dealt with Natal in its relation to South Africa bo ex- 
ly that little time is loft to refer to its early difficulties and 
to oertain peculiar Zulu ideas, which deserve to be reflected upon. 
The risks arising from the rush of fugitives which I have alluded 
to wen embarrassing, the Colony being young and its revenue not 
tSU.OOO. To send them back would have been helping at their 
i. and, though I shame to say it, done in late years by the 
government, this idea was scouted by early colonists. The 
fugitives were received, protected, and supplied with land. Next, 
were they to be managed ? We had neither men nor money 
i to create a police, and England refused a penny. It was easy 
to destroy their system, but how build up another? Hence they 
left under their chiefs, the noted Langahbalele being one. 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

The abolition of polgamy and chieftainship was doubtless discussed, 
but how substitute anything practical ? Better some law than none, 
and the native laws of inheritance and polygamy therefore remained ; 
whilst if the unforeseen numbers in which they poured in made 
matters difficult and dangerous then, how much more must 
they do bo now ? As to land tenure, it was evident under tribal 
holdings, as the tribes increased in population and civilisation 
pressed on, so the people would feel closed in upon, and land 
troubles arise. To meet this the Legislative Council in 1861 wished 
gradually to substitute land titles to individuals in lieu of to tribes, 
but this was strenuously objected to by the Colonial Office. That 
system which enables a chief to rise with histribe against the authority 
of government, as Langalibalele did, is undoubtedly bad, but so far 
it has supplied the government with allies. Then, among other 
questions, is one which is based on the idea that a large native 
population within the Colony is more dangerous than one beyond 
the border. Those who hold to this opinion have perhaps not re- 
flected on the fact that every Kafir war has had its origin in thefts 
and raids from beyond the borders, where tribes are outside the 
control of the government. 

With a few words about Zulu peculiarities, I shall close. It is 
frequently said that it was due to Kctchwayo'a forbearance 
that Natal was not overun after Isandhlwana. This is a very 
great mistake, for not only did the Zulus suffer at that 
very time three severe defeats — -at Inyazane from Colonel Pearson, 
where they loBt 500 men, another defeat two days after from 
Colonel Wood at Slobaue, and in the smaller affair at ftorke's 
Drift — but the rivers were liable to flood, and, more than all 
nothing could be more opposed to their military system than 
to make such an inroad. The late Mr. Fynn, who came to Natal in 
1822, was often taken on by Chaka and Dingaan in their warB, 
and understood their system better perhaps than any white man 
did, said distinctly : '< The Zulus never fight for an idea ; but only 
for plunder : it will never serve their purpose to carry their raids any 
distance beyond retreat within a day, unless they kill and destroy 
everything that can assist a hostile party to intercept them with their 
booty. When Chaka went far he killed and destroyed everything on 
his path.*' Bo correct is this, that I remember a native speaking 
of a panic among some neighbours of ours, saying, " What are they 
afraid of? The Zulus cannot finish killing everyone on the way 
without giving ample time to them to escape." Another feature in 
their system (speaking on the same authority) explains how it is 
the Zulus never attacked our long columns on the march. Though 

Xatal in its Relation to South Africa. 


admirably organised for concentration of their regiments, and skil- 
ful to throwing oat and drawing in and skirmishing with their 
M horns " with the object of hrBt surrounding the smaller force, once 
their great rash is made, and they break into the attack, whether 
in victory they plunder or in defeat they fly, their organisation is 
fur the time completely at an end. Hence as they could not sur- 
round our long columns they waited for them to collect The 
battle uf luyazane is no exception, for the Zulus were hiding and 
waiting for our waggons to get together for breakfast, but they 
vcro literally trodden upon by some of our natives, which pre- 
ci pita ted the fight in the open, and they were completely defeated 
by our advance before the column could close up. 

It is because I like the Zulus, with all their faults, that I seek 
to expose the evils which threaten us. I have lived among them 
for -years, and know it is to their interest that they should be 
ruled with firmness, and that they wish it too. The Zulus are fine 
jovial grown-up children, have no such a thing as revenge in their 
nature ; cruel in war as savages they are, but the staunch way 
tbey stood by our youug colonists shows they appreciate their 
position, and deserve protection from mistaken kindnesses of 
unwise friends. 

1 said the Zulu is a jovial fellow — happy and, wealthy, too is the 

Zulu of Natal Who has ever seen a pauper among them ? — I never 

have. Who seen a Kafir accept a copper ? or " debilish " as they call 

it (in truth, I see more coppers in London in a week than 1 have 

.; twenty-seven years in Natal), and 1 have seen the broad grin 

his face wnen offered even a threepenny-piece, asking if it would 
/ Whilst another would refuse 5s. to carry a message, and 
almost immediately start to the same place to recover Is. tid. due to 
him. Yet they are shrewd fellows. Who is more able to measure 
bis man and detect the gentleman than the Zulu ? Who quicker to 
givs characteristic names ? And who calls the florin Scotchman, 
because the canny Boot won't give half-a-crown if the florin will 
do? Why, the Kafir ! 

Another feature, and I have nearly done. When a discussion 
•rose as to the probability of Ketchwayo being assassinated, as his 
anoh* were, '* Uow can that be," said a native, " if it be true, as you 
aay that his brothers have all deserted him i for no one can kill a 
lung who is not of his family 1 " 

To all this may be applied more than one instructive moral, for 
ths relations of oivihsed men with savages are full of complications. 
.J with the following suggestive questions I conclude. 

Why do the tribes further north make prisoners of their enemies, 



Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

whilst the Zulu kills all on his path ? Simply I think because the 
one can sell men and the other cannot. Why, after centuries of 
occupation was it that the Portuguese could not leave their lines in 
safety, whereas from the first British settlement young colonists, 
either for sport or trade, could cast themselves boldly and alone 
among native tribes and return unhurt ? I believe it was because 
the natives very soon appreciated the qualities of courageous 
firmness, mixed with the spirit of justice ; and therein as English- 
men rests our strength. 


Mr. J. Bebgthbtl : If my grey hairs did not remind me that I 
am getting an old man, the interesting paper read by my friend 
Mr. Saunders,, and the history which he has brought before us to- 
night, could leave no doubt of the fact upon my mind. For many 
times have I heard him, in the Legislative Council of Natal, de- 
bating on questions affecting the Colony and the natives in the 
same forcible and eloquent language which he has used here 
to-night. Sometimes we agreed, sometimes I had cause to differ 
from him. To-night he refers to Sir Benjamin Durban, after 
whom the seaport town of Durban was called ; to Peter Retief and 
Solomon Maritz, the founders and, bo to speak, godfathers of Pieter- 
nmrttzburg ; and to other prominent men from 1835 to the present 
day. I have known personally most of these men, and have been 
an actor, to a greater or less extent, in the whole history. When I 
look back on this history, I must confess, with feelings of shame, 
that, as far as the natives are concerned, it is a sad history, and 
one of which neither the Government nor the people of England 
have any cause to be proud. When Sir Benjamin Durban came 
to the Cape, the Frontier Kafirs, as they were then called, had beeu 
bo mismanaged by former Governors that nothing was left for him 
but with a strong hand and with the assistance of the English to 
enforce law and order, and make such arrangements as, in his 
judgment, were best calculated to produce the future well-being of 
the Colony. On his arrival in the Colony, depredations, inroads, 
plundering, robbing, and murdering of white men by natives were 
the order of the day. Quite different, however, was it when a few 
years later I arrived in Natal, At that time there was, comparatively 
speaking, no Government — only a few Boers occupied the place 
subsequently called Pietermaritzburg, and a few English (eight or 
ten in number) had settled at the spot now called Durban. The 
surrounding country was occupied by thousands of natives, mostly 
8, whose number was daily increased by Zulu refugees. I 

Xatal in its Relation to South Africa. 


lived In Durban and was engagad in trade. The email house, or 
rather hut, which I used both as a dwelling and a storehouse was 
Literally without lock or key. Now, although surrounded by 
hundreds of natives, I frequently left the place in that condition in 
charge of one Zulu for days and weeks together, and I never 
remember having missed even the value of a penny. White men 
and women lived and moved about amongst the natives, and even 
travelled the length and breadth of the Colony, withoot fear of 
being in any way molested by them. The natives were always 
civil and hospitable, and always had a laugh, or rather grin, on their 
faces. During the half-century that has passed since then I do not 
remember a single murder committed by a native on a white man, 
either in Natal or in the Zulu country, until within the last seven or 
eight years. (Cheers.) All of you here who are acquainted with 
the Colony, from your own knowledge, as well as from the able 
■peach of Mr. Saunders, must see that matters have changed 
very much for the worse. Now we hear of nothing but wars and 
rumours of wars, and discontent prevails on every side, both on 
the Cape frontier and in Natal. I ask myself, Who is to blame for 
thie state of things ? I have seen nearly every Governor of the Cape 
arrive and depart ; I have seen nearly every Governor of Natal arrive 
and depart ; and am I to be told that not one of these men, all able 
and well-intentioned, could foresee that a native, uneducated as he 
is, when he cornea in contact with white men, must deteriorate and 
ulumat«ly become dangerous, owing to his facility of acquiring the 
vices without the good qualities of a civilised nation ? It was fore- 
Men, but I am sorry to say that Downing Street refused to do any- 
thing, or allow anything to be done, trusting in the adage, "Let 
well alone." I remember being in England during the Govern- 
ment of Lord John Russell, at a time when thousands of Zulus 
were swarming into Natal for refuge. I called upon the Colonial 
Minister for the time being, and urged upon him to establish 
schools in the native locations, and to make it one of the conditions 
of the natives being allowed to enter the Colony that they should 
send their children to school. I pointed out to him that the 
natives were perfectly docile, and willing to do what they were told ; 
and that if the children were compelled to go to school they would, 
in fifteen or twenty years' time, be prepared to come in contact 
with white men without danger either to themselves or to him. I 
i met by the reply that England had no money to spend for that 
and that the system which I recommended would virtually 
amount to compulsory education, which would do very well for 
Prussia but not for England or her Colonies. Now, we have been 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

using gunpowder and buckshot against the ZuIub, bnt we have 
compulsory education in England. I do not hesitate to say that 
I love the Zulu race ; they are a fine race of men, and deserve a far 
better fate than that with which they have met— (cheers) — and I 
unhesitatingly affirm that the system of governing the Colonies from 
Downing Street is alone responsible for the present state of affairs 
in Zulnland. (Hear, hear.) I do not specially blame either the 
Liberal or the Conservative Government ; it is the system of 
which I complain. Every Governor takes his instructions from 
Downing Street, but he also has his own idea of how to manage 
the natives. With regard to his instructions, the ignorance of 
Colonial affairs that existed, nay, does exist at the present moment, 
in Downing Street, has been forcibly exemplified by Mr. Saunders ; 
and no Governor was allowed time to carry out his idea of govern- 
ment before he was replaced by someone who undid all his work 
and laid the foundation of another system of government, which 
would no doubt have been successful had it not been overthrown 
by the next Governor. (CheerB.) Until the system of constant 
interference from Downing Street is changed, you may depend upon 
it that Ihe natives will continue to deteriorate. The colonists can 
very well take care of themselves, and in their own interests they 
will look after the natives and see that they are safely governed and 
improve, and I do not hesitate to say that the majority of the 
colonists love the natives as much as, and more than, the people at 
home. I repeat again, the fault lies with England, in that you will 
not trust your children in the Colonies; that you listen to anv 
talebearer from the Colonies, so long as he reviles the colonists and 
praises up the natives ; that you will persist in believing that you 
can govern the people of Natal from Downing Street better than 
they can who live in the Colony. (Cheers.) Mr. Saunders has 
told an anecdote showing the ignorance that existed in England of 
the condition of the Colony. I can furnish another. I remember 
on one occasion the officer in command of the troops in Pieter- 
maritzhurg asked for a veterinary Burgeon to be sent from England. 
The reply was, " That the horses, if they were ill, could be taken 
to the veterinary surgeon at Grahamstown : " this place was 
between 500 and 600 miles distant. (Laughter and cheers.) 

Mr. Mortoh Ghf.en : It affords me great pleasure to bear testi- 
mony as an old colonist to the value of the paper read this evening ; 
and I know of no one in the Colony more competent from experi- 
ence and long residence to have mirrored forth such an accurate 
statement of the facts that have existed than Mr. Saunders thie 
>ng. He baa so exhausted the subject that I feel incapable of 

Natal in its Relation to South Afrira. 

following him. I endorse what the lost speaker said in reference 
to Use natives. I bear ready testimony to the value of the natives 
if properly treated, and I am sore that in the future government of 
Natal if they are properly handled, we shall have a very valuable 
adjunct always to our hands. (Hear, hear.) 

Benjavin Pink, K.C.M.G. : My Lord Duke, ladies and 
gentleman. — I feel great reluctance to speak this evening, because 
my namo has been more than once mentioned in the course of Mr. 
SrasdeiV moat able address. Nevertheless, I think it only due to 
that gentlemen to say that I believe this Institute and the country 
generally are under great obligations to him for having told 
tb«m the truth about South Africa. (Hear, hear.) I believe the 
fosta brought to your notice to-night are exceedingly important, 
and that if they are well weighed, and, if they enter into the minds 
and consciences of Englishmen, will do a great deal to stop that 
meddling interference with the affairs of the Colonies which has 
led to en much blood-spilling. (Hear, hear.) I do not hesitate to 
•ay that the first interference with the policy of Sir Benjamin 
Dnrban in 1888, to use the words of a Wesleyan missionary, de- 
lngod 8onth Africa. (Hoar, hear.) His immediate successor, 8ir 
George Napier — a man selected from the opinion that he was 
favourably inclined to the nativns, that he was, in fact, a philan- 
thropist—did not hesitate to say that Sir Benjamin Durban's policy 
wae right. He said that those treaties entered into by Sir 
Benjamin Durban, although strictlv observed by the white man, 
em thrown to the winds by the Kafir, and that the blame of the 
cnhaeqnent hostilities did not rest with the white man, but with 
the i>eople who had been made to think that the prestige and power 
of England had waned. (Hear, bear.) I wish to go on to Natal, 
was a Colony that deserved the protection atone time, 
and now the forbearance, of England, it is the Colony of Natal. 
(Hear, hnar.i It was not a Colony in which Englishmen settled 
of their own accord, as in New Zealand, and then were followed 
i nment. It was a Colony wrested from the Dutch — I 
think very unwisely — and then held out as a field for emigration to 
men. (Hear, hear. ) If there was a case in which England 
wae bound to protect the few people who went and settled there 
with their families at the risk of their lives, it was this Colony. 
Inetead of which, what was done during the whole time ? Why, a 
wing of s regiment, only 400 strong at the very outside, and a 
•mall number of Cape Mounted Rifles, was the only force sent 
then. Afterwards that small detachment of cavalry was t>< 
away, and the 400 infantry, which everybody knows are utterly 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

useless in Kafir wars, were left. These, with 1,700 white men, 
women, and children, were left in the midst of an overwhelming 
native population within and without the Colony. (Hear.) Well, 
I shall pass over the matter to which Mr Saunders has referred, in 
which I acted as my conscience told me was right. There was a 
rebellion, and I put it down. I come now to the case of the last 
war, the war with the Zulus, in which Sir Bartle Frere bore a 
very great part. I have only the honour of a very slight acquaint- 
ance with Sir Bartle Frere, but I mast say a few words in his 
defence. It is clear from what Mr. Saunders has said that the war 
was brewing long before Sir Bartle Frere ever arrived in the Colony, 
and that he could not help himself — (loud cheers, and hear, hear) 
^and what made the war imminent, which precipitated the Zulu 
war, was the annexation of the Transvaal. Not only were " the 
germs of the war," as Mr. Saunders has said, planted long before 
8ir Bartle Frere came to the Colony, but another thing which 
occurred after he arrived showed the utter unfairness of casting 
the war upon that distinguished man. (Cheers.) Why, Sir 
Henry Bulwer, whose authority has been held so highly, 
completely approved of Sir Bartle Frere'a memorandum. 
(Hear, hear.) I hold in my hand the memorandum of Sir 
Henry Bulwer, in which he gives his entire approval to Sir Bartle 
Frere's memorandum, in which he (Sir Bartle) demanded of Cety- 
wayo to lay down his arms and disband his army. Sir H. Bulwer 
Bays : " I beg to express my concurrence generally in the con- 
clusion of the High Commissioner, and in the terms which Ids 
Excellency proposes to lay down." And again : " The terms here 
mentioned are terms which I think the British Government has a 
right to make, and if they are rejected a right to insist upon." 
And again he says : "We must not conceal from ourselves that the 
issue may result in hostilities." (Hear, hear.) Sir H. Bulwer 
could scarcely more strongly have expressed hia approval of that 
war, and yet the attempt is made to throw the whole of the odium 
— such as it is — of that war upon Sir Bartle Frere. Nothing is 
more unjust. (Cheers.) I will say a word about the annexation 
of the TransvaaL In that policy I differ from a great many of 
my friends, and I believe from Sir Bartle Frere himself. I look 
upon that act as a crime and a blunder. It seems to me that the 
statesmen of that day managed to combine the crime and the 
blunder together. It was a political crime ; it was a crime, because 
the Transvaal people were a free people, and were given freedom by 
hs iit«*<>r the Treaty of the Sand River ; they had been released 
t allegiance to the Crown, and they had done nothing 


-! in its Relation to South Africa. 


which would justify us taking away their freedom. True, their 

ttoamry was empty, but waff that a good reason for going to war ? 

because, if bo, we might go to war with Spain for the same reason. 

Another reason alleged was that they could not defend themselves 

the Zulus. Alas ! the Majnba Hill disaster was a grim 

ly to that. The Dutch could have defended themselves, and 

Id have fought Cetywayo instead of us, if we had let tbem 

done. A great many in England are indignant at Mr. Gladstone's 

Government for having relinquished the Transvaal, and giving it 

op at the time be did. It is a sad thing that we suffered that 

dffrnt ; it is a very mournful thing to think that so many brave 

died on that occasion. (Hear, hear ) But we had done 

wrong ; we had committed a crime, and Mr. Gladstone showed 

great pluck in opposing the so-called " public opinion." (Oh, oh, 

and Hear, hear.) It was more honourable than a hundred victories, 

as it did, the moral courage of this Christian country. 

I am quite prepared for the Jingoes. (Laughter.) I 

k this is as much as I need say on tin's occasion, for I think 

Saunders has so completely exhausted the subject, and so 

W and clearly shown the evils of the system of government 

which the Colonies are ruled, that Tneed say no more. I can 

only hope that the policy which was established by Lord Kimberley 

at the Cape in giving the people responsible government will be 

out at Natal. T believe that to be entirely necessary ; I 

it long ago, when Mr. Saunders opposed it I believe 

are evils connected with responsible government, as there are 

with everything else ; but I still think you ought to let the people 

manage their own affairs. (Loud cheers.) 

Th«« Right Hon. Sir Bartlk Frere. Bart, G.C.B., G.C.S.I. (who 
rising was received with repeated rounds of applause), said : 
Lord Duke, ladies and gentlemen, — I can assure you that it is 
great reluctance that I obey the call of the President to 
you on this subject. The fact is, I came here expecting to 
from such an experienced colonist as Mr. Saunders a disserta- 
tion on the relative podtion of Natal as compared with the other 
(Tnlnniwi and countries of South Africa ; and Mr. Saunders will 
me when I Bay that, in place of that, I have listened to a 
able and very full sketch of the history of Natal, in which 
little is said regarding its position as compared with other 
of Sonth Africa— (hear, hear) — though there is much of great 
interest and importance in other respects. The reason which Sir 
Benjamin Pine has given for restricting his remarks on the historical 
ffotinn affects me quite as much as it does him, and I should not 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

dream of venturing to address to you any observiitions regarding my 
share in the history of the past, which I am well content to leave 
to the verdict of the future. (Cheers.) But Mr. Saunders has 
touched, and touched with great ability, and I think with great 
truth, upon some points which are of great importance to tht 
future ; and I think, in the very short time that is allowed us, it 
would be more to the purpose if we consider the future rather than 
the past. (Hear, hear. } There are one or two observations which 
I should like to make on what has fallen from Mr. Saunders ; and 
I would ask you to ponder well whether he is right in saying, 
" Trust rather to Englishmen there " (that is, in South Africa), who 
are no less " English, humane, and practical than yourselves, even 
though they have crossed the Line, and are now colonists." Has 
he good grounds for this opinion ? This is a question of the 
greatest possible importance ; and it is one on which I had many 
opportunities of forming a judgment, and on which I must Hay my 
opinions are very decided ; and I will tell yon, ii you will bear with 
me, why I think he is perfectly correct in what he has said. (Hear.) 
You all know that Natal is a very young Colony, and it differs 
from most other Colonies in the Europeans there being mixed up 
with large numbers of natives, and you may be very much puzsled. 
as all who have not been in the country would naturally be, 
to account for the very different stories you hear of the conn 
and disposition of your own countrymen out in that Colony 
towards the natives. By one party they are painted as fiends, by 
another party as suffering angels — (laughter) — and I will tell you 
why I think, and whon I tluuk, both parties may have some 
element of truth in the descriptions they give. The fact is that 
Englishmen, brought up in England and accustomed to English 
methods of thought, have naturally a great disposition to foal 
sympathy with the oppressed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 
I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever nw 
a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not a 
dozen Englishmen who came forward at once, without asking who 
was right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 
would dirty their hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 
party ? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows up with 
our youth at school, and which is taught us in every duouWoa 
which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us as 
men till old age; and it is 1 >sition which the average 

Englishmen carry with them out to the Colonies. (Hear, hear.) 
Now, I apeak in the prosenoe of a groat many men who have been 
in the Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I would 

Natal in it» Relation to South Africa. 

ask any of them to sat me right if they think I hare overstated the 
case. ("No.") The first impulse of every average Englishman when 
ha goes out to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
oppressed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor ; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is Uie belief which, consciously or 
unconsciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrives in South Africa After a time he finds the natives— (and 
bare let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Saunders and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if he does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
intensely irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
around him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
be baa been accusto med in England, and the natural result is that 
be conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
■comers are generally to be found among the large 
at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
who go out there should often be struck, at first landing, with 
tbsy think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
i who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
or a time the areragt Englishman (remember, I am speak- 
only of the actrage, and what is usual, and there are 
i in every ease), but the attract Englishman, after a while, 
hke most of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
fellow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and whan ha finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
i angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
, he u brought round to the opinion which most old 
like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. Bergtheil have 
, to yon, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
t capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
i to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
i sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen here 
have not been in the country can possibly be. (Hear, hear.) 
. state, as the result of what experience I have, that I very 
a man who had been long in the Colony who did not 
speak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
told aa and in this I think they were quite correct — 
that kindneas. firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
. the natives moat. (Hear, hear. ) After all, as one of 
has said, the native* are extremely like good-humoured 
i children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 



'/ in its Relation to South Afrira. 

dream of venturing to address to you any observations regarding my 
share in the history of the past, which I am well content to leave 
to the verdict of the future. (Cheers.) But Mr. Saunders has 
touched, and touched with great ability, and I think with great 
truth, upon some points which ore of great importance to the 
future ; and I think, in the very short time that is allowed us, it 
would be more to the purpose if we consider the future rather than 
the past. (Hear, hoar. } There are one or two observations which 
1 should like to make on what has fallen from Mr. Saunders ; and 
I would ask you to ponder well whether he is right in saying, 
" Trust rather to Englishmen there " (that is, in South Africa), who 
are no less " English, humane, and practical than yourselves, even 
though they have crossed the Line, and are now colonists." Has 
he good grounds for this opinion ? This is a question of the 
greatest possible importance ; and it is one on which I had many 
opportunities of forming a judgment, and on which I must say my 
opinions are very decided ; and I will tell you, if you wdl bear with 
me, why I think he is perfectly correct in what he has said. (Hear.) 
You all know that Natal is a very young Colony, and it differs 
from most other Colonies in the Europeans there being mixed up 
with large numbers of natives, and yon may be very much puzzled, 
as all who have not been in the country would naturally be, 
to account for the very different stories you hear of the conduct 
and disposition of your own countrymen out in that Colony 
towards the natives. By one party they are painted as fiends, by 
another party as suffering angels — (laughter) — and I will tell you 
why I think, and when I think, both parties may have some 
element of truth in the descriptions they give. The fact is that 
Englishmen, brought up in England and accustomed to English 
methods of thought, have naturally a great disposition to feel 
sympathy with the oppressed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 
I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever saw 
a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not a 
dozen Englishmen who came forward at once, without asking who 
was right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 
would dirty their hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 
party? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows np with 
our youth at school, and which is taught us in every discussion 
which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us as 
men till old age ; and it is this disposition which the average 
Englishmen carry with them oat to the Colonies. (Hear, hear.) 
Now, I speak in the presence of a great many men who have been 
in the Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I would 


Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


aak an; of them to set me right if they think I have overstated the 
case. ("No.'') The first impulse of every average Englishman when 
he goes out to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
oppressed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is the belief which, consciously or 
unconsciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrives in South Africa After a time he finds the natives — (and 
here let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Saunders and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if he does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
intensely irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
around him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
he has been accustomed in England, and the natural result is that 
he conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
These new-oomers are generally to be found among the large 
populations at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
who go ont there should often be struck, at first landing, with 
what they think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
people who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Well, after a time the average Englishman (remember, I am speak- 
ing now only of the average, and what is usual, and there are 
exceptions in every casei, but the average Englishman, after a while, 
being, like most of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
of follow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and when he finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
the angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
is placed, he is brought round to the opinion which most old 
colonists like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. Bergtheil have 
expressed to you, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
and great capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
have to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
and more sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen here 
who have not been in the country can possibly be (Hear, hear.) 
1 would state, as the result of what experience I have, that I very 
rarely met a man who had been long in the Colony who did not 
both speak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
generally told me— and in this I think they were quite correct — 
that kindness, firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
which impressed the natives most. (Hear, hear.) After all, as one of 
the speakers has said, the natives are extremely like good-humoured 
and thoughtless children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 


Natal in its Relation to South A 

dream of venturing to address to you any observations regarding my 
share in the history of the past, which I am well content to leave 
to the verdiot of the future. (Cheers.) But Mr. Saunders has 
touched, and touched with great ability, and I think with great 
truth, upon some points which are of great importance to the 
future ; and I think, in the very short time that is allowed us, if 
would be more to the purpose if we consider the future rather than 
the past. (Hear, hear. } There are one or two observations which 
I should like to make on what has fallen from Mr. Saunders ; and 
I would ask you to ponder well whether he is right in saying, 
" Trust rather to Englishmen there " (that is, in South Afrioa), who 
are no less " English, humane, and practical than yourselves, even 
though they have crossed the Line, and are now colonists." Has 
ho good grounds for this opinion ? This is a question of the 
greatest possible importance ; and it is one on which I had many 
opportunities of forming a judgment, and on which I must say my 
opinions are very decided ; and I will tell you, if you will bear with 
me, why I think he is perfectly correct in what he has said. (Hear.) 
You all know that Natal is a very young Colony, and it differs 
from most other Colonies in the Europeans there being mixed up 
with large numbers of natives, and you may be very much puzzled, 
as all who have not been in the country would naturally be, 
to account for the very different stories you hear of the conduct 
and disposition of your own countrymen out in that Colony 
towards the nativea By one party they are painted as fiends, by 
another party as suffering angels — (laughter) — and I will tell you 
why I think, and when I think, both parties may have some 
element of truth in the descriptions they give. The fact is that 
Englishmen, brought up in England and accustomed to English 
methods of thought, have naturally a great disposition to feel 
sympathy with the oppressed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 
I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever saw 
a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not a 
dozen Englishmen who camo forward at once, without asking who 
wtl right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 
would dirty their hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 
party? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows up with 
our youth at school, and which is taught us in every discussion 
which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us aa 
men till old age; and it is this disposition which the average 
li-limon carry with them oat to the Colonies. (Hear, hear.) 
nv, I apeak in the presence of a great many men who have been 
in the Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I would 

Natal in tit Relation to South Africa. 


ask any of them to set me right if they think I have overstated the 
case. ("No."') The first impulse of every average Englishman when 
he goes oat to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
oppressed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is the belief which, oonsciously or 
unconsciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrives in South Africa After a time he finds the natives — (and 
here let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Saunders and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if he does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
intensely irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
around him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
he has been accustomed in England, and the natural result is that 
he conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
These new-comers are generally to be found among the large 
populations at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
who go out there should often be struck, at first landing, with 
what they think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
people who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Wall, after a time the average Englishman (remember, I am speak- 
ing now only of the average, and what is usual, and there are 
exceptions in every case), but the average Englishman, after a while, 
being, like most of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
of fellow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and when he finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
the angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
is placed, he is brought round to the opinion which most old 
colonists like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. Bergtheil have 
expressed to you, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
and great capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
have to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
and more sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen here 
who have not been in the country can possibly be (Hear, hear.) 
1 would state, as the result of what experience 1 have, that I very 
rarely met a man who had been long in the Colony who did not 
both speak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
generally told me — and in this I think they were quite correct — 
that kindness, firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
which impressed the natives most (Hear, hear.) After all, as one of 
the speakers has said, the natives are extremely like good-humoured 
and thoughtless children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 

/ in it* Relation to Smith A/rim. 

dream of venturing to addroBS to you any observations regarding my 
share in the history of the past, which I am well content to leave 
to the verdiot of the future. (Cheers.) But Mr. Saunders has 
touched, and touched with great ability, and I think with great 
truth, upon some points which are of greut importance to the 
future ; and I think, in the very short time that is allowed us, if 
would be more to the purpose if we consider the future rather than 
the past. (Hear, hear.* There are one or two observations which 
I should like to make on what has fallen from Mr. Saunders ; and 
I would ask you to ponder well whether he is right in saying, 
" Trust rather to Englishmen there " (that is, in South Africa), who 
are no less " English, humane, and practical than yourselves, even 
though they have crossed the Line, and are now colonists." Has 
he good grounds for this opinion ? This is a question of the 
greatest possible importance ; and it is one on which I had many 
opportunities of forming a judgment, and on which I must say my 
opinions are very decided ; and I will tell you, if you will bear with 
me, why I think he is perfectly correct in what he has Baid. (Hear.) 
You all know that Natal is a very young Colony, and it differs 
from most other Colonies in the Europeans there being mixed up 
with large numbers of natives, and you may be very much puzzled, 
as all who have not been in the country would naturally be, 
to account for the very different stories you hear of the conduot 
and disposition of your own countrymen out in that Colony 
towards the natives. By one party they are painted as fiends, by 
another party as suffering angels — (laughter) — and I will tell you 
why I think, and when I think, both parties may have some 
element of truth in the descriptions they give. The fact is that 
Englishmen, brought up in England and accustomed to English 
methods of thought, have naturally a great disposition to feel 
sympathy with the oppressed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 
I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever saw 
a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not a 
dozen Englishmen who came forward at once, without asking who 
was right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 
would dirty tiinr hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 
party? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows up with 
our youth at school, and which is taught us in every discussion 
which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us as 
men till old age; and it is this disposition which the average 
Englishmen carry with them out to the Colonies. (Hear, hear.) 
Now, I speak in the presence of a great many men who have been 
in the Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I would 

Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


ask any of them to set me right if they think I hare overstated the 
ease. ("No.") The first impulse of every average Englishman when 
he goes oat to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
oppressed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is the belief which, consciously or 
unconsciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrives in South Africa. After a time he finds the natives — (and 
bare let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Saundors and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if ho does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
intensely irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
around him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
he h»s been accustomed in England, and the natural result is that 
he conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
These new-comers are generally to be found among the large 
populations at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
who go out there should often be struck, at first landing, with 
what they think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
people who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Well, after a time the average Englishman (remember, I am speak- 
ing now only of the average, and what is usual, and there are 
exceptions in every case), but the average Englishman, after a while, 
being, like most of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
of fellow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and when he finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
the angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
is placed, he is brought round to the opinion which most old 
colonists like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. fiergtheil have 
expreaaed to you, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
and great capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
have to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
and more sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen here 
who have not been in the country can possibly be. (Hear, hear.) 
I would state, as the result of what experience I have, that I very 
rarely met a man who had been long in the Colony who did not 
both speak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
generally told me — and in this I think they were quite correct — 
that kindness, firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
which impressed the natives most (Hear, hear.) After all, as one of 
the speakers has said, the natives are extremely like good-humoured 
and thoughtless children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 


Natal hi Ed Relation to South Af'ririi. 

dream of venturing to address to yon any observations regarding ray 
share in the history of the past, which I am well content to leave 
to the verdiot of the future. (Cheers.) But Mr. Saunders has 
touched, and touched with great ability, and I think with great 
truth, upon some points which are of great importance to the 
future ; and I think, in the very short time that is allowed us, it 
would be more to the purpose if we consider the future rather than 
the past. (Hear, hear. J There are one or two observations which 
I should like to make on what has fallen from Mr. Saunders ; and 
I would ask you to ponder well whether he is right in saying, 
" Trust rather to Englishmen there " (that is, in South Afrioa), who 
are no less " English, humane, and practical than yourselves, even 
though they have crossed the Line, and are now colonists." Has 
be good grounds for this opinion ? This is a question of the 
greatest possible importance ; and it is one on which I had many 
opportunities of forming a judgment, and on which I must say my 
opinions are very dttidad ; and I will tell you, if you will bear with 
me, why I think he is perfectly correct in what he has said. (Hear.) 
Yon all know that Natal is a very young Colony, and it differs 
from most other Colonies in the Europeans there being mixed up 
with large numbers of natives, and you may be very much puzzled. 
as all who have not been in the country would naturally be, 
to account for the very different stories you hear of the conduct 
and disposition of your own countrymen out in that Colony 
towards the natives. By one party they are painted as fiends, by 
another party as suffering angels — (laughter) — and I will tell you 
why I think, and when I think, both parties may have some 
element of truth in the descriptions they give. The fact is that 
Englishmen, brought up in England and accustomed to English 
methods of thought, have naturally a great disposition to feel 
sympathy with the oppressed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 
I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever saw 
a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not a 
dozen Englishmen who came forward at once, without asking who 
WM right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 
would dirty their hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 
party? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows up with 
our youth at school, and which it. taught us in every discussion 
which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us as 
men till old age ; and it is this disposition which the average 
men carry with them out to the Colonies. (Hear, hear.) 
Now, I speak in the presence of a great many men who have been 
in the Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I would 

Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


aak any of tbem to set me right if they think I have overstated the 
case. ("No." 1 ) The first impulse of every average Englishman when 
he goes out to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
oppressed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is the belief which, consciously or 
nncousciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrives in South Africa After a time he finds the natives — (and 
here let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Saunders and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if he does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
intensely irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
around him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
he has been accustomed in England, and the natural result is that 
he conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
These new-comers are generally to be found among the large 
populations at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
who go out there should often be struck, at first landing, with 
what they think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
people who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Well, after a time the average Englishman (remember, 1 am speak- 
ing now only of the average, and what is usual, and there are 
exceptions in every case), but the average Englishman, after awhile, 
being, like most of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
of fellow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and when he finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
the angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
is placed, be is brought round to the opinion which most old 
colonists like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. Bergtheil have 
expressed to you, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
and great capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
have to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
and more sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen hero 
who have not been in the country can possibly be. (Hear, hear.) 
1 would state, as the result of what experience I have, that I very 
rarely met a man wbo had been long in the Colony who did not 
both speak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
generally told me — and in this I think they were quite correct — 
that kindness, firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
which impressed the natives most (Hear, hear.) After all, as one of 
the speakers has said, the natives arc extremely like good-humoured 
and thoughtless children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 

C V ^ n . ) But Me. s-Hm has 
t amurr and I think with great 

Lila, ■■■■■■* .BBKmmH • ^"W« y »«t* 

"(thttk. in Sooth Africa) "who" 
ft— tacni than yuora eh r c a, even 

Ihia m a question of the 

t ■ one an which I had many 

. an which I most say my 

ry tested ; and I wul tell you. if you will bear with 

k« is perfe^ correct n wife* he has said. (Hear.) 

thai Kami is a arj young Colony, and it differs 

there being mixed tip 

may be very much pnx&led, 

a* aQ who hewe not been m the c ountr y would naturally be, 

ery diftereni stories yon hear of the conduct 

roar awn countrymen ont in that Colony 

the natrraa By one party they are painted as fiends, by 

another party aa suffering ■ngwm (raaghrie) — and I will tell yon 

why I think, and when I think, both parties may have some 

ii lament of trath in the ibatiiptifiw they give. The fact is that 

ffo flm im — 1 ( brought up in Kngtand and accostomed to English 

methods of thought, hare natorally a great disposition to feel 

sympathy with the o p pr e ss ed and the weaker party. (Hear, hear.) 

I would ask you whether in any street in England, if you ever saw 

a man maltreating a boy or a woman, whether there were not s 

dozen Englishmen who came forward at once, without asking who 

was right or who was wrong, and without considering whether they 

would dirty their hands or not, to take the part of the weaker 

party? (Hear, hear.) This is the feeling which grows up with 

vouth at school, and which is taught us in every diacussion 

which we have amongst ourselves as boys, and remains with us as 

men till old age ; and it is this disposition which the average 

BflgliahxMD carry with them out to the Colonies. (Hear, hear 

Now, 1 Hpeuk in the presence of a great many men who have bee 

. • Colonies of South Africa longer than I have, and I wool 

Natal in ita Relation to South Africa. 


■ay of them to set me right if they think I have overstated the 
a. ("No.") The first impulse of every average Eugliahman when 
goes oat to South Africa is to believe that the native is always 
ireaeed, and that the Englishman is always the oppressor; and, 
with very rare exceptions, this is the belief which, consciously or 
unconsciously, guides the feelings of an Englishman when he first 
arrive* in South Africa. After a time he finds the natives — (and 
hare let me say I entirely agree with what has been said by Mr. 
Bunders and those who followed him as to the excellent position 
and capabilities of the natives, and especially of the Zulus) —but after 
a time any Englishman, especially if he does not care or is not 
able to make himself understood in their own language, becomes 
irritated by a number of peculiarities of the natives 
him, who are utterly unlike the labouring classes to which 
ha has baen accustomed in England, and the natural result is that 
ha conceives an unreasonable prejudice against the natives. 
Tbaaa new-comers are generally to be found among the large 
populations at the seaport towns, and it is natural that the people 
go oat there should often be struck, at firBt landing, with 
they think the unreasonable prejudice on the part of 
paopla who have been a short time in the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Wall, after a time the average Englishman (remember, I am speak- 
now only of the average, and what is usual, and there are 
in every case), but the average Englishman, after a while, 
being, like moat of his countrymen, an uncommonly practical sort 
of fallow, begins to think he will make the best of a bad bargain , 
and whan ha finds he cannot get away from the inconvenience of 
lha angularities and singularities of the natives amongst whom he 
ia placed, he is brought round to the opinion which most old 
tolfrt'"** like Mr. Saunders and his friend Mr. Bergthcil have 
expreaaed to you, that, after all, there is an immense deal of good, 
and great capabilities for good, in the natives with whom they 
have to deal ; and they become, as far as I have seen, better judges 
more sound friends of the natives than any Englishmen here 
have not been in the country can possibly be. (Hear, hear.) 
I would atate, as the result of what experience I have, that I very 
raraly mat a man who had been long in the Colony who did not 
both apeak and act kindly to the natives. (Hear, hear.) They 
told me— and in this I think they were quite correct— 
kindness, firmness, and steadiness of purpose are the qualities 
which impressed the natives most (Hear, hear.) After all, as one of 
the apeak itu has said, the natives are extremely like good-humoured 
children ; and, like children, they must be firmly 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

dealtwith. ThiB does not mean that they are to he harshly deal t with, 
bnt yon mnst he firm and steady, and tell them at once what yon 
mean, and you must not be capricious ; yon must be reasonable 
with them, and they will always respond to such treatment. They 
are extremely sensible, just as children are, of the slightest kind- 
ness and sympathy. It is because a feeling of sympathy with the 
poor and oppressed and inferior is ingrained in most Englishmen 
that the average Englishman gradually becomes extremely popular 
with the natives. (Hear, hear.) As a general rule, I have 
observed that all the English colonists who have been long in the 
Colonies like the natives, and are well served by them ; and let me 
say in passing that, notwithstanding what you hear of the 
atrocities committed by some people who live far away from 
civilisation, I have observed that the Dutch farmers have servants 
generally who have been so long with them, and are quite as fond 
of them, and even more attached to them and more difficult to 
detach from them by the offer of higher wages, than most of onr 
own countrymen. (Hear, bear.) Every Englishman on his arrival 
goes through a sort of acclimatising process as regards his opinion 
of the natives. He starts by expecting them to be better than it 
would be reasonable to snppose they could he; then, disappointed 
at what he finds them to he, he fancies the natives to be much 
worse than they really are ; and finally, after a few years, he Bettles 
down into the belief that the natives are much like other mortals, 
possessed of many imperfections, but also of very many good 
qualities, which are capable of being developed and increased by 
good treatment. (Hear, hear.) The mental process I have 
described will, I think, account for some of the inconsistencies in 
the opinions we hear regarding the natives, and the feeling of the 
colonists towards natives. However that may be, I entirely concur 
in what Mr. Saunders has said about " there being Englishmen in 
the Colonies who are no less English, humane, and practical than 
we are here in this country." (Applause.) Then let me say one 
word further about what he has said, and what was said by the 
gentleman who followed him, about the best way of dealing with 
the colonists. They have 6aid, and said very emphatically, that 
the best way is to let them manage their own affairs. Now, 
I think we Englishmen are all agreed on this point ; but there 
are a large nnmber amongst us who think that if you let 
the European have his own way in managing his own 
affairs for himself in a Colony like Natal, he is very apt, 
whether a colonist or an Englishman, to oppress the natives. 
Now, this I think ia at the root of a great deal of that do*- 

i which yon hear of the Colonies in this country. (Hear, hear.) 
People in England are prepared to believe that the colonists can 
manage their own affairs for themselves, but they cannot believe that 
the colonist* would do justice to their native neighbours. Now, 
Ut me say that all my experience goes to contradict this impres- 
sion. I speak in the presence of my predecessor in the Cape 
Government, and he will correct me if I am not stating accurately 
what it our experience at the Cape. The Cape, you know, has a 
developed constitution, being an older Colony than Natal ; 
how are the natives treated ? Why, I believe it is the only 
Colony of England where the natives have the vote in every 
franchise that could be conceded to them if they were Europeans. 
(The I>uke of Manchester here made a remark to Sir Bartle Frere, 
who continued) : His Grace reminds me that it is the same in 
New Zealand, where the Maoris have the franchise, and I am very 
much obliged to him for correcting me ; for there in New Zealand 
I believe the results have been quite as satisfactory as in the Cape. 
(Hear, hear.) Now, I ask you to bear in mind that all the rela- 
tions between the natives and European colonists in the Cape 
have been settled by the colonists themselves, and entirely in 
aeoardanoe with their views ; and the result is that any native who 
property for himself, and con come and say, " I have a 
or I have an employment of a certain annual value,'* is 
to the franchise. (Hear, hear.) Now, I ask you, is it 
le. when this is the case, that the natives can long continue 
in any disadvantageous social or pohtical position ? At the Cape 
can rise, and does rise, according to his intrinsic merits 
When he has made his stake in the country he is by 
law entitled to a municipal vote, or a vote for the legislature ; and 
there is nothing whatever in the nature of the franchise to prevent 
: either a member of the Colonial Parliament or a member 
Ministry. Now, this is the result of trusting the colonists. 
.) And I ask you whether it would not be much better to 
that system of trusting our countrymen, rather than to 
keep the white colonists in the position of people who are dis- 
trusted ? (Hear, hear.) I think all our experience is that if you 
do not trast Englishmen, they will not show themselves as worthy 
of trust as they would if you trusted to them implicitly. (Hear, 
hear.) And I believe that everywhere in South Africa you will 
6nd the same results follow winch have followed in the Cape 
Colony, and that you will find, if you give the power to the 
to deal with all these questions as they think best, you 
hare no reason to be ashamed of their treatment of their 



Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

native follow-subjects. (Hear, hear.) For, remember, that in Natal 
especially — and I am speaking more particularly of Natal now— 
the colonists are, as a rule, men very superior in position and 
education to the average Englishman, for this very simple reason : 
there is absolutely hardly any labouring class in Natal of white 
men. Owing to the large numbers of natives and of Indian coolies, 
almost all manual labour is done by others than European 
colonists. (Hear, hear.) There is no field there for the uneduca- 
ted Englishman, who has nothing but his own hands to trust to ; 
unless he has some quality which will enable him to ascend into 
tbe class of employers of labour he had much better go to some 
other Colony, where he can work and make good wages, as he can 
in this country. (Hear, hear.) For this very simple reason the 
population of Natal consists principally, as far as the white popula- 
tion goes, of men who are employers of labour, and a great propor- 
tion of them are English gentlemen. If you were to take any 
portion of the non-manufacturing rural districts of England con- 
taining one or two small cathedral or country towns, and weed out 
the great landed proprietors, and the men who belong to what we 
call the landed aristocracy, and weed out also the actual labouring 
class, the residuum would be, as regards its composition, very 
much like the white colonists in Natal ; and I can only say that 
were I among them I should be always very glad to hear their 
opinions in a Legislative Assembly — a Volksraad or Parliament, or 
whatever you choose to call it. I should always be very glad to 
have their opinions upon all topics connected with the Colony, and 
I should feel assured that the collective opinion would be that of 
high-minded Englishmen. (Cheers.) I must apologise for saying 
so much, your Qrace, but there is a great deal more that could 
said if time did not press so. (Sir Bartle Frere resumed his se 
amid repeated cheers.) 

Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Bart. : I am very far from making any 
kind of complaint, but I think I may observe, as has already bee 
said, that the title of the very interesting paper to which we ha\ 
listened hardly led us to expect exactly the statement which 
have heard. My time here is very short, having to catch a train ; 
but I should like to speak shortly on one or two points. First of 
all, I will touch upon one on which most of us heartily agree. I 
am one of those who hold that the responsibility of the Zulu war 
does not rest on Sir Bartle Frere, I do not express it for the first 
time ; I have expressed it publicly and privately, and, for that 
matter, on the hustings. I think tbat those who hold the contrary 
opinion have either omitted to attend to, or were not well informed 

Natal in its Relation to South Afriat. 


as to the event* of the years immediately preceding the war. But 
I think the more we look into the events that preceded it, the more 
we ese that the responsibility rests upon the officials in those parts, 
•specially in reference to their action with regard to their Boundary 
Commission, and upon the apparently very sudden change of 
opinion which came over the mind of Sir TheophiluB Shepstone 
after the annexation of the Transvaal Now, I do not say that the 

fact had anything to do with the other, but the interval between 
very short, and this must have made it difficult for the 
Zulus to feel that there was not some connection between the two. 
Now, Mr. Saunders has expressed considerable jealousy of opinion 
in England. I do not for a moment question his right to feel some 
dembt about English opinion. It is, perhaps, not expedient that 
we, ao many thousands of miles away, should hold any opinion at 
all ; and if so, it is not expedient that wo should have any informa- 
tion at all ; and then, my Lord Duke, I venture to ask you and 
others, my fellow-colleagues in this society, whether this society 
hae any business to exist at all? (Hear, hear.) Is it not our 
and raison d'etre to collect information so as to form 
? (Hear, hear.) If you do not want to form opinions, 
joo do not want to collect information ; but if you are expecting 
gentlemen in England to collect information, you must expect the 
inevitable result, that they will form opinions, some on one side 
and torn© on the other. (Hear, hear.) Now, some of the South 
Africans tell us, and Mr. Saunders and others will tell us perhaps 
thai we have no business to form an opinion, because sometimes we 
change oar minds. Well, no doubt information does drop upon us 
rather like water from a watering-pot ; it comeB in driblets, and it 
is rather hard to get. (Laughter.) But I would ask yon whether 
you think that public opinion in Natal is always so perfectly steady 
and free from change ? (Hear, hear.) It appears to me that it 
ha* not always borne that character. As to the Zulu war itself, I 
followed the events of that war, and watched with care the 
opinions in the newspapers and the speeches made at Natal upon 
that subject 1 remember the day when the Zulu war at its 
beginning was extremely popular ; people in the country were 
holding op their hands in favour of it, except the gentleman at 
Bienopetowe. But a lew months after came the question of 
and the — perhaps ill-judged — suggestion was made that 

Colony might contribute something towards the expense of the 
I think the amount asked was about sixpence in the pound. 
Bat what was the cry then ? Why, we read all through the news- 
papers paragraphs saying that the Zulu war was altogether forced 


Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 

upon Natal ; that it was not desired by the Colony ; that it was a 
matter of Imperial policy, and let England pay for it. ("Hear, 
hear.") Perfectly true. A friend says " hear, hear," but he repre- 
sents the opinion of that time, and others represent the opinion of 
another time. {Laughter.) Well, again, as to the matter of the sale 
of arms which has been alluded to, there is not a question as to 
difference of policy at one place and another. What could the 
natives expect ? You go to war with the Basutos because they 
have arms. When they went to the diggings they earned their 
wages, with which they bought their guns ; but it did not end 
there. They afterwards went to the magistrate and bought licences, 
and, having got those licences and their guns, they then go else- 
where, and they are told that if they have guns at all they are 
rebels, and if they do not give them up immediately they will be 
made to do so. (Hear.) Well, you know, that is not perfectly 
steady policy. (Laughter.) Take a recent case. We have heard 
something about the change in the appointment of Mr. Sendall. 
That occurs to me as a striking instance. The Natal newspapers, 
for some reason or the other, were furious against the appointment 
of Mr. Sendall. I never heard of Mr. SendaD, I confess, before 
as a Colonial Governor. (Laughter.) Well, now, in the last batch 
of paper b I saw from Natal then: tone was this — " Why, what fools 
they are in Downing-street to make any change at all. We did 
make a shindy, but we never meant it." (Laughter.) That 
seems the sort of opinion which we are told is the opinion that 
" must be right," as those who express it are on the spot. 
Really, it would help us very much to the forming an opinion if 
the colonists would tell us when, in their own opinion, they think 
themselves right. (Laughter.) I do not wish to take any kind of 
advantage by mentioning names ; but I cannot help saying that 
Dr. Phillip's and Bishop Golenso's names have been drawn into this 
controversy, and that the opinions expressed by the one half a 
century ago, and by the other in the present day, were aaid to be 
given from " interested motives." That may mean that those 
gentlemen take a sentimental interest in the subject on which they 
express their opinions, and in that sense that they may be inte- 
rested parties. But we know that, in common parlance, the ex- 
pression means that those persons have a private, personal, and 
perhaps a pocket interest. Now, I think that everyone will 
agree with me in feeling that if charges of that kind are brought 
against those who are gone and those who are living, some facts to 
give a sort of justifiable ground for believing them onght to be 
given us. (Hear, hear.) I cannot accept a statement made 

Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


utiles* it is borne out by further evideuce than has yet reached 
myself. (Hear, hear.) A few facts about the case of Zululand. 
These are the facta about which there is no doubt at all We have 
sent out troops acting under Her Majesty's flag. We have filled 
that country with famine. We found it governed strongly, and we 
have destroyed that government, and have filled the country with 
anarchy. We have left it in the position in which Central Africa 
in, where every tribe is at war with its neighbour. That is the 
position we have set up in Zululand, and 1 feel we have thrown 
tost country back a very long time in its civilisation. (" No, no.") 
Well, I am giving you my opinion, and 1 am pointing it to you as 
a fact that the government is destroyed, and the merest semblance 
of government ia set up in its place. We have anarchy and 
•laughter ; we have not much stealing of cattle, for there is very 
httle left to steal We have burnt the people's granaries, and 
destroyed their crops ; and I say that, having created anarchy 
there, we are bound to replace it by some form of good govern- 
ment. You say you will not hear of the annexation of the 
country by the British Government, and that would be right if 
annexation means the cutting up of the land amongst those who 
wish to buy it cheap. If you cannot have it in any other way, I, 
far my part, should like to try the experiment of reinstating 
Cetywayo on his throne. (Hisses, " No, no," and interruption.) 
Yon are told he was a bloodthirsty governor and a cruel ruler ; but 
the facte on which that opinion was based were the facts of 1856, 
when there was what is called a war of succession, and a great 
deal of brutality went on, just as it would go on in Europe. You 
have had that kind of brutality going on ; but when you find you 
hare, in order to prove it, to go back all those years, 1 think it is 
fair proof that there is not much evidence to be got in very recent 
times. At all events, I hold most strongly that this country has 
brought frightful calamities upon Zululand. ("No, no.") You have 
done it, 1 say, and therefore you are bound, in duty to your God 
and to man, to do your best to set up some form of good govern- 
ment. (Hear, hear.) 

The Hex. O. Buurcowx : My Lord Duke, I shall be greatly 
obliged if your Grace will permit me to reply to Sir Fowell Buxton's 
i about the annexation of the Transvaal. The statement 
more fully made than to-night by him in the Tviui. I replied 
to hie letter, and showed him that he had no authority whatever 
for his imputation upon Sir Theophilus Shepstoue. 1 told him my 
authority ; and I also pointed out the character of the document 
on whiah the Zulu claim was based ; and I also informed him that 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

that document was deposited in the Utrecht Landdrost Court, and 
that Sir Tbeophilus, so far as I knew — and I have had a good 
many conversations with him on this question — did not know that 
that document was there. The writer of that document gave me 
an account of its contents. When Sir Tbeophilus got to Utrecht 
he saw, for the first time, that document which occasioned his 
change of opinion ; and I stated these facts in reply to Sir Fowell 
Buxton's letter in the Times. We had two letters on both sides. 
Then Sir Fowell Buxton has stated that we have produced a con- 
dition of confusion in the Zulu country. Let it be remembered 
that the Natal people and Government had nothing to do with 
thai The English Government sent out, fully complete, that plan 
of government for Sir Garnet Wolseley to enforce. (Hear, hear.) 
They sent a copy of that document to Sir TheophiluB Shepetone, 
at that time in this country, and asked his opinion about it, which 
was that it could not possibly work, and he gave his reasons for 
that opinion. They asked him if he would object to a copy of his 
letter being sent to Sir Garnet Wolseley, and he said, " No, by no 
means ; 1 very much wish that he should see it ; " and the reply 
Sir Garnet sent back web this : " I agree with every word Sir 
Tbeophilus sayB ; but what about my instructions ?'' (Hear, hear.) 
As to our having made the Znlus murderers — it amounts to that 
— that we have Bet them fighting one against the other, Sir Fowell 
Buxton ought to know before he brings an accusation of that sort 
against us, that ever since the English Government was established 
in Natal, ever since Cetywayo had any kind of influence, long 
before he was made king — the English Government in Natal kept 
them from fighting. (Hear, hear.) What does it mean tbat he 
wished to " wash his spears ?" It was the restraint put on him that 
prevented it. I was on the Zulu border at the time of the annexa- 
tion ; I know that Cetywayo had at that time his impi up, and that 
at the very time that the messenger came informing them that the 
Transvaal was annexed he had his indunas discussing the plan of 
the invasion of the Transvaal. (Hear, hear.) As Boon as he 
heard that this messenger had cotne he commanded him to be 
killed, so that he might not receive the message. His indunas 
said, " No, he must not be killed ; he is only a messenger ; he only 
speaks the word of his chief — they are not his words." The induna 
who made this reply was then ordered by Cetywayo to be killed, 
and to be taken out there and then, and the rest of them said, 
" No, he shall not be killed ; he has given his chief the best advice 
he could, and it is good advice, The English are our friends, and 
he has advised what is right with respect to the English." And 

Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 


neit morning Cetywayo said, M Tell 8omtsea it i8 well you came to- 
day ; if yon had not come to-day, in less than a week I should 
hare made a clean sweep from the Drakensburg to Buffalo." I 
had repeated reports from the Zulu country to this effect, and there 
was a universal feeling of indignation, even amongst the old men, 
that had not been felt before, and they said, " It is too bad of the 
Knglish. They have kept as from paying the Boers all this time, 
and now they have gone and taken the country themselves, and we 
eannot touch it." (Hear, hear.) And, with a good deal of bragga- 
docio, they Baid, " We will drive the English out of the country.'' 
We have not done this to the Zulus. (Hear, hear.) Then, as to 
famine upon them, there was a great deal of sentimental 
in this country a few months ago, and subscriptions were 
for to supply the Zulus with food. My old friend Bergtheil, 
or Mr. Saunders, knows very well that the normal condition of the 
Zalu country, throughout the whole of Panda's and Cetywayo's 
reign, was two months' starvation in every twelve. They will not 
till the ground sufficiently to supply their men. I was in the 
Zola country in 1861, at the time that there was a fear of the 
invasion of Natal, and at that time, just at the middle of winter, 
I saw them sweeping out their mealie pits, and picking out rotten 
es for food, such as no Englishman would give to his pigs, 
and they were then five months before the harvest. Then, as to 
accusation against Bishop Colenso, Mr. Saunders has pre- 
proofs to-night, and I know they are true. (Hear, hear, and 
No, no.) 

r. Fowaxx. Buxton: I feel it certainly due to the Rev. G. 

©owe, who has just spoken, to Bay a word or two. It is true 

each wrote two letters to the Times, and the point of those 

as far as I remember, was in reference to the time at which 

the war might be brought to an end. I think I wrote urging that 

ar might be brought to an end at Easter 1879, and Mr. Blen- 

wrote in opposition to that proposition of mine. In reference 

to the Boundary Commission, I confess I hardly remember our 

ng to it. I believe there never was any question but that 

the Boundary Commissioners were perfectly able to get any evi- 

that might be receivable, and were ready to receive any evi- 

which either party might wish to bring forward ; but lb v 

did not receive it, and it must have been that the Boer party <li<l 

not think it worth while to produce it. That is the fair inference, 

s-nd they may have had some good reason for not considering it 

El after the Commission was over. I do not know why they 
not bring forward good evidence, but after receiving all their 

140 Natal in its Relation to SoutJi Africa. 

evidence there was no reason for upsetting an important decision. 
As to the fighting of Zulus against each other, I was alluding to the 
war going on at this day in consequence of the settlement of the 
country by Sir Garnet Wolseley. I am sorry I left a wrong im- 
pression on Mr. Blencowe's mind, and I must apologise to him for 
so unintentionally producing that impression. With regard to the 
charge brought against Bishop Coleuso, that has now assumed a 
more definite form, and therefore needs no further defence from 
myself. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. Stephen Bourne: I have no special fitness for speaking 
about Natal from any knowledge of the Colony itself, but the paper 
before us recalls to my recollection events which occurred in the 
island of Jamaica forty-eight years ago, which brought out the 
same principles that Mr. Saunders has elaborated in his paper. 
They bore, I think, upon the wide question which he has raised, as 
to the expediency of, or the degree of, interference by the Home 
Government in the management of Colonial affairs. I think that, 
without casting any censure upon my own countrymen in the Colo- 
nies, of whoml have seen much and whom I admire much, it must 
be recollected that going thither they are placed under different cir- 
cumstances, and oftentimes in a very different position, for forming 
a correct judgment to that which we at home occupy. We have 
had two instances given us in the speeches made this evening. One 
gentleman spoke with regard to ttie original characteristics of the 
Zulus, and of the deterioration which they had experienced since 
the time when he first knew them. I would say that it is utterly 
impossible that such deterioration could have arisen from any fault 
of the Home Government, because it is quite clear that the Home 
Government never sent out emissaries to teach them to become 
murderers or robbers; and those are the changes which are stated 
to have taken place in their character. I cannot help thinking that 
if such deterioration in the natives has arisen, that it must be due 
either to those with whom they have been brought into contact — 
or rather to the previously undeveloped forces of their own natures, 
which had failed to produce such changes until brought out by the 
contact which they have had with some of the worst species of our 
own countrymen. Far be it from me, however, to say that that is 
the character of most of those who go out from home to the 
Colonies. Then, again, we have had allusion from Sir Bartle 
Frere to the fact that in the Cape Colony the franchise is accorded 
to any native who possesses the qualification for it I would ask 
you all whether the state of things has not been this, that the 
settlers in tuose Colonies having found the inhabitants useful to 

Natal in itt Relation to South Africa. 


thatr purposes, have endeavoured to increase that usefulness, but 
very mnch by means of keeping them in their normal condition. 
Tbeir feeling has been this, that the Englishman was to be the 
lord and they were to be the servants ; that the Englishman was 
always to be right and that the natives always to be wrong — f" No, 
no ") — that the desire has been very much to keep them in a state of 
primitive existence Buch as they had when first discovered, and not 
to advance them in the scale of humanity. (•* No, no.") Whatever 
may be the result to them of the conduct of the British Govern- 
ment, I think we cannot but hold to this, that the tendency of the 
British Government's procedure in the Colonies throughout has 
been consonant with a desire to raise the natives in the social 
•eale — to confer upon them the blessings of education and of reli- 
gien. I will not Bay that such intentions have always been rightly 
carried out I am an old Government servant myself, and I know 
too much of the dealings of the inside of Government departments 
to say that they are always right; but I do say this, that the 
grand object which the British Government has always had in 
view has been to protect the rights, the liberty, the life, and the 
property of the individuals who come under British survey, and 
to strive to educate them up to the position of British citizens. 
(Bear, hear.) That too often has conflicted with the interests 
of some of the inhabitants, and although the mass of the 
people who go out to settle in those Colonies may be, and 
are. desirous of doing what is right, it does not always 
happen that their dispositions or their interests are coincident 
with the promotion of the welfare of the natives. (Hear, hear.) 
I do think this, that, much as we desire to trust the government to 
thorn who are residing there ; much as we would propose to edu- 
cate them, and guide and keep them in the right way, it would be 
the mo9t dangerous precedent possible if the British Government 
were to renounce its paternal care of the subjects coming under its 
control, and throw them altogether into the hands of those whose 
interests are not always identical with theirs. (Hear, hear.) I 
think the principle on which our relations are founded is one 
which ought to endure. No doubt its application is susceptible of 
{treat improvement, and requires the greatest care. We are bonnd 
to see the growing importance of our Colonial Empire, and that 
Ike office of Colonial Secretary in this country should always be 
held by men of the highest possible fitness for the post they have 
to fill. (Hear, hear.) One word more : I rather regret that in 
oor Institute we have had a paper which has been so decidedly 
an attack upon one political party. I had hoped that our papers, 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

generally speaking, were such as to deal more with matters of in- 
formation, history, and general policy than an attack upon any 
particular party ; but I look upon it as one of the benefits of this 
Institute's existence that we have been enabled to meet together 
to-night to hear a paper so decidedly antagonistic to the views of 
many, and so calculated to provoke opposition, and that we have 
had such a comfortable and quiet debate on the subject (Hear, 
hear, and laughter.) 

Mr. Labilliebk : I should like to say a few words in reply to 
Mr. Stephen Bourne. He has gone upon the assumption that the 
colonists wish to keep the native races in a state of subjection, and 
that it is necessary for the paternal Government to exercise their 
power and influence from Downing- street in order to protect the 
rights of the aborigines. Well, is that necessary in New Zealand ? 
(" No.") Who has conferred upon the natives in New Zealand those 
rights and privileges which they enjoy quite as much as British 
colonists ? Why, the Colonial Government They have a free 
constitution in New Zealand. The white men who have gone out 
there — the men who Mr. Bourne would lead us to suppose would 
like to establish a system of serfdom over the natives — those are 
the men who have in New Zealand raised the natives to positions 
which they at present enjoy ; and in the same way, as Mr. Saun- 
ders has told us, have they been treated in the Cape. What has 
conferred upon the natives of the Cape Colony those privileges 
which they possess with regard to the suffrages ? Why, the free 
constitution of the Cape Colony itself.. (Hear, hear.) I think 
these two instances are a complete and conclusive refutation of 
what Mr. Stephen Bourne has said upon the subject. All I would 
like to add with regard to the other points is, that I have not 
gathered from the paper of Mr. Saunders, or from the speeches 
made this evening, that, as suggested by Mr. Bourne, this is a 
party discussion. (Hear, hear.) We have had both views brought 
fully and fairly before the meeting ; we have had Sir Benjamin 
Pine standing up for the policy of Mr. Gladstone's Government 
with regard to giving up the Transvaal— (hear, hear) — we have 
had Sir Fowell Buxton, who is well known in this country as the 
advocate of one side of this question — (hear, hear) — we have had 
the opportunity of hearing his views upon the subject ; and I 
think, although the speeches made have differed very widely, it is 
a most satisfactory thing that gentlemen so decidedly differing on 
important questions of Colonial policy — questions which I admit 
to a certain extent, if pushed too far, may involve party considera- 
tions and may arouse party passions — Bhould have an opportunity 

Natal in it* Relation to South Africa. 


of expressing their opinions. I think it is of great advantage that 
gentlemen holding opposite views on these questions should come 
bare and state those views as they have been stated this evening. 
(Hear, hear.) As a member of the Papers Committee of this Insti- 
tute, I do think we should be guilty of undue timidity were we to 
atUmipt to put any impediment in the way of the reading of such 
a paper as we have had this evening, or the delivery of such 
■peeebee as we have had from Sir T. Foweli Buxton and others. 
(Hear, hear.) 

The Noble Chairman : I think at this late hour I may venture to 
dose the debate. I took the liberty of interrupting Sir Bartle 
Frere in that most dignified, interesting, and statesmanlike speech 
with which he favoured us — (loud cheers) — to suggest the word 
New Zaaland while he was alluding to the franchise given to the 
natives of South Africa. I did not wish to interrupt him more, 
bat I wish to correct Mr. Labilliere by saying that in Now Zealand 
the Maoris have greater electoral franchises than the Englishmen. 
The Maori votes for the English members; bat there are also 
Maori members who are only elected by Maoris, for whom the 
£ngbah cannot vote. With regard to Mr. Saunders* most inter- 
acting and slightly exciting paper — (laughter) — I would say just 
this, that the very first time that I underwent the ordeal of trying 
to address the House of Commons was in the defence of the Cape 
Colony. (Hear, hear.) I then felt, when very young— for I had 
bean to the Cape before I was of age — that they were hardly used 
and ungenerously treated by England. I do not think that 
nffiriant allowance is made in England for colonists by people 
who ait comfortably at home and criticise — I Bay it in no un- 
mannerly sense — ignorantly criticise the circumstances and the 
aooduct of the colonists. (Hear, hear.) It is impossible for 
people in a well-governed country, with an old civilisation, to 
appreciate the position of Englishmen going with their wives and 
femilio*, with their worldly goods, into a wild country where there 
is nothing but unmitigated savages — (hear, hear) — with no police 
or neighbours to protect them against sudden depredations, which 
Bay fall upon them without the slightest warning. When those 
atrocities are committed the only redress is a violent one, and 
mast be a violent one ; and therefore my sympathies entirely go 
with Mr. Saunders' paper, and I am quite sure that every colonist 
who heard him will sympathise with him, and will understand him. 
I hope that a good effect will have been produced among all their 
eoantryrnen in favour of the colonists from England, who really 
haw done a vary great work. ^'^ ' conquered mighty terri- 


Natal in its Relation to South Africa. 

tones and magnificent countries. (Hear, hear.) People who live 
in England have no idea of the splendour and richness of the 
territories of England abroad — far beyond anything we have in 
England ; and I am myself grateful to those men who have gone 
ont and conquered tbem for the Empire, and I hope that English- 
men who stay at home will always appreciate their exertions and 
support them in what they have done. In conclusion, I beg to 
tender on yonr behalf our best thanks to Mr. Saunders for hiB able 
and valuable paper. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Baundkbs : I have to thank your Grace, and at this late 
hoar say but a very few words in reply. Mr. Stephen Bourne has 
mistaken Mr. Bergtheil's remarks about the deterioration of the 
natives — he meant that this arose from the weakness of the 
Government. We at home need not go far to see how crime will 
spread if unsuppressed, and evil-doers escape punishment ; it is 
mistaken lenienoy that has clone the evil Mr. Bergtheil referred to. 
I must now thank Sir Fowell Buxton for giving me an opportunity 
of meeting some points which he has raised. I have not touched 
on the great party politics of England, though I have distinctly 
done so with those of Natal, where a small party charges the 
Colony with all sorts of atrocities ; and when Sir Fowell Buxton 
speaks of vague charges being made, unsupported by facts, what 
does he call the extracts and authorities I have referred to ? This 
paper is full of facts. Is the petition I have alluded to no fact ? 
and the Bishop of Natal's testimony to the reliability of its main 
author not a fact? If there are no late Governors here who 
are aware of these oases, I would pledge myself to prove all I 
have said ; and that the very man who forged those signatures 
is a prominent authority in all the charges preferred, and the 
information sent to England from that source. I assert I 
have not in this trenched on the great Liberal and Conserva- 
tive party politics. In real truth, sir, we believe that both 
these parties wish ue well, but that both equally know nothing 
about us. (Laughter.) I roost certainly did not consider the 
Bishop of Natal, and those who support him in England, in any 
way to be considered one of the political parties in the State ; yet 
Sir Fowell Buxton insinuated blame to us that we did not pass 
more war expenses. In one year (1880) votes were taken for above 
£400,000, which, for rather more than 2(1.000 colonists is nearly 
£20 ahead. (Hear, hear.) Apply this rate to the British popula- 
tion of 86 millions, and say what that comes to, and if we have not 
paid a fair proportion. (Hear, hear.) Will he calculate the loos of 
one life in two hundred colonists, killed and buried there (to say 

NtUal in its Relation to South Africa. 


nothing of those who died of sickness and other causes connected 
with that war), and apply the same proportion at home, and then 
aay if I have not the right to defend the colonists from blame and 
misrepresentation in the false position they have been placed ? 
(Hear, hear.) Sir Fowell Buxton further kindly proposes to make 
W of as, and wishes to make the experiment of sending Cetywayo 
hack. If he will be good enough to come and live on the exposed 
border— (loud cheers) — then he may talk of experiments, and I 
•hall sot aay a word to him. I have lived in Natal when panic was 
all round ; natives sleeping at night out of their huts, and settlers 
flying to get nearer the towns. And I have seen ladies refuse to 
follow the flight, believing that by remaining quietly at home they 
would inspire confidence in the minds of our alarmed natives, and 
I have witnessed the good effect this had on them too. Let Sir 
Fowell Buxton and his friends do this, and earn then the right of 
such experiments. (Hear, hear.) He also implied 
rwavo had done nothing noteworthy since the great slaughter 
years ago (185C). Why, I have pointed out that, to my 
je, his armies were constantly out, year after year, some- 
And though he further refers bo strongly to the burning 
of Kafirs' huts (which are of straw, and can be rebuilt in a day or 
so), be treats very slightingly the destruction by the Kafirs of the 
while men's homesteads, orchards, &c, which they and their families 
had occupied for years before. 

Sir T. Fowau. Bdxton : I referred to all the forces ; not to the 
Natal forces, but all the troops employed 
Mr. Bacndebs : But you did not refer to the fact that the year 
the war seventy to eighty homesteads and orchards, &c, were 
or pillaged by the Kafirs, or abandoned by the Dutch, 
owing to the inroads of these savages, who lost the hnts you allude 
to. Bat this could not be helped ; these men rob, plunder, and 
•teal cattle whenever they can do so safely, and, unfortunately, the 
weakness of Government encouraged them. My object has been to 
draw attention to these facts, hoping that when deliberated upon 
they would work out some good in the end. (Cheers.) 



The fourth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Grosvenor Gallery Library, New Bond Street, on Tuesday, the 
14th February, 1882. His Grace the Duke of Manchesteb, K.P. 
Chairman of Council, presided. Amongst those present were the 
following: — 

Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G. (Governor of Mauritius), Sir John Kirk, 
K.C.M.G., M.D., Sir Samuel Wilson, Major-General R. W. Lowry. C.B., 
Mrs. and Miss Lowry, Colonel Malcolm Green, C.B., Major F. Duncan, 
R.A., D.C.L., and Mrs. Duncan, Messrs. J. Henniker Heaton (New Soulh 
Wales), Walter B. Richardson, J. D. Thomson, Lieut.-Colonel Arbuthnot, 
R.A., Major C. Carpenter, R.A., Messrs. A. R. Campbell- Johnston, F.R.S., 
George Wedlake, C. H. H. Moseley (Sierra Leone), Joseph Macdonald 
(Victoria), John Munro (Victoria), W. G. Lardner, Dr. A. M. Williams 
(British Guiana), Messrs. G. R. Godson, Alex. MacRosty, Captain B. 
Burgess, the Rev, C. F. Stovin, Messrs. A. F. Somerville, W. H. Mare 
(Newfoundland), William Musgrave, G. Molineux, Mr. and Mrs. William 
Westgarth, Lady McCLure, Messrs. E. Hepple Hall, Campbell A. Robertson, 
S. C. Duncan Clark, George Stewart (Capo Colony), F. W. Stone, B.C.L. 
(Canada), James Langton, A. Follett Haloombe (New Zealand), Paget A. 
Wade, D. H. R. Walmyn, Molyneux St. John (Montreal), George Dibley, 
Messrs. W. H. Lowry (Royal Scots FuBihers), Arthur Fell, W. J. 
Garroway, J, Beaumont, R, J, Gray, R. Giles, Samuel Shortridge 
(Jamaica), Frederick Fearon, Francis Renehnw, Alexander Sclanders (New 
Zealand), E.T. Delmege (Ceylon), Walter Paton.W. M.AUport (Jamaica), 
Donald Macintyre (New South Wales), Mr. and Mrs. F. Barclay Hanbnry. 
Messrs. G. C. Ormond (New Zealand), W. R. Richardson (New Zealand), 
John A'Deane (New Zealand), Robert Nairn (New Zealand), George Reid 
(Cape Colony), A. B. Cobb, Charles Payne (British Guiana), J. R. Boyd 
(Ceylon), Mrs. Grant (Quebec), Mr. and Mrs, Alexander Landale (Victoria), 
Mr. and Mrs. Mytes Patterson (Victoria), Messrs. Gibson (Victoria), J. V. 
Irwin, Harold Gore-Browne, the Rev. Rupert Cochrane (Canada), Mrs. 
and Miss Cochrane (Canada), Mr. and Mrs. Robert Fanntleroy (Jamaica), 
Mr. Claude H. Long, M.A., Miss Long, Mr. George Moflatt (Montreal), 
Miss Moflatt (Montreal), Mr. George Tinline (South Australia), Mis* 
Tinline (South Australia), the Rev. R. and Mrs. Mitchell, Messrs. James 
Rankin, M.P., N. E. Lewis (Tasmania), Arthur E. Eves, F. D. Dear? 
(Cape Colony), John Balfour, Mr. and Mrs. R. Lloyd, W. R. Mewburn, 
Rev. A. Styleman Herring, B.A., Messrs. Anthony Forster, W. L. 
Shepherd, W. T. Deverell, Morton Green (Natal), E. H. Gougb, A 
Focking (Cape Colony), H. F. Shipster (South Australia), William Letb- 
bridge, C. Tfoundes, A. Staveley Hill, Q.C., M.P., Mrs. Staveley HOI, 
Messrs. R. M. Ballantyne, F. P. Labtlliere, P. Badcook, H. C. Beeton 
(British Columbia), Albert F. Sieveking, A. M. Brown, M.D. (New South 
Wales), W.Dunn, A. Duff Morison, jun., Skinner, Arthur G. Bennet 

Fourth Ordinary General Meeting. 


Fright, Admiral E. Gardner Fishbourn, Messrs. P. Pritchard, E. Neel, 

Barradell. J. T. Widgery, Mowbray Charrington, H. J. Pettifer, 

Jamas Cowan, C. T. Just, J. R. Rud, J. R. Rootham, H. H. Coffee, George 

B*T«ridjpi>, E. E. Wight (British Oniaoa), W. J. Bullock. W. J. Harris. 

MOM, M' .me, Miss E. H. 8tone, Mr. Macdonald Stewart, 

Craigie. Mr. T. E. Allen, Mr. T. B. Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. W- 

Ra* and Miss Rae, Mr. T. Brown, Mrs. Carey Hobson (Cape 

Colony I, Mis« Buckland. Miss Ware, Mies Houston, Messrs. H. Ednion- 

aaooa-Montgntnerie. W. Edmonstone-Montgomerie, Alex. Rivington, 

Alfred Davidson. Dr. John Rae. F.R.S., Mr. J. Henwood 

Captain A. Duncan (British Gniana), Hon. J. H. Phillips, M.I ,.('. 

(British Honduras), Messrs. W. Cowan, W. Farrer Ecroyd, M.P., 

A. Mackenzie Mackay, Stephen Bourne, Miss E. C. Skeffinpton 

Thompson. Mrs. Drew. Mr. James and Miss Edgcorae, Messrs. 

ookbum. John Colebrooke, C. Prichard, E. R. B. Archer, G. W. A. 

II, John R. Craig, F. Button, Miss Gordon, the Rev. W. N. Willinn, 

Maaars. McGregor, Calvocovcsai, Sir Gahriol Goldney, Bart., M.P., Miss 

Toting. Miss Ada Mary Young, Mr. Frederick Young, Hon. Sec. 

The IIoxorary Secretary read the following letter from Sir 
Alexander T. Gait, G.C.M.G., High Commissioner for Canada: — 
Dominion of Canada. 

Office of the High Commissioner, 

9, Victoria Chambers, London, S.W. 
February 18, 1882. 
lit Mcar Ma. Yotnso, — I am recommended change of air for a few days, 
d go to St. Leonards this afternoon. I regret, therefore, I cannot be 
t at Colonel Grant's Address. Will you kindly explain to him that 
on is the cause of my absence ? Yonrs faithfully. 

A. T.Oalt. 

The Honorary Secretary read the minnteB of the last Ordinary 
Meeting, which were cnnBrmed, and annonnced that 20 
had heen elected since that meeting, viz., 7 Resident and 
18 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

xaial Cork, Esq.: John Gilmer. Esq. (late of Mauritius): 
William I ■:. Esq., LL.D. (late of Japan) ; Hon. Thomas Holt 

nth Wales); John Howard Howard, Esq., Charles 
W. Lata (New South Wales), Alexander MacRosty, Esq. 
Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Manlrv Abrahams, Esq., J. P. (Jamaica) : J. R. Van Rych de Groot, Esq. 
•iah Guiana); Rev. P. T. N. Elliott (Berbice). Walter Hays. Bag. 
(Queensland I : Join lay, Esq.. J. P. (Cape Colony) ; Arthur Levy, 

Eaq. (Jamaica) ; Hon. Isaac Levy, M.L.C., (Jamaica) : Emanuel G. L. 

I P. (Jamaica' ; T. G. PleydeP 

Julius J. Smith. Esq. (West Africa): Rev. £' 

M.A. (Sierra Leone) ; D.A.Williams, M.B. (British Guiana). ™ 


Fourth Ordinary General Meeting. 

The following donations to the Library were alBo announced 
The Government of New South Wales : 

Parliamentary Debates, 1881. 
The Government of Queensland : 

VoteB and Proceeding, 1877-80. 9 Vols. 

Parliamentary Debates, Vols. XXV. to XXXIII.. 9 Vols. 
The Government of Tasmania : 

Acts of Parliament, Vol. VI., Part V., 1881. 
The Government of Victoria : 

Parliamentary Papers, 1881. 
The Agent-General for South Australia : 

City of Adelaido Mayor's Report, 1880-81. 
The Bodleian Library, Oxford : 

Donations to the Library during 1881. 
The Colonial Office : 

Minutes of Council of various Colonies. 

Parliamentary Debates ,, ,, 

Votes and Proceedings „ „ 

The Commissioners of the Sydney Exhibition : 

The Official Record of the Sydney Exhibition, 1 Vol., 
The Director of the Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica : 

Annual Report, 1880. 

Notes on Liberian Coffee : its History and Cultivation, 1881. 

Some Objects of Productive Industry. Lecture by W. Morris, 
Esq., M.A., &c, Jamaica, 1881. 
The Dundee Library : 

Report of the Library Committee, 1881. 
The Pennsylvania Colonisation Society : 

The Debt to Africa. The Hope of Liberia. Pamphlet, 1881 
The Proprietors of the British Trade Journal : 

The British Trade Journal, 2 Vols., 1881. 
The Royal Geographical Society : 

Proceedings, Vol. IV., No. II., 1882. 
The Royal United Service Institution : 

Journal of the Institution, Vol. XV., No. CXIII., 1881 
The Social Science Association : 

Sessional Proceedings, No. 8, Vol. XV., 1882. 
The Statistical Society : 

Journal of the Society, Vol. XLIV., Part IV., 1881. 
The War Offio© : 

Maps of the Northern Parts of the Regency of Tunis. 
J. G. Bonrinot, Esq. (Ottawa) : 

Starke's Almanac, 1882. 
A. M. Brown, Esq., M.D. : 

Tunis : The Land and the People, by Chevalier de Hesse- 
" Wartegg, 1 Vol., 1882. 


Hie Progress of Canada. 


V. Pavig anil Sons, Maritzburg: 

Natal Almanac and Directory, 1882. 
Deering, Esq. : 

Proceedings of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural 

Society of South Australia, 81ist March, 1881. 
The Colony we Live in. Pamphlet, Parts I. and II., 1878. 
Hamilton, Esq. : 

Letter to the Earl of Kimberley on the subject of the Queens- 
land Steel Bail Contracts. 
Hugh Monro Hull, Esq. (Tasmania) : 
Parliamentary Papers. 1881. 
Irwin, Esq. : 

Tbe Hudson's Bay Company : What is it ? 1864. 
J. Morgan, Esq., Ottawa : 

The Canadian North-Weat, The Marquis of Lome's speech at 

Winnipeg, 188L 
Remarks suggested by President Garfield's death by V. P. 
Darin, 1881. 
Prorogation Rights in Canada, 1881. 
P. Qr. 

Clubs of Oh World, 1 Vol., 1880. 

Tbe Chairman then called upon Lieut .-Colonel T. Hunter Grant, 
of Quebec, to read the following paper : — 


A little more than half a century ago, an English gentleman, 
twnpl'Tg a political and historical aocount of Canada, uttered the 
allowing truthful and prophetic language : — " Such part of the 
history of Canada as regards wild animals is that which 
has received the greatest attention, on account of the corn- 
advantages derived therefrom. The animals which are 
to be found in the woods are stags, elks, deer, bears, foxes, 
>, wild cats, ferrets, weasels, squirrels, hares and rabbits. 
mothers parts, in particular, breed great numbers of wild 
divers sorts of roebucks, goats, wolves, Ac. The marshes, 
and pools, with which the country abounds, swarm with 
and beavers, of which the white are highly valued. The 
j in these articles, however, though at present of importance, 
of necessity take a second rank when compared with other 
which must eventually arise. The productions of agri- 
culture mast ultimately be the staple commodities of the country, 
now, the fisheries might, with care and attention, be 


The Progress of Canada. 

made to yield a return far superior to any derived from the trade 
in peltries." Though at the time of which this writer was speaking, 
over three hundred years Lad elapsed since the day when Sebastian 
Cabot first landed on the south-west shores of the St. Lawrence, 
though the country had been alternately under French and British 
rule, and the oivilising influence of Christianity had felt its way 
amongst the people, they had not learnt to dignify commerce by 
auy other avocation than that of hunting bears and foxes, and 
chasing wild oat and deer. True, the farmer raised his wheat, oats. 
and corn, the fisherman kept the markets supplied with the pro- 
ducts of the lakes and streams, and an occasional ship brought to 
hand what were called English luxuries, tea, broad cloths, and 
calicoes. Manufacturing, too, was not unknown amongst the 
people ; for we are told that in their own households were mode the 
.soup and candles they consumed, the sugar they used, the shoes and 
mocassins they wore, and the greater part of their clothing. 
Partial researches into the aspect of the country had led to the dis- 
covery of a few iron and copper mines, and slate and marble 
quarries ; still, the country, though three centuries old, was yet 
in its infancy. Far-seeing, reflecting men predicted a successful 
career ; and agriculture and the fisheries were to be the means to 
this great end. 

Who is there to-day that, looking bock into the history of those 
last fifty years, and comparing the post with the present, will nob 
stop in amazement at the rapidity of our growth — the magnitude 
and variety of our improvements, and the solid character of our 
progress ? Agriculture has, indeed, become the staple of the 
country, and British America is now enabled, with her large sur- 
plus, to supply cheap food to countries that, half a century ago, 
hardly knew of her existence. The fisheries have yielded up their 
wealth, and the vast waters of this northern continent of ours, from 
the banks of Newfoundland to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, 
present a fishing ground unequalled in extent and richness. 

In the history of the Colonial Empire of Great Britain, and especi- 
ally on the American continent, twenty-five yeare is an important 
epoch in the life of a colony. With the utilisation of the gigantic 
power of steam, by which time, distance, and expense have beeu 
economised ; a liberal system of education, combined with generally 
increased intelligence amongst the people, the thoughts and actions 
of men move onward with startling rapidity. So it was in Canada. 
From the union of the provinces in 1841 to their confederation in 
1867,exactly a quarter of a century had elapsed ; but what a quarter 
of a century ! Full of energy ,vigour, and enterprise, new avenues of 

Tke Progrest qj Canada. 


industry were developed by the people : agriculture was extended, 
it railways were built, canals, and telegraphs wero con- 
achools increased, newspapers multiplied, and Canadian 
ships were to be found on every sea, Lord Metcalf, Lord Gathcart, 
Lord Elgin, Sir Edmund Head, and Lord Monck, all eminent and 
able men had governed in turn. His Royal Highno s the Prince 
of Wales bad visited the country, and received the undivided homage 
of llie nation, and by his kindness of heart, genial disposition, tact, 
and urbanity, won the hearts and fired the loyalty of the people 
The great Victoria Bridge across the St. Lawrence at Montreal, 
had been finished and inaugurated, surpassing as an engineering 
work anything in the world, an imperishable monument, let us hope, 
to the genius of Robert Stephenson. Political activity, party 
straggles, free and independent speech, had brought to the front 
nso of vigorous thought, brilliant abilities.and practical statesman- 
ship. The Hon. Robert Baldwin, Sir H. Lafontaine, Sir Francis 
Hindu, Sir Dominick Daly, the Hon. George Brown, the Hon. 
Joseph Howe, Sir George Cartier, Sir Alexander Gait, the Hon. 
D'Arcy McGee, the Hon. Peter Mitchell, Sir Charles Tupper, the Hon. 
Alexander Mackenzie, the Hon. Edward Blake, Sir H. L. Langevin, 
Sir Leonard Tiliey, Thomas White, M.P., and, greatest of all, the 
Right Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, are men who figure promi- 
nently in all the striking events of the period — men of whom 
Canada if justly proud — distinguished alike for their elevated 
patriotism, their gifted powers, and remarkable achievements. This i 
and more than this, is a feeble description of my country, when 
in 1667, all the provinces of British North America, with the excep- 
tion of Newfoundland, were united into one confederation, as the 
Dominion of Canada Fourteen years have elapsed since the con- 
enmmalioa of this union. Then they were isolated and independent 
-now they are a compact nation of federal provinces, ex. 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of nearly 
•0 miles, and possessing a territory of about 3,500,000 square 
miles, exceeded only in extent by the empires of Russia and China. 
At pr esen t these provinces are eight in number : Ontario, 109,480 
miles ; Quebec, 163,325 ; New Brunswick, 29,322 ; Nova 
Prince Edward's Island, 2,134 ; Manitoba, 180,000; 
British Columbia, including Vancouver and the other islands, 
400,000; North-west territory, district of Keewatin, and islands in 
the Arctic Ocean, 2,520,000 square miles. They have a population 
of 4362,060, chiefly of English, Irish, French, Scotch, and 
German descent Of these, about 2,400,000 are Protestants, and 
1.600,000 Roman Catholics, of whom over 1,000,000 are French- 


The Progress of Canada. 

speaking Canadians; and of the total population, about 8,000,000 
are native born. 

Such is a general outline of the confederation which two dis- 
tinguished noblemen, the Earl of Dufferin and the Marquis of 
Lome, have in the space of ten years been respectively called upon 
to govern. To describe to you fully Lord Dufferin'e career in 
Canada would require more time than I have at my disposal, and 
extend this paper to an unnecessary length. His administra- 
tion extended over a period of six years, and was, in 
every respect, a brilliant success. It is quite true that his path 
was not strewn with roses, and he had many difficulties to encounter 
amd obstacles to overcome. But he was equal to every emergency, 
and his sound judgment and inimitable tact never deserted him. 
As a faithful interpreter of the Constitution, he never allowed him- 
self to becomo a partisan. He knew no distinction between Whig 
and Tory, Protestant or Catholic, French or English. He saw 
plainly that in the performance of the duties of his high office there 
was something more for him to do than the mere routine functions 
of the official representative of Sovereignty, important though they 
be. The oreation of a truly national sentiment, the diffusion of 
knowledge, the spread of education, the cultivation of letters, 
science, and art, the pure and impartial administration of justice, 
the dispensing of a generous hospitality, the encouragement of all 
those manly exercises which give vigour and vitality to youth, 
the lofty and ennobling influence of religion, were qualities and 
principles which he conceived necessary to the young life of the 
nation, to prepare her, in his own eloquent language, " for the 
glories awaiting her in the OlympuB of nations." With zeal, energy, 
and patience, he applied himself to the promotion of all these 
objects, and with a liberality that has never been equalled by any 
previous viceroy, he gave substantial assistance to every worthy 
and deserving purpose ; and as he excelled in the performance of 
all these duties, so did he add lustre to his reputation and popularity 
by freely intermingling with all classes and all creeds — the friend 
of both and the champion of neither. Canada is essentially a 
democratic couutry. Though it is conservative in instinct, and 
upholds the sovereignty in the person of the Majesty of England, 
it recognises no privileged class, no distinction of oa9te, and has 
most implicit faith in the power and omnipotence of the people. The 
highest positions are open to all, and although authority and worth 
anil ability are respected and exert their influence, perfect equality 
prevails. Lord Dufferin knew this, and he was never so happy, and, 
let me add, never so noble, as whsn he mingled with the people. 

The Progress of Canada. 


The Marquis of Lome succeeded Lord Dufferin in the Vice- 
Royalty of Canada. With the exception, probably, of the recep- 
tion given to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, no 
Governor-General has ever received a more magnificent and warm 
welcome than that accorded to the Marquis and his Roy it 1 
eoneort, the Princess Louise. All classes vied with each other in 
an enthusiastic effort to honour the new Viceroy, not only to 
their deep devotion to the gracious Sovereign whose repre- 
." wins, but to declare, by a suitable demonstration, as 
as by eloquent utterances, that he had already secured their 
and esteem, and that they welcomed him as the embodi- 
it of all that was noble and generous in man. The Marquis of 
has now been only three years in the Dominion, and during 
abort time he has given evidence of sound statesmanship, of 
great ability, and remarkable tact and judgment, lit- hits, in every 
way, been most devoted to the performance of the responsible 
duties of his office, and has manifested a deep interest in every 
•Sort to advance the general welfare of the people. His recent 
journey through the great North- West, to which portion of the 
co untr y I will shortly draw your attention, entitles him to the 
hig hest credit. With great patience he explored those vast 
rsiriee, lakes, rivers, and forests, and with a just appreciation of 
m value of reliable information, he informed himself of the actual 
and wants of the country, and has, in truthful and graphic 
Language, as well as through the representatives of the English and 
Press who accompanied him, refuted all the ignorant state- 
which have been so freely circulated to retard the progress of 
the country. Though his tour was to some extent one of amusement 
and recreation, it will be of great national value, in drawing the at- 
tention of the world to the magnificent inheritance which has been 
acquired by the people of Canada, extending from Fort Garry to far 
beyond the Rocky Mountains, and which, in contemplation of its 
i greatness, led the American poet William Kirby, to write : — 

4 ' What went ye to th w wilderness to see t 

A shaking- reed F Men in kings' holmes dwelling t 
A prophet P Yea ! more than a prophet, telling 
Of lands new named for Christ — a gift in fee 
And heritage of millions yet to he — 
Green prairies like an ocean broadly swelling 
From rise to set of tun— great rivers spelling 
Their rugged names in Bluckfoot and in Cree. 
That went we forth to see, and saw it lie, 
That glorious land, reserved by God till now 

England's help in need, to drive the plough 
A thousand leagues on end, till in the sky 
The snowy mountains from the vales upborne 
Bear on their proudest peak the name of Lome." 

154 Tke Progress of Canada. 

But to deal more practically with the advancement of the 
Dominion, permit me to give you, as briefly as possible, some 
detailed facts and figures as evidence of her growth. From official 
sources I learn that the following is a statement of the exports and 
imports from 1876 to 1881 :— 

Exports. Import*. 

1876 $80,966,436 $93,210,346 

1877 75.876.393 99.327.982 


79,323,667 93,081,787 


71,491,266 81,964,427 


37,911,458 86,489,747 


18.290.823 1OS.330.H4O 

Statement showing the total value of goods imported and entered for consump- 
tion in the Dominion of Canada from Great Britain, United States, and other 
countries, in each year from 1876 to 1880 respectively: — 

Fiscal Y»ar 

30th June. 

IvrosTS Eutiiid roi Cohuchttiqh, nox 













Statement showing the total value of goods exported from the Dominion of 
Canada to Great Britain, United States, and other countries, in each year 
from 1876 to 1880 respectively : — 

Fiscal Tsar 

30th June. 















On so important a topic as the commerce of the country, it is 
impossible for me to refrain from some allusion to the fiscal policy 
which we have recently adopted, and to the Protective tariff which 
the Canadian Parliament has enacted for the development of our 
manufacturing resources. I am aware that in Mother England he 
who propounds anything like an anti-Free Trade doctrine mu6t 
expect to be severely handled, and especially if he be a colonist. 
For, in addition to the soreness which the manufacturers of Great 

The Progre$» of Canada. 


Britain feel when any attempt is made by a Colonial Legislature to 
impoM what may appear to bo a tax on British exports, there is 
Um reminder of what is supposed to be the inalienable right of 
every person in these islands to correct and chastise us as erring 
and misguided children. Well, we have no objection to this ; on 
Um contrary, it is very gratifying to us to be reminded of our 
faults, and to receive from those who are older and wiser than our- 
selves words of counsel and advice. But we expect, and reason- 
ably so, that those who assume the right to censure or to criticise 
oar actions shall know something of our trade relations, of our 
wants and interests, of our motives, and of the principles which 
govern oar proceedings. An evidenoe of such a knowledge in dia- 

L tufting our behaviour will lead to results far more beneficial than a 
wholesale condemnation from a one-sided point of view. 
Let me briefly explain the cause and character of the policy 
which the Parliament of Canada has recently pursued, and I cannot 
do better than quote the Besolution introduced into the House of 
Commons by Sir John A. Macdonald, in 1878, and which was after- 
wards made the basis of the appeal to the people in the autumn 
of that year : — 

" That this House is of opinion that the welfare of Canada 

requires the adoption of a national policy, which, by a judicious re- 

t of the tariff, will benefit and foster the agricultural, the 

the manufacturing, and other industries of the Dominion. 

That such policy will retain in Canada those of our fellow-country - 

now obliged to expatriate themselves in search of employment 

them at home, will restore prosperity to our struggling 

now so sadly depressed, will prevent Canada from being 

sacrifice market, will encourage and develop an active 

•provincial trade, and moving as it ought to do in the direction 

reciprocity of tariff with our neighbours, so far as the varied 

of Canada may demand, will tend to procure for this 

try reciprocity of trade." 

Now this resolution embodies a broad, comprehensive, and 

Uiligent platform, suitable to the wants of the country and a 

ly for the existing evils. There is no reference to prohibitive 

discriminating duties, nu special attack, as many persons have 

on tho manufactures of Great Britain. In discussing 

most interesting question we must not overlook the fact that 

have at oar door a powerful and enterprising nation — rich in 

the varied resources necessary to raise her to the highest point 

excellence and prosperity in manufacturing industry. Proud 

as we are, and ought to be, of the many advantages we enjoy in 


The Progress of Canada. 

Canada, we must not despise the lessons which the history of the 
United States teaches as, nor appear insensible to the influence 
her future career may have upon our commerce. Fifty millions of 
people, ingenious, intelligent, and industrious, inhabiting a country 
of vast extent and wealth, and with almost unlimited powerB of 
production, cannot possibly remain dependent upon the supplies of 
a foreign nation. In addition to the many facilities they possess 
for the prosecution of a manufacturing trade, the natural tendency 
of the people is to render themselves thoroughly independent of 
others, and to build up a powerful and permanent industrial 
interest in the State. Well, the Americans had done this, and by 
the abrogation of the Reciprocity Treaty in 1866, seriously curtailed 
our trade with them, and, owing to the low duties which prevailed 
in Canada, enabled the people of the United States to flood the 
Dominion with their surplus stock, ruining our manufacturers, 
closing our factories, and driving our people out of the country. 
So great indeed was the growth of the American export trade into 
Canada, and so keen the competition, that the imports from Great 
Britain were steadily decreasing, while those of the United States 
were increasing, and had actually exceeded them both in volume 
and value. The following table will prove this assertion : — 

Pebcentaoe or Canadian Imports fbok — 

Great Britain. United States. Other Countries. 


.... 8-83 



42'47 .... 

.... 7-07 



With a clear discernment, therefore, of a great danger to be 
averted, and a radical evil to be cured, and in the absence of any 
disposition on the part of the Government of the United States to 
enter into a fair Reciprocity Treaty with us, the people of Canada 
decided, and wisely so, to readjust this tariff so as to foster and 
encourage their languishing industries, and retain their artisans 
within the country. This tariff has now been exactly three years 
in existence, and what is the result ? Why, general prosperity 
throughout the land. I know of no branch of trade that has not 
been stimulated and increased. The farmer has grown, consumed, 
and exported more of his own productions, and has consequently 
imported less from the United States. If we have produced less 
Indian corn, we have increased the growth of the coarser grain, 
such as oats, barley, peas, and rye, for which our soil is better 
adapted. If our importations of flour have diminished, we have 
rly doubled our exports, and have consumed fully 180 per cent. 

The Progress of Canada. 157 

more of floor made from home-grown wheat, thus benefiting the 
fanner, the miller, and the farm labourer generally. 

The coal trade, which is a most valuable element in our mining 
industry, has rapidly advanced, and the returns for the year 1880 
■bow an increase of nearly 300,000 tons in the production of the 
NoTa Scotia mines, and of about 250,000 tons from Great Britain 
and the United States. 

In ihe importations of tea there has been a remarkable change. 
In 1875 the discriminating duty of 10 per cent was removed, and 
immediately the direct trade with China and Japan began to 
decline, and continued to do so, until the doty was again imposed 
in 1879. Instead of obtaining our teas direct from the place of 
growth at a cheaper cost, and carrying it in British ships, we found 
the greater portion of our tea trade transferred to the United 
States. The following figures will more clearly explain thiB : — 

1878-9. 1879.80. 

lbs. lbs. 

Great Britain 2,356,210 2,358,240 

United States 6,254,765 2,427,940 

China 605,437 1,898,091 

Japan 1,223,968 3,629,488 

Other countries 12 11,170 

Totals 9,339,392 9,818,929 

But in addressing an English audience it will be expected that 
I should make some special reference to the operation of the tariff 
a* regards the trade between Great Britain and the Dominion, and 
1 do tins all the more cheerfully, in the hope that a plain statement 
of the facte may remove erroneous impressions, created either 
through want of information, or to serve some personal or political 
end. In the first place, let me give a most unqualified denial to 
the assertions bo insidiously circulated that the Government and 
people of Canada in their fiscal legislation were actuated by a 
feeling of hostility towards the Mother-country, and, forgetful of 
the ties of amity which bound them together, were discriminating 
against British manufactures. To say nothing of the universal 
loyalty and of love for this great country that exists in the breasts 
of the Canadian people, and of which I humbly think there has 
bean ample evidence, it is neither the interest nor the policy of the 
Dominion to raise a Chinese wall against British trade. The taxes 
we have imposed apply to all countries alike, and were aimed prin- 
cipally at a transfer of the large and growing trade we had with 
the United States to Canada. It is quite true that in two articles, 
refined sngarB and the coarser qualities of woollens, there has been 
I diminution in the exports from these Islands, because Canada 

158 The Progress of Canada. 

can extensively and cheaply produce them, but in all other articles 

of export from Great Britain there has been an increase, and 

while in the total volume the imports from the United States have 

diminished over 12 per cent., those of Great Britain have increased 

fully 20 per cent The figures which I have already read to you 

show that in 1879 there was entered for consumption for Great 

Britain $80,998,180 ; while in 1880, the first year of the operation 

of the new tariff, it amounted to $84,461,224, or an increase of 

nearly one million sterling in one year, and that the imports 

entered for consumption from the United States, which reached 

nearly $44,000,000 in 1879, had diminished to $29,000,000 in 1880. 

And to show you how great has been the recuperation of the 

trade of the Dominion for the p&Bt two years, I am enabled, 

through the courtesy of the Finance Minister of Canada, to give 

you the returns for last year, 1881 : — 

Imported. Entered for 


1880-81— Dutiable $85,616,792 $71,627,205 

1880-81— Free 19,813,932- 19,900,899 

$105,330,724 $91,628,104 

1878-80 86,469,74T 71,782,349 

Increase |18,B40,977 $19,746,655 

The exports from Canada show an equally gratifying increase, 
the balance of trade being in favour of the Dominion to the 
extent of nearly #8,000,000. 

The commercial history of the Old World is full of instruction 
to the New, and one of the most important lessons to be learnt 
from it is this — that wherever, amongst an industrious people, 
manufactures have been established, and science and art have been 
involved as an element of their progress, that nation which most 
cultivated them has been in the ascendant. England, France, 
Belgium, and Germany are bright examples of the truth of the 
assertion, and the growing greatness of the Anglo-Saxon races on 
the continent of America furnishes an additional proof. If, there- 
fore, we would build up the new nationality which has been con- 
ferred upon us ; if we would bind together in bonds which cannot 
be severed, the affections and interests of the people, and give force 
and vitality to their energies ; if we would create a spirit of 
independence and self-reliance amongst our race ; if we would 
offer tangible inducements to the old country artisan to settle 
amongst us, and give us the benefit of his skill and labour, we 
must open up all the resources of the nation, and encourage and 
protect all the varied branches of manufacturing industry. The 
population of our towns, growing as they are, must be employed, 

The Progress of Canada. 


occupation most be afforded, daring oar long and cold winters, to 
the large majority of those who inhabit our cities, and the only 
effectual mode of doing this is by keeping alive the workshop, the 
factory, and the mill 

Protection to-day is not the monster it was when England 
groaned under heavy taxes and struggled to be free. Protection 
to-day does not mean enormous Excise duties and prohibitory laws. 
It mean*, in Canada at least, if our rulers are wise, the largest 
amount of freedom with the lightest sum of taxation commen- 
i with a healthy and progressive development of our resouroes ; 
prudence and economy in the management of the public finances ; 
every branch of commerce unfettered and free from oppressive 
ens ; freedom of inter-colonial trade in the largest accepta- 
of the term ; and a fair and just protection to native 

Under such a policy our youngDominion must continue to advance 
with rapid strides, and, relying on her own Htrong arm and the 
r ruling wisdom of Providence, may we not hope that he who 
to look back upon the next half century, will be able to do so 
with feelings of pride and thankfulness, as strong and as cheering 
thoee which actuate him who to-day is permitted to review the 
of the last fifty years. 
dairy produce, the production of batter and cheese is very 
bble. For ten years, from 1870 to 1880, the export of 
amounted to 152.000,000 lbs., valued at £30,000,000, and of 
daring the same period, 261,822.412 lbs., valued at 
1,000,000. We now produce most excellent cheese, rivalling 
your bent Cheddar and Cheshire, and I am told that the quality of 
it batter is so good that it is frequently repacked and inspected 
Irish ports and sold in England as Cork butter. 
In the oattle trade of the Dominion there has been a marked 
lereieo. the exportations having augmented in value from 
1,000,000 in 1875 to 56,000,000 in 1881. At one time our only 
were for home consumption and the United States, and 
%1 effort was made to raise beef cattle in large numbers, 
but aince the opening up of the European markets a great stimulus 
baa been given to cattle-breeding, and the numbers fed and bred 
bare been enormously increased. 

Lumber has always been one of the staple productions of the 
country, and has been a Boarce of great wealth to oar people, but 
it Buffered most severely from the general commercial depression 
which prevailed from 1874 to 1879. But daring the past two 
yearn there has been a most healthy revival of this valuable 



The Progress of Canada. 

industry, resulting in increased production and exportation, better 
prices, and liiglier wages to the lumberman. 

Much attention liaB been given by the Government to the 
improvement in the lighting of the Gulf and River St, Lawrence, 
the Atlantic Coast, and the great inland oceans of the West ; and 
there are no waters in the world, not even excepting those of 
Great Britain, that are better lighted and more efficiently protected 
by lighthouses, lightships, fog alarms, steamerB and telegraph 
hues, cables and signals, which now connect the mainland with 
all the islands of the Gulf, than are the navigable waters of the 
Dominion. During the ten years from 1870 to 1880, the large 
sum of ,$55,000,0110 has been spent in the construction and main- 
tenance of these necessary adjuncts to safe navigation. The 
British shipowner has sensibly felt the value of these improve- 
ments in the diminished loss of sea-going vessels, and the reduced 
rates of marine insurance. 

Some reference is necessary to the financial position of the 
Dominion. The opening-up of the country, the construction of 
railways, canals, and telegraphs, the subsidies to ocean steamers, 
the assistance given to the Indians, the maintenance of the 
volunteers and militia, the erection of Post Offices and Custom 
Houses, and the development of the great North-We6t, have 
entailed a large expenditure upon the Government The official 
returns show that the net debt increased from #78,201), 742 in 
1870 to #156,9-12,471 in 1880. During the same period there 
was expended on public works chargeable to capital the large Bum 
of #62,225,877. It has been maintained by some persons that the 
debt has been augmented at too rapid a rate, but a close exami- 
nation of the expenditure will show that the money has generally 
been judiciously spent, and that the country has been greatly 
enriched and improved by the various works which have been 
constructed. Of this debt, $20,000,000 have been applied to pay 
for the Intercolonial Eailway, which is, and will continue to be, 
a valuable asset ; and $30,000,000 on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, in surveying the country, locating the line, and constructing 
a portion of the road. But if this debt is large, Canada is able to 
bear it Under the national policy, the large increase in the trade 
of the country, coupled with an augmented tariff, have pro- 
duced a revenue more than ample to cover all liabilities and leave 
a stvplus this year of over $5,000,000, which will enable the 
Finance Minister to abate the duties 'on tea and coffee, and reduce, 
as he EiS&s already done, a portion of the public debt The 
following lie the revenue of the Dominion for the past six years : 


The Progress of Canada. 


1*7* l22.S87.fi87 

187B 2J.692.274 

1H77 22,376,011 

1878 $2J,S17.6S2 

1879 23,307.406 

1880 29,712,063 

As a farther indication of the prospority of the country and the 
general thrift of the people, it may be mentioned that the deposits 
io the Government Savings Banks increased from $2,474,244 in 
71 to $10,669,681 in 1881, the increase alone in the first year 
after the introduction of the National Tariff amounting to the 
Urge sum of $3,000,000. This is a striking proof of the beneficial 
remit of that protective Bystcm to which we have pinned our 
faith . for not only has our trade improved and our revenue 
increased, but the great mass of the people have been more 
steadily employed and at better wages, and have been able in 
consequence to add 40 per cent, to their savings in one year. 

No account of the progress of Canada would be complete with- 
out reference to its magnificent canal and railway system, by which 
the obstructions to navigating the internal waters of the Dominion 
have been overcome, and the chief centres of commerce connected 
with each other. The ports of Quebec and Montreal are nearer to 
Europe by 480 and 250 miles respectively, and nearer Chicago, the 
great central grain depot of the West, by 140 miles, than New 
York, and are better situated for the shipment of the products of 
the Western States. Navigation between Chicago and Montreal, 
through the great lakes and the St. Lawrence Canals, is much 
•barter than that between Chicago and Now York via the Erie 
Canal The St Lawrence canals are wider, too, and admit vessels 
of doable the tonnage. New works are in course of construction, 
which will further increase these facilities, by allowing steamers of 
1.WIO tons to load in Chicago, while the tonnage of vessels on the 

Canal cannot exceed a maximum of 240 tons. When com- 
pleted, the Canadian canal system will be the finest in the world, 
mailing in its grandeur and exceeding in its importance those of 
the Saex and Panama canak 

' to the United States, Canada has the largest railway area 
:n proportion to its population — one mile for every 690 inhabit mts. 
With 6,800 miles in course of construction, it holds the eighth 
place far total length of line, coming after France with its 18 0<X) 
miles One of the largest and most valuable railways in the world, 
the Grand Trunk, extends from Quebec to Chicago, a distance ol 
mile* ; the Intercolonial, from Halifax to Quebec, 720 miles ; 
Occidental, from Quebec to Ottawa, 800 miles Prom the 
of Quebec and Montreal, several direct lines of railway to 

York, Boston, Portland, St John, N.B., and Halifax, keep up 

1C2 The Progress of Canada. 

close communication with Europe, and the Great Western and other 
roads in Ontario connect with the Western States, Nevada, and 

Canada is engaged to-day in a work of stupendous dimensions, 
the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in order to con 
nect the whole system of railroads with the Pacific Ocean. The 
acquisition of the great North-west, the entry of British Columbia 
into the Federation, and the duty of opening up and settling that 
vast territory, has necessitated the building of this mammoth 
enterprise. We have attempted it with a full sense of its serious 
responsibility, "but with a brave heart and earnest resolve to carry 
it to completion. It will be interesting to give some details of the 
project, the route, distances, and coBt. 

The total length of the line will be 2,900 mileB, as follows: — 


From Ottawa to Luke Nipissing 290 

From "Lake Nipittsing to Thunder Bay 660 

From Thunder Bay to Winnipeg 425 

From Winnipeg to the Rocky Mountains .... 800 

From the Rocky Mountain* to Khui loops .... 450 

From Kanilonps to Fort Moody on the Pacific 220 

Pembina Branch to Winnipeg 66 


The following is the present position of the road : — The 290 
miles from Ottawa to Nipiasing is finished, and in running order. 
Thence to Thunder Bay the line is under construction, and I am 
informed will be finished in five years. From Thunder Bay to 
Winnipeg il is confidently expected the road will be completed by 
next autumn. Of the section from Winnipeg to the Rocky 
Mountains, 200 miles are completed, and the remaining 600 mile* 
the company expect to finish by the end of the present year. From 
the Mountains to Kamloops the line is being actively surveyed 
preparatory to the commencement of work, and it is expected that 
a better location will bo found than by way of Yellow Head Pass. 
The balance of the line from Kamloops to the Pacific will take 
nearly four years to complete, and it is estimated that the whole 
line will be finished and running in five years from the present 

The Government of Canada have transferred the construction of 
the greater portion of the line to a company, and Parliament has 
granted them a charter for the purpose. Of the wisdom of this 
step all persons will, I think, approve. No matter how rigid an 
economy the Government might have practised, the cost must 
have been more or less extravagant and the patronage excessive ; 

The Progrena of Canada. 



the contract with the company, the liability of the 
anlry has been fixed to a moral certainty, and the construction of 
the road secured within a given time, with ample security for the 
fulfilment of the contract and the perpetual operation of the rail- 
way. For the building of the road and its equipment the Govern- 
ment pay the company a subsidy of 25,000,000 dols. in cash and 
twenty five million acres of land of the best quality. The 
company also receive 200 miles of completed road and about 500 
miles now being constructed, and which becomes their absolute 
property apou the completion of the main line. The estimated cost 
of this portion of the work, to be done by the Government, iB 
,000,000, including about #1,600,000 spent on surveys. This 
will make the total cash liability of the Dominion $55,000,060. If 
the land is valued at one dollar per acre, the total cost of the rood 
will be ♦8<i,000,000. Many influential persons in Canada, however, 
maintain that the land should be estimated at two dollars per acre, 
which would make the road cost $105,000,000. Be this as it may, 
toe country's liability is now fixed at $55,000,000. This, to some 
persons, may seem a heavy responsibility for a population of 
4,000,000 to assume. But it is not. Canada has fully counted the 
The sale of lands alone will more than pay the cash disburse- 
t, and the road will eventually not cost the country a penny. 
To the Dominion of Canada, the completion of this great high- 
way across the Continent will be of incalculable value. Already 
the stream of emigration is pouring in upon its prairie-fields, and 
the hud is being rapidly taken up for settlement. Villages and 
towns are starting into existence, and prosperous farms will be 
found doited all over its surface. As the years roll on, the powerful 
mil nonce of the iron horse, now the pioneer of advancing civilisa- 
tion, will be felt all over those boundless plains— on the slopes of 
the Kooky Mountains, and away on to the shores of the Pacific. 
The virgin soil that is washed by the banks of the Saskatchewan, 
Assiniboine, and the Peace and Bed rivers will pour forth its 
of golden grain, of animals, minerals, and coal, and 
supply the world from its bounteous resources. The commeroe of 
the East, of China and Japan, of Australia and New Zealand, will 
be brought nearer to the seat of authority in the west, and the 
of England will feel that they owe a debt of gratitude to 
for having provided, by the construction of this trauB-oon- 
trn— ***' railway, a short direct means of communication over 
territory to her vast Empire in the East, and eventually to 
the stream of the commerce of the world through the 
valleys of the Canadian North west. 


The Progreti of Canada. 

The importance of this great railway to England cannot be too 
highly estimated. The control of the military, postal and tele- 
graphic communication across the continent of America is one of 
vital interest, and, as a means of maintaining her influence against 
American intrigue and enterprise in the Chinese and Japanese 
empires, will be of paramount valne. The Americans, sharp and 
shrewd as they are, are felly aUve to this fact, and for several years 
past have made it the basis of a policy of energetic aggression. 
They have already completed one railway to the Pacific, and are 
actively pushing the construction of two others, and Lave subsi- 
dised a line of Bteamsbips from San Francisco to Yokahama, 
Shanghai, and Hong Kong, as feeders to their railway. 

The following extract from a speech of the late Hon. W. H. 
Seward, one of America's most distinguished statesmen, upon the 
value of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is of great interest at the 
present time : — *' The route through British America is in some 
respects preferable to that through our own territory. By the 
former the distance from Europe to Asia is some thousand miles 
shorter than by the latter. Passing close to Lake Superior, tra- 
versing the watershed which divides the streams flowing towards the 
Arctic Sea from those which have their exit southward, crossing the 
Rocky Mountains at an elevation of over 8,000 feet less than at the 
south pass, the road could be here constructed with comparative 
cheapness, and would open up a region abounding in valuable timber 
and other natural products, and admirably suited to the growth of 
grain and grazing ; having its Atlantic seaboard at Halifax, and its 
Pacific near Vancouver Island, it would undoubtedly draw to it the 
commerce of Europe, Asia, and the United States. Thus, British 
America, from a mere colonial dependency, would assume a con- 
trolling rank in the world. To her other nations would be tributary, 
and in vain would the United States attempt to be her rival, for she 
never could dispute with her the possession of the Asiatic commerce, 
nor the power which that commerce confers." 

This, then, is the work which, as Canadians, we have undertaken, 

to consolidate our confederation, and to develop our vast and varied 


Having thus endeavoured to convey to you some reliable infor- 

ation on the material progress of the country, it is necessary that 

,'iould speak to you briefly of those higher duties which devolve 

all Christian communities — the preparation for that great 

which lies beyond. There is no place in the world where 

_ haa raised the Union Jack as the emblem of her throne, 

beet" 1 ^ or ^ er > ^at B ' ,e kaa not at some time planted that 

glorious old Church which has contributed so much to her greatness 
and renown. In Canada to-day the Church of England, as an off- 
shoot of the Mother Church, is a powerful and progressive institu- 
tion. It numbers orer 500,000 people, with twelve bishops and a 
large staff of clergy, schools, and churches, and valuable educational 
institutions and Sunday schools. I am bound in justice to say 
that in no quarter of the globe will you find more able, devoted, 
and true-hearted men than the venerable bishops who, in Canada, 
preside over the destinies of the Church ; and no more zealous and 
God-fearing clergy than those who administer to the spiritual wants 
of the people. We have no State Church in Canada. That has 
been abolished. It is no part of my purpose here to discuss this 
question ; I only mention the fact that the laity now take a lead- 
ing part in the government of the Church through her diocesan and 
provincial Byuods ; and for that financial aid, without which the 
work must suffer, we rely almost altogether upon voluntary support ; 
and so far we have no reason to bo dissatisfied with the result of 
our appeals. Under the system we have made rapid advances, and, 
to be just, I must state that, in our early struggles, and even re- 
cently, to a moderate extent, the right hand of fellowship has been 
extended to us from influential Churchmen and active associations 
in England, and that we have never appealed to the generosity of 
this dear old land without meeting with a cordial response. While 
I thus speak of the Church of England, of which I am myself a 
humble member, it is also my duty to say that the Dissenters are a 
uomerous, earnest, and active body of men and women. In many 
parts of the country they have very large congregations, especially 
amongst the Methodists and Presbyterians. Their clergy, as a 
rule, are sincere in their motives, pious in their lives, and both 
clergy and worshippers are full of that restless and active spirit 
which so distinguishes them in Great Britain, and which has given 
them so strong an influence in the religious and political world. 
The Roman Catholics, who are composed almost exclusively of 
French and Irish {and chiefly the former), enjoy, and rightly bo, 
under the British constitution full and perfect freedom. In the 
exercise of their privileges, both civil and religious, they are the 
equal of all. Under the law they have their own separate school 
system, directed hy their clergy ; whilst there is nothing to prevent 
any Roma Catholio attending the public schools which receive 
GoverxUMI *nd which must be non-Beotarian in their cha- 

racter. In * of Quebec there is a population of a million, 

and of th< £> are Roman Catholics and 200,000 

1'rotestanb *** &<$t tribute to the British coustitu- 



The Progress of Canada, 

tion to say that these people of divergent principles on religion and 
nationality, as a rule, live together in peace and harmony, and 
would always continue to do so, were it not for the pernicious in- 
fluence of the insatiable and unstable agitator, who is the bane of 
most countries and the saviour of none. The Roman Catholic 
clergy are an enlightened, highly-educated, and persevering body of 

I propose now to ask your attention for a short time while I make 
some reference to the North-west portion of the Dominion, and to the 
efforts which are being made by the Government to develop its 
wonderful resources. The union of the older provinces in 1867 
with the present confederation opened the door for the acquisition 
of Rupert's Land, and the negotiations with the Hudson's Bay 
Company led to the purchase of the territory for £300,000 sterling, 
and for this sum they surrendered all their rights, reserving for 
fifty years a twentieth part of all the lands laid out for settlement 

In dealing with the varied and scattered tribes of the North-west, 
much credit is due to the Canadian Government for the fairness, 
tact, and liberality which characterised their treaties with the red 
man of the forest, and by which they not only obtained the re- 
linquishment of a vast extent of territory from Lake Superior to 
the Rocky Mountains, but have provided schools for the instruction 
of their children, abolished the use of intoxicating drinks, and, to 
encourage them to engage in agricultural pursuits, supplied them 
with seed, grain, cattle, and farming implements. The result of 
this policy has been to make them peaceful and orderly citizens, 
thoroughly content with their lot ; and the Government, by keeping 
good faith with the tribes, have secured their confidence and good 
will, and thus avoided those desolating wars which have so disturbed 
the relation of the United States Government with the Indians 
living within its borders. These tribes, however, are destined to 
| disappear, for, as the emigrants increase, the Indiana must decrease, 
and their fondness for intoxicating liquors and inclinations to idle- 
ness have a tendency to demoralise, and consequently to degenerate, 
the race. An Indian will sell bis ox for a gallon of whiskey, and 
it appears almost impossible for him to resist the use of strong 
drink. If they could only be induced to give steady attention to 
farming, there would be some hope of reclaiming them from their 

The province of Manitoba extends from the Red River East to a 
line west of that river, and is in the very heart of the Continent 
Lord Dufferin has very appropriately called it the " Bull's-eye " of 
the Dominion. It is 135 miles longand 100 miles wide, containing 

The Progress of Canada. 


14,000 square miles, or 9,000,000 acres of land. It is de- 
bowever, to very considerably enlarge the boundaries of the 
i, and this, when accomplished, will extend its haute to the 
ibonrhood of Fort Ellice, west of the Assiniboine. 
The North-west territory, including the fertile Peace River Valley, 
. a total wheat area of 860,000 square miles, containing nearly 
300,000,000 acres of land available for farming purposes, and a very 
Urge portion of which is not exceeded in fertility by any part of the 
world. The length of the province, from its eastern limit on the 
of Manitoba to the crests of the Rocky Mountains, is 
7 1,000 miles, and its width to the northern latitude of 55° 
•boat 400 miles. In this vast domain there is room for one 
millions of people ; and, as the country becomes more 
mi, it will, no doubt, be carved out into half a dozen pro- 
each nnder separate government control. At present the 
is governed by a Lieutenant-Governor and Council. 
Id providing for the settlement of this magnificent heritage, the 
rnment of Canada have made most liberal arrangements for 
disposal of the land Any head of a family, or any person who 
attained the age of eighteen years, can obtain a free grant of 
60 acres, and, in addition, can claim, as a pre-emptive right, 
>ther 160 acres adjoining the former, by paying a given price of 
•billings an acre and upwards, according to location, upon 
Uberal terms of payment Besides this, the Government will 
aatist tenant farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, by 
them passages across the Atlantic at reduced rates, and 
ig them to their destination on their arrival at the port of 
Quebec. Of course, the man who can go out to Canada with £100 
to £150 in his pocket, possesses a great advantage over the poor 
o ; but the latter need not fear. If he is steady and careful, and 
afraid of work, let him take courage and persevere, and he will 
There is plenty of labour, and a short period of honest 
and good wages will soon enable him to advance ; and in three 
four years he can procure a free grant of 160 acres, and go on 
ith its cultivation. Many men have risen to comfort and inde- 

ice in this way. 
Inquiries are so often made as to the prospects in Canada of 
3g men of family, that a few words on the subject will not be 
misapplied. In the first place, it should be borne in mind that it 
labouring classes who derive the most immediate benefit 
from emigration. It is therefore essential that those who belong to 
nppper and middle classes should have some special prepara- 
commencing a Colonial career. The home training, if not 


The Progres* of Canada. 

professional or technical, should be such as to inculcate habits of 
self-denial, and develop a manly independence of character which 
does not seek to lean upon others. Before all things, intending 
settlers should be prepared to adapt themselves to circumstances, 
and the possession of this faculty is an important element of 
success. It is a common fallacy to suppose that those who exhibit 
a lack of industry or steadiness at home are Likely to succeed else- 
where. Freed from the restraining influence of family ties, au>l 
placed under conditions so entirely at variance with their accus- 
tomed surroundings, they too often lose self-respect, and drift from 
bad to worse, until they become utterly demoralised. 

Of essential value to the settler in a new country is the salubrity 
of the climate and the fertility of the soil. The former makes his 
home joyous and healthy, the latter enables him to raise the richest 
grains and produce the finest cattle — the chief sources of his future 
wealth and comfort. As regards Canada, I am glad to be able to 
speak most favourably of both, The climate of the North-west is 
one of the finest in the world. The air is dry and invigorating ; 
there is no fog or mist, and no noxious vapours from the soil. The 
sunlight is brilliant in the extreme, and the nights clear and bracing. 
The summers are perfectly delightful, warm and genial, but not too 
warm, though in May and June there is a short season of oopioua 
rains. The melon grows in the open air, and ripens in August and 
September. In July they have sixteen hours of sunlight, while in 
New Orleans they have only fourteen hours, and vegetation is con- 
sequently more rapid. There are occasionally violent changes of 
temperature, but they do not ltist, and are comparatively harmless. 
The winters are cold, and the mercury ranges from twelve to thirty- 
six degrees below zero. Hut the atmosphere is most pure, and dry. 
The snow does not fall in large quantities, and seldom impedes 
travelling. The heat of the sun by day, and its cheering bright- 
ness, with the aid of warm clothing, make the winter climate very 
agreeable and healthy ; and on a clear, frosty night, when the 
moon shines out in all her silvery grandeur, and the heavens are 
studded with the stars, the scene is one of matchless beauty. I 
have read that the buffaloes have wintered in large numbers on 
the nutritious grasses of the prairie lands, and the half-breeds and 
Indians camp out on tho open plains the entire winter, sheltered 
only by a buffalo-skin tent and robes. The natural division of the 
seasons is as follows : — Spring : April and May ; Summer : June, 
July, August and September ; Autumn : October and part of 
November ; Winter : part of November, December, January, Feb- 
ruary, and March. The summer climate is warmer than that of 

Ttu Progress of Canada. 169 

Ontario. Northern New York, Western Wisconsin, or Northern 
Illinois, as the following comparative table will show : — 

June. July. Aug-unt. Summer Mean. 

Dog. I>«K- Deg. Deg. 

Red River 6910 71-18 63 03 67-76 

CMmgo 6207 7008 86-05 67-03 

Io«r» 6604 7005 U-M 6806 

Wisconsin 6107 68 06 6607 66 03 

KvwTork 640J 6806 6807 66 05 

Ontario 69-93 •I'M 64-00 64-00 

The soil may be described as an alluvial black loam, about four 
in depth, and resting ou a very tenacious clay ; its materials 
i minutely pulverised, and are generally light, mellow, aud spongy, 
iia grades of fertility vary aocording to local situation. Dr. 
of the University of Edinburgh, who has analysed the 
soil of Manitoba, declares that it is very rich in organic matter, 
contains the full amount of saline fertilising matter, to be 
in ell soils of a good bearing quality. Some fields on the 
Uiver have produced twenty successive crops of wheat with- 
any manure, and in several instances forty bushels per acre, 
I the quality of the grain is now acknowledged to be superior to 
that grown either in the south or the east. Vegetables and root 
crop* grow profusely. At the International Exhibition of Phila 
^>p*"*, and the Dominion Exhibition in Montreal, I saw Early 
potatoes weighing from 2} to 3 1 pounds each, and of deli- 
ilerour. These and other vegetables, as well as models 
x. were also exhibited at the Paris Exhibition, and received a 
medal end awards at both Exhibitions. I am indebted to the 
high authority of Thomas Spence, Esq., Clerk of the Legislative 
Assembly of Manitoba, for the following statements of the produc- 
tion of wheat iu that province : — 

■ The average yield of wheat in Manitoba, deducted from the 
of local estimates, is twenty bushels to the acre, the 
of ordinary yields being from fifteen to thirty-five. Expo- 
> has taught us to allow largely for the disposition to base 
general inferences on the most striking and notorious instances, 
end for the general habit of confounding a usual result with an 
average one." 

" The official returns of Minnesota, which is considered the best 
wheat-growing state in America, place the average production at 
sjewasteen bushels to the acre." 

There is sufficient evidence on record from the experience of the 
paat to prove that stock-raising in the North-west will be one of 
the chief industries to engage the attention of the capitalist as 
veil ae the emigrant. Indeed, already it has grown to be of eon- 


The Progress of Canada. 

siderable importance, and in a very short time these beautiful 
prairies will be covered with flocks and herds, and produce beef 
and mutton of most excellent quality. That section of the 
country beBt adapted for the raising of stock lies to the south-west 
of the great agricultural zone, and is drained principally by the 
South Saskatchewan River and its branches. It slopes gently, 
eastward and north-eastward, from the Rocky Mountains, and is 
elevated from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
plains, both here and in the Buffalo-grass Country, are almost 
everywhere covered with short nutritious grasses, the extraordinary 
succulence of which makes it one of the best grazing countries in 
the world. Horses can travel a thousand miles, feeding only on 
these delicious grasses, and be as strong and healthy at the end of 
the journey as at the commencement. 

The lakes and streams abound in a variety of fish, the better 
quality of which are white-fish and trout, and the prairies and 
forests contain many wild animals, such as deer, bears, wolves, 
foxes, raccoons, and rabbits, as well as otter, minx, beaver, and 
musk-rat, and excellent game, such as pigeon, grouse, partridges, 
prairie-chickens, and wild-duck. 

Geological surveys have established the fact that the territory 
contains extensive and inexhaustible coal beds, of a superior 
quality, and it is estimated there cannot be less than 500,000 square 
miles between the 59th parallel and the North Sea underlaid by 
seams of valuable coal ; and where coal and wood is not to be found, 
nature has provided immense deposits of peat, which is an admi- 
rable substitute for both, equal to the Irish turf, and suitable for 
ordinary use, as well as for manufacturing purposes. 

I cannot refrain from calling your attention to the marvellous 
growth of Manitoba. Emigrants have been pouring in there at a rapid 
rate, and there has been so great a demand for farms and town-lots 
that speculation is rife, and prices have considerably advanced. 
The progress of Winnipeg, its chief city, has been unprece- 
dented. Ten years ago it was a small village of 220 inhabitants ; 
to-day it is a busy, thriving town, with a population of 15,000 
people, 3,000 dwelling houses, street extensions of over 100 miles, 
wide and clean ; solid buildings, many of them of stone and brick ; 
railway depots, churches, colleges, banks, mills, and excellent news- 
papers. Its property assessment has increased from 2,676,028 dol- 
lars in 1874 to 6,585,067 dollars in 1881. The increase in business 
and travel has been something wonderful. Capital from England 
and France and from the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion has 
found its way into the country, and has stimulated the energies 

The Progreu of Canada. 


and sharpened the ardour of the people. This, of course, may be 
earned too far, and end in disaster, unless caution and prudence 
are exercised in these tempting land speculations. There is con- 
i however, in the future. 
"Wa are told by an English writer that, " Formerly the richest 
wastries were those in which the products of nature were the 
moat abundant, but now the richest countries are those in which 
ia the most active." The riches of the earth are in the soil, 
men and women will be found to possess it. The result of 
labour will be the foundation of a great and prosperous 
l. of a great Anglo-Saxon race perpetuating to all time the 
locnee and grandeur of our old Mother-land, and the freedom 

springs from it. 
Come to us, then, in the fullest confidence that you will succeed, 
arms are open to receive you ; you will find us brothers and 
With you we worship the same God, and whether you are 
it or Catholic, you can kneel at the same altar that yon 
at in the old country. Your Queen is our Queen, and, like 
we are her loyal and devoted subjects. The same old flag 
rbich you cherish as an emblem of constitutional freedom and 
liberty, waves over our battlements and adorns our 
the same jurisprudence which has elevated England, 
and ennobled France, which protects property, maintains order, 
punches crime, has been handed down to us as a precious 
to uphold the majesty of tbe law, and guard us in the 
ise of our dearest rights. With such privileges as these, 
willing hands and earnest hearts, may we not work out our 
ay peacefully and wisely, guided and animated by principles of 
and justice. 


Th* Noble Chatrma* : Perhaps you will forgive me if I venture 
to express the hope on one subject alluded to by Colonel Grant in 
vary able paper — that subject which goes by tbe name of 
1 Fair Trade," or, as some more inimical to it call it, " Protection." 
It may be referred to in the course of the discussion. I have 
always been very sorry to see any discussions on that sub- 
ject assume frequently a tone of great heat, and sometimes of 
(Hear, bear.) Now, that seems to me utterly unnecessary 
very unwise. (Hear, hear.) The object of those who advocate 
what U called " Fair Trade " — and, I have no doubt, equally the 
object of those who advocate free trade— has been to benefit the 
country ; and I trust if the matter is discussed it will be in a 


The Progress of Canada. 

philosophical temper, and in an endeavour to find out which U 
most likely to prove beneficial to the country, without any bitter 
party feelings being employed. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. A. Staveley Hill, Q.C., M.P. : I have been singled out by 
your Grace to say a few words upon the interesting paper that we 
have just heard, because during last autumn I took the best oppor- 
tunity that could be afforded of enabling myself to make some 
remarks on this subject. Sitting as I do in Staffordshire for a 
popular constituency, in which many persons were for a consider- 
able time in a great state of impoverishment from want of employ- 
ment, I found myself frequently consulted upon the prospect of 
men going out to this North- West Territory, and I felt it my duty 
to some extent that I should not rely simply upon what I heard 
from other persons, but that I should go and see for myself, and so 
be better able to report to those who consulted me. I therefore 
went with my wife to spend a ten weeks' holiday, and to go as far 
as we could into that vast prairie land — to see what it was like, 
and its capabilities. I need scarcely say to those who have listened 
to the paper that the result is that I can now endorse the opinions 
set forth by the reader ; for I found in that country boundless 
opportunities for those who are willing to work. (Hear, hear.) But 
I do lay very great stress indeed upon the words that those eniigrn- 
ting must be " steady and careful, and not afraid of work." With 
regard to Cauada generally, I would say to those who have capital 
of from, say, ,£1,000 to £1,600, that they could not at present do 
better than go to Ontario, and take up some of the settled farms, 
where there are good buildings, cleared lands, and good orchards, 
and plenty of opportunity to live in considerable comfort ; take 
up one of those farms which are at present being vacated by men 
who have settled there for many years, and who are now anxious 
to realise their money, to start with afresh, and are going on to the 
North- West. Those farms may be obtained now at something like 
4U per cent, below their proper value, in consequence of the desire 
to go farther westward ; but to those who have greater energy and 
a stronger arm I would Bay, let them go still farther west. You will 
have to undergo a considerable amount of hardship for a short 
time, perhaps for some three or four years, but you will live in com- 
parative comfort, and you will at any rate see everything improving 
day by day and hour by hour, until you come into as full a share 
of comfort as I believe it is possible for man to enjoy. (Hear, 
hear.) I say this from the experience of what I saw ; I took my 
waggon to Brandon, the point from which I started into the great 
prairie. But the weather is not so good as the gallant Colonel has 

'J' he Progress of Canada. 


mm fi 


■ea t s d . and when I was there it was anything but bright skies ; in 
I got so bad that my wife was obliged to leave me and go back 
into Brandon. I went, however, on to the prairie, and upon one 
of my first nights oat I came across the log hat of a yoang 
fallow who, having lost his money in the failure of a bank in 
Kngiand, had struck fur the West. He was there with his yoang 
wife, h farming man and his wife, a few cows, and his log- hat 
which had cost him nothing except the few dollars for his windows : 
they had been more than a year living in considerable comfort. 
They were then living at a great distance from anything, and had 
even heard of the death of the President of the United States, 
of what was going on in England, and were anxious to hear 
had taken place with regard to the Land Bill and every- 
thing in Great Britain- (Laughter.) Things march on so fast 
that I have received a letter this morning from this gentleman, 
in which he says that telegraph instruments are being pat up there, 
and that he is applying for a poBt-box. I want to add one or two 
with reference to a matter from which we have received due 
from his Grace. It is with reference to the subject of the 
import duties levied in Canada. Our lecturer has, if I may venture 
to aay bo, well told us why those import duties are put on in Canada, 
and that their fiscal policy has been adopted with no hostility 
to the Mother-Country. I can go further than that, for having 
taken a great interest in that matter, and having, with my hon. 
friend Mr. Ecroyd, devoted much time to this subject, I have made 
it a considerable part of my inquiry in Canada to look to the 
working of these import duties. This fiscal policy, which is called 
has made Canada very rich. (Hear, bear.) And, with 
tii the feelings that have actuated those who have guided 
bar destinies in bringing about that fiscal policy, I had along inter- 
view with Sir John Macdonald, and I can only say that he is mott 
rertainlr free from anything like hostility to Great Britain, and 
that sll he i* anxious to do is to bring about a fiscal bond between 
England and Canada. I have his permission to say that there is 
g more dear to a Canadian's heart than to be united both by 
icy and in every other way with this their much-loved 
•i try. (Hear, hear.) I cannot altogether on minor 
agree with Colonel Grant. 1 think there is a great deal to 
be done in Canada with regard to agricultural products ; but when 
he telU n» that the butter is so good that it is all sent to England 
as Canadian butter, the lady sitting next to me, who accompanied 
me on my journey, suggests to me that this must be the reason why 
then is to mnch bad butter left in Canada. (A laugh.) The 


The ProgretM of Canada. 

lecturer has told na of the comparatively short distances that lie 
between England and portions of Canada, and a very interestin 
topic is opened np as to whether there is not even still a shori 
route to this great grain country than the present one. (Hear, 
hear.) That shorter route we believe may be found through the 
Hudson Straits. I speak of this with some diffidence in the pre- 
sence of Dr. Rae, of the Hudson's Bay Company, and I am glad to 
hear his assent when f say that I believe it possible that we may 
find these Straits open to us from at any rate July 15 up to October 
15. If that is so, and we can have our grain ready at Churchill 
by July 15 — and you must remember that it would be the previous 
harvest that they would have been engaged threshing out — in the 
winter and early spring, when they could not be at work at anything 
else, when the hard ground affords a ready transit, they would 
have it there ready to put on board vessels arriving at that date 
and ready to return again by the end of July. If it can be found, 
then, that these Straits are open to October 15, each vessel would 
be able to make her three voyages. The sea journey from Liverpool 
to Churchill will be brought to within 400 miles of that great grain 
country ; it is shorter than it is from Liverpool to Montreal, from 
which it is distant some 1,700 miles, and shorter than from Liver- 
pool to New York ; so that if the route is found to be open for a 
sufficiently long period of time, a very short connecting railway 
indeed will bring this great corn -growing oountry into immediate 
sea connection with Great Britain. (Hear, hear.) That ia a 
subject which is well worthy the consideration of the meeting. I 
would say another word. It is not merely for corn -raising that we 
must look to this land ; depend upon it there is no better district 
in the world for raising cattle than that you find on the eastern 
slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and other land at the 108rd meri- 
dian and the 50th parallel. I believe that there, on the eastern 
side of the Rocky Mountains, where the air is tempered by the 
Chinook winds, you will find lands where you may raise an enor- 
mous quantity of cattle, not to be fed and sent here as fat cattle 
only, but to supply us in England with that which we as farmers 
require the most — viz., lean steers ready to be fattened here with 
the cheap feeding-stuffs which we can get, and heifers of 
years old, ready to be brought to the milk pail. (Hear, hear.) 
Those are what we require, and which this land will supply to us. 
I am glad to think that I attained fully the object for which I went 
out, and I may sum it up in this : I am fully convinced tlmt 
Canada is, as a Colony, one of the brightest jewels of the Crown ; 
"he is deeply devoted to this dear Old Country ; there is not in her 

Tht Progrtu of Canada. 


ane thought of severance from us, and not one thought of annexa- 
tion to any other than these our British institutions ; and she will 
■apply, if properly cared for by us as one of our Colonies, a large 
outlet for the products of our manufacturing industries, a home 
for oar surplus manufacturing and agricultural population, and 
become a great power for supplying the requisite food to us here in 
England. (Cheers.) 

Mr. W Fbaser Rat : I am about to make one or two comments 
oa the able and interesting address which the gallant Colonel has 
delivered to-night. Before doing so, I may say that I have some 
qualification for speaking on this subject. I have three times 
visited the great Dominion — once in 1869 as correspondent of the 
ZWy .Vru-4 / again in 1878 as correspondent of the Timet; and, 
thirdly, in the same capacity, last year ; and I have traversed nearly 
the whole of that part of the North American continent, 
with the exception of the province of British Columbia. Before 
writing three books treating on North America I endeavoured to 
aeoaitein all the accessible facts about it. Colonel Grant stated, in 
irao part of his address, that Manitoba covered an area of 180,000 
square miles, while at another part he put the area at 14,000 square 
milts. The fact is, that the area is 120,000 square miles. More- 
over, be added that it had been decided to enlarge the boundaries 
of the province ; but these were enlarged not long ago. At the close 
of the hut session of the Dominion Parliament attention was called 
by the Governor General to the fact that a Bill had been passed 
enlarging the boundary of Manitoba. Colonel Grant remarked that 
in Canada any one under the Homestead Act can acquire 160 acres 
of land. He styled this " a free grant "; but, as a fact, one has to 
pay an office fee of 10 dols. for it. In the United States one gets 
a free) grant also, but there one has to pay 20 dols. for it ; so that 
Canada has the advantage of 10 dols. over the United States in 
Una particular. Colonel Grant also said that one obtained this 
grant in three or four years ; but one can actually obtain it in throe 
years. In the United States one must remain on the free grant for 
fire years before one can become the possessor of it ; hence it is 
obvious that the Canadian Homestead Act is superior to that of the 
itetl States. Again, it is said that 50,000 square miles of coal 
are to be found in the great North-West; but coal is a misleading 
term. I am not aware that bituminous coal has yet been dis- 
covered. What does exist in large quantities is lignite, which, 
though inferior to bituminous coal, is no bad substitute for it. 
n regard to the free trade question referred to by the last 
r, I think that the real point at issue is not simply free 


The Progress of Canada. 

trade or protection. A very worthy friend of mine who 19 known 
to all here present, and a very distinguished colonist — Professor 
Goldwin Smith — (oh) — told me this afternoon that the Canadian 
tariff is not purely a tariff for protection, but is a tariff for revenue 
— (hear, hear) — and if that be the case, cadit quastio. A tariff for 
revenue is not antagonistic to free trade. Again, the gallant Colonel 
might have increased the effect of his passing reference to the 
Intercolonial Railway. He calls it a valuable asset. It is so 
valuable an asset that it actually yields a profit. Till this year the 
railway did not pay. On the contrary, a dollar and a half, according 
to Sir Charles Tupper, was expended in order to earn one dollar. 
Thitt year, for the first time, there iB a surplus, and the Intercolonial 
Railway promises to be as productive as it is useful in linking the 
maritime with the other provinces of the Dominion. A remark 
was made in passing that in Canada there is no State Church ; 
but after that remark was made a phrase was used with relation to 
the DiB6enters there. Surely where there is no State Church there 
cannot be any DisBentera There are Presbyterians, Episcopalians, 
Methodists, and Roman Catholics in Canada, but no Dissenters. 
(Laughter.) Before I conclude I would point out the importance 
of one matter without going into some others — among them being 
the important one I have urged repeatedly of water communication 
between Port Churchill or Port Nelson with Liverpool by way of 
Hudson's Bay. The special point which has been overlooked with 
regard to Canada concerns the undeveloped mineral deposits near 
Lake Superior. We all know a great deal about California, 
Colorado, and other parts of the United States where the precious 
metals abound, but in no part of the United States is so much 
money made at so little risk as in the native copper mines of the 
State of Michigan. The return from working the mines there is 
estimated at thirty millions sterling. The copper produced there 
is consumed in the country ; the mines are worked by citizens of the 
country, being too valuable to be transferred to British investors. 
But the British or north shore of Lake Superior offers as great 
advantages for mining native copper as the American or south 
shore. I have taken a part in endeavouring to develop the unex- 
hausted and almost inexhaustible riches of this part of the 
Dominion. I havo an interest in certain native copper mines there, 
which I hope will yield many millions of profit to all concern* 

Mr. William J. Hakims : I have been much interested in the 
liBBflBWhich has been read. I desire to discuss it as a man of 
engaged in the City, my business being that of an i 


1 importer 

Tli': Progress of Canada. 


of grain from all parts of the world. It appears to me that the 
great extent of laud of which the lecturer has given us such ft 
glowing desrr calculated to produce wheat and other grain 

to a greater extent than anything else, and that the latent wealth 
anada consists in the future production of those articles. 
appears to me that Canada had much better stick to that 
ijohs for which the climate and soil are most snitable. The 
gallant Colonel has told us that protection had been adopted there 
with the view of fostering certain industries, in order that artisans 
may be tempted to leave these shores and go over there and keep 
up those industries when once fostered. That is the principle 
which the United States have also adopted ; and no doubt the United 
States have been successful in fostering vast industries in the manu- 
facturing way, as well as vast industries in the agricultural way. 
The two set-: grown together, and to have been dependent 

on one another. But the time is coming — and I see it myself very 
plainly as a receiver of large quantities of grain — when the world 
will produce more food than she will probably be able to find 
customers for. I am certain that if it had not been for the 
disaetron* crops in Europe during the last three years that the pro- 
due* raised in the United States, Canada, India, and elsewhere 
never have been consumed, (Hear, hear.) It becomes, there- 
a very important question for England and her Colonies to 
where all this grain that is to be grown can find a profit- 
able market. Before the late disastrous harvest there was no 
country in Europe that imported a large quantity of grain except 
•land ; and if we have good harvests again — which God grant 
we may ' — there will be again no necessity for large imports into 
Other European countries. (Hear.) Take France as an example : 
there is no wheat land gone out of cultivation that I can hear of, 
and their population has not increased. Five years ago France 
exported more wheat than she imported. Bear in mind, too, that 
people eat no more bread than they used to do. I could prove this 
by statistics. Some people think that, because large imports of 
wheat take place at low prices, an increase in the consumption of 
bread follows. But that u not bo. If wheat declines in prico the 
id is rather less, because the consumer need 
in bread, and can spend money in other articles which ho 
As our population increases in this country so our consump- 
ton increases ; but each individual eats no more bread now than he 
did ten years ago. We require an import of about thirteen millions 
of quarters in England with an average harvest. India has been 
alb developed within the last few years. For lb7tf-9-80 



The Progress of Canada. 




I think the average export from India was 1,200,000 qn 
while in the year just ending it has been 4,500,000 quarters. The in- 
habitants of the United States think we are entirely dependent npou 
them for food, and the sooner we disabuse their minds of that idea 
the better. (Hear, bear.) The Americans think that if we put 
any duty on their wheat, or if any other cause were to stop their 
sending wheat, that we should starve. Now, here is an extract 
from the report of the last Liverpool market, held last Friday : 
" A dull market, there being scarcely any other samples than those 
of Indian whcatB on the stands." Now, remember that Liverpool 
is the place which is usually the chief market for American whei 
It is the nearest port and the cheapest freight for American 
duce, and yet the report says there was no wheat except Imli 
there last Friday. The fact is, that we have for some months 
doing without American supplies, they having had a poor crop ; and 
we can show, and have shown, that by doing without their wheat 
we are not dependent upon them. There is every probability of our 
Indian Empire being able to export six million quarters next year; 
Australia has to spare for shipment two million quarters this year; 
aud New Zealand half a million quarters. These important 
supplies, added to those from the immense districts which 
gallant Colonel has spoken of in our North-American Provin 
point to our future independence for our food requirements. It 
seems to me that England and her Colonies, dependent on one 
auother, would do just as well as England dependent on the rest of 
the world. (Hear, hear.) Now I think Canada will do well to look 
this fairly in the face. The inhabitants of Canada must remember 
that we have free trade with India, or at all events very nearly 
free trade. (Hear, hear.) "We make the inhabitants of Indi* 
take our manufactures without a duty. Well, they send us tb 
wheat, and we take it without a duty. Why should not Canad* 
and Australia do the same ? The gallant Colonel has spoken aboul 
the Canadians having the greatest respect for our Queen, and 
warmest desire to continue united to us in fellowship. All rigfal 
Very good. But there is something more than that required to bin 
nations together. There is a little self-interest. (Hear, hear.) Tl 
ultra-free traders maintain that imports and exports must 
necessity balance one another. If they are to Bead us wb 
barley, and Indian corn to the value of ten or twenty millions 
year sterling, they must, according to the opinion of ultra 
traders, take the same amount back in our goods, sooner or kl 
That is to say, the ultra-free traders would argue that there is a 
Uj compel them to do &o. Although I do not believe Lu that law 


iveraally applicable, still I thiuk it would apply to Canada more 
than to most nations. I know there are international inventors in 
ail oar great centres of capital, and that goods are often paid for 
by securities, and even by title-deedB of real property. For instance, 
'{•-deed of this house could be used for the purchase of com- 
modities from some parts of the world ; but this is mil the sort of pay - 
aunt that the Canadians want. They want something in payment 
which they can use to their own profit, and that is just what we can 
■apply them with. I have only made these remarks because I 
think the whole policy of England with her Colonies ought to tend 
to eon federation. I believe that nations which impose heavy 
datie* on our manufactures do succeed in crippling our industries 
in that way. I maintain thai the price of our raw material, such 
as iron, and our wages and profits in manufacturing other goods, 
have declined in consequence of foreign tariffs. I say that the 
which insist on applying these heavy tariffs on our in- 
onght to be paid back in their own coin, and that those of 
Colonies which are willing to reciprocate with us, even 
it only be by a gradual process, ought to be encouraged to 
by ovary means in their and our power, even if it should lead 
change in our commercial system. (Cheers.) 

Noble Chairman : I would point out to Mr. Harris that the 

have no choice in the policy which they have followed. 

ir object was to put a duty on American goods. They could 

aotdoao, on account of our judicious legislation and the authority 

»• txerci*e over them, without imposing a duty on English goods 

Soiooal Abbothnot, R.A. : I very gladly comply with your 
>'s directions to Bay a few words, although I am quite aware 
t no justification for doing bo, unless it is the fact which Mr. 
Hartley Bill has urged with less reason perhaps than myself; but 
lsia> have spent some months, during the end of last year, in 
Cfcuis and the other side of the Atlantic. Like him, I was also 
••ompjuiied by my wife. (Laughter.) I should like to offer my 
obits of thanks to the gallant Colonel for his admirable address, 
•*i I certainly do not feel disposed to be hypercritical, as I venture 
iak Mr. Rae showed a disposition to be. (Hear, hear.) I oau 
' endorse, from my personal observation, nearly everything 
M aaid in his most interesting paper. I had the advantage of 
with various Ministers, and especially with the Finance 
whose name I regret to observe was left out of those 
the paper speaks of as having exercised much influence over 
i if the country — Sir Leonard Tilley ; and I can. tuUv 


The Progress of Canada. 


endorse all he has said of the'immense prosperity which has resulted 
to the eastern provinces of Canada in consequence of the introduc- 
tion of the •'N.P.,"or the national policy. (Hear, hear.) I can 
heai* witness to the fact that industries are springing up and thriv- 
ing ; that people are returning to the country who had left it before ; 
that, as he shows, deficits have been converted into large surplus 
and I can also corroborate a statement which might have been in- 
troduced, and which really bears an important influence upon this 
question of fair trade or free trade as regards a country in the 
condition of Canada ; and I have this on the authority of the 
Finauce Minister, viz., that the articles affected by the new tariff 
— the 25 per cent, tariff —have not increased in price in consequence 
of the imposition of that tariff. Now, that appears to me to strike 
at the very root of the arguments which are put forward by out- 
and-out free traders. I presume it to be due to the fact that in 
consequence of the flourishing condition of trade and the larger 
circulation of money the retailers are able to 6ell their goods at a 
less rate of profit than they could afford to sell thern at in previous 
times. I was not — like Mr. Staveley Hill — in Manitoba or in the 
North-West Provinces. I spent such time as I passed in Canada 
in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia. I was induced to go 
there partly to Bee a work I had always taken an interest in, 
believing it to be important to England and Canada — that was the 
dock at Esquimault. We have all heard of this for bo many years 
that I began to think it a perfect myth. But I assure you it is 
really in course of construction, and I had it photographed iu it* 
then condition on October 1, It was not likely to be completed at 
the time of its contract, but there was every reason to suppose that 
before any prolonged period it would be finished and in a condition 
to be used. Ascertain prejudices exist in that part against Chinese 
labour, these and other reasons have retarded itB progress. 
Another thing may be of interest to you — that is, the condition in 
which I found the Pacific end of the Canada Pacific Railway. 
When I was there in October the line was laid from Emery, which 
iB four miles below Yale, to a point about eleven miles above Yale 
and by the end of the year the contractor anticipated that hr*B 
miles would he completed. Some further portion of it was grail 
at the Kainloops end of that section, which I did not sec. Ill 
scenery at that part of the line is very beautiful. I taw various 
other rivers in that part of the world, such as the Columbia 
and I can safely Bay there is nothing at all equal to the Fri 
River. As an engineering work I imagine it to be one of the 
severest undertakings of these days. From the Pacific end there 

The Progrets of Canada. 


w an immense amount of tunnelling. I waB told that in twenty- 
aix miles there were twenty-two tunnels, and some of them not very 
cant, and one which I saw was 1.H00 feet long. The 
formation of the rock, also, I understand to be of a very difficult 
nature to drill through. I hope I may be permitted to take this 
opportunity of expressing my warm gratitude to my friends in 
Canada, not only for the kindness with which private individuals 
treated me, but also for the great courtesy and urbanity which I 
rooeived at the hands of officials, from Sir John Macdonald down- 
wards. (Cheer a) 

Mr. E. Hepplk Hall : I am always glad to have an opportunity 
of speaking a word for Canada. There are several points raised in 
Colonel Grant's paper on which I think all Canadians, however 
grateful they may feel for the expression of loyal welcome he has 
given us, ought to feel some httle surprise. 1 confess I came here 
to-night hoping to hear a paper somewhat on the lines of the 
excellent paper of Sir Alexander Gait. 1 am somewhat disap- 
pointed, and I think not unreasonably bo. I went to Canada as a 
boy, end have spent the greater portion of my life there. Colonel 
Grant ha* fallen into the error of confounding Quebec with the 
whole of Canada, but I suppose that is because he feels more at 
homo there, and feels that Quebec forms a large and integral 
portion of the whole Dominion. The facts, however, are that when 
we reach Quebec, by whatever route we travel, we are only at the 
eommeneementof the Dominion, and the hues which are laid down 
through to British Columbia really cover the most important part 
of the Dominion. On page 154 Colonel Grant alludes to the 
import* from Great Britain and the United States, and draws 
therefrom some httle ground for congratulation as to the increasing 
trade with the Mother- Country ; but 1 would ask Colonel Grant 
whether he is not crowing a little too soon. Taking the last year 
his figures ere somewhat ancient and musty. I hud him always 
dealing with the year 1880, when really a paper of this description, 
launched upon us to-day, should at least have given us the figures 
for 1881. In this respect 1 think the paper open to criticism on 
the *oort) of incompleteness. He gives us the imports for 1880 
from Greet Britain at thirty-four millions, and from the United 
at twenty-nine millions ; but he should bear in mind that 
figures illustrate merely the first turn in the tide, and we can 
acairely take to ourselves any very substantial amount of satis- 
faction froiu it. I am scarcely enthusiastic enough as a statistician 
to rely upon these figures as being what we may expect to improve 
upon in the future. On page 159 Colonel Grant has given us his 


The. Progress of Canada. 

definition of protection. I yield to no man in my love for free 
trade, and I think in that respect we can scarcely be expected to 
supply Colonel Grunt a definition for protection. It means in my 
opinion KDtiH'lliing more than a mere tariff for revenue. Ota 
page 167 I find what I take to be the gist of the whole subject : 
contained in a little paragraph there, not hidden away in a corner, 
hut appearing boldly in the middle of the page, are valuable sug- 
gestions in regard to a Bchool for emigration. (Hear, hear.) Now, 
most of you are aware — not from the few books I have written or 
from the newspapers I have corresponded for, but from the fact 
that for thirteen years I have paid close attention to emigration — 
that I stand here as the emigrant's friend. The emigrant has a 
great many so-called friends, too many perhaps, for I find that a 
great many of them have some little interest of their own to serve. 
It is not the question of selling them a passage ticket, or the means 
of directing them through to their destination by this or that rouv 
out of which they are going to make some vulgar percentage. 
(Laughter.) I make this assertion, that in all our discussions (and 
I try to attend them all, for I look upon these meetings as laying 
the foundation of our future Colonial Empire), I stand here as the 
emigrant's friend, stating this fact, that we have not yet in 
England, with all our grand advantages of colleges, schools, and 
rompulsory education, extended by wonderful methods of mag- 
netism and electricity all over the world — we have not an 
elementary school for teaching emigrants. (Hear, hear.) Mr. 
Frederick Young lately culled my attention to a paragraph which 
had appeared in the Irish papers. It was a report of the last 
Social Science Meeting at Dublin. There, put forth by a lady who 
styles herself the " Nun of Keumare," was not what I concoive to 
be a well-digested i-cheme of fitting young emigrants for going out 
to the Colonies, but arguments which will serve as a broad basis 
for future action, and 1 reiterate tliut statement to-night from the 
bottom of my heart. We have in England the grandest material 
for colonising the various fields of labour all over the world, and 
we have not got a school to which a boy or girl can go and fit 
themselves for the necessities of the life they are going to lead ; 
and I say it is time we had one. (Hear, hear.) Thifi will, how- 
ever, serve as an addition to another valuable paper, and whatever 
I may have said with regard to the drawbacks of the paper. I 

make this drawback to Colonel Grant's advantage in this respect 

that if the paper is a little behind time, as it is, it is also eminently 
— sctical and suggestive, and I belong to that much-abused pro- 
ton the " Fourth Estate," and we think that anything 

I of Canada. 


am n 

savouring I | ueieot indeed. Since then I have been 

in Manitoba with a party of settlers myself, and have got safe back 
again, and 1 must endorse what Mr. Staveley Hill said, not only 
about the climate, but commercially and every way ; and not only 
regarding tin Dominion, bat the North-West, aud all those out- 
parts which are coming so rapidly within the British power, 
and which mast last as long as the British Crown itself lasts. 
(Hear, hear-) 

Mr. Jambs Rankin, M.P. : Aftrr the most interesting address and 
eqoally interesting speeches which we have already heard, there is 
little mdeod left for me to add ; hut as I, along with other gentle- 
who have addressed you, paid a visit last year to Manitoba, I 
moat happy to add my testimony to the great resources which 
I ry opens ont to emigrants and settlers. In my opinion 
one of toe moat wonderful discoveries of the age that such a 
ohoold have been opened up, so suited to emigrants from this 
and i' tries. Emigration is the natural and most effective 

means of getting rid of the surplus labour of an over populated 
country , and I know of no country more fitted to receive an 
iaiPMiae immigration than the far North- West of Canada, the 
growth of which, I believe, ia destined to be of a most rapid 
description. With regard to the question alluded to to-night — viz., 
Fro* r. Fair Trade — I would only add one suggestion on that point. 
which is this, that the great amount of prosperity Canada may 
lately have attained to is owing to the vast accession of wealth 
which ahe has recently discovered in new-found agricultural lands, 
rather than as the effect of the tariff which has been readjusted. 
1 am aware, from many conversations I had with persons who were 
familiar with these matters in Canada, that the tariff which has 
been put on was not intended to be protective against Great 
Britain, bnt against the United States ; and I heard further that 
tn many ways they tried to adjust it so that it hit the United States 
rather than Great Britain. 1 think the members of this Iustrut." 
can do no better work than encouraging the people of England 
who cannot ti ml home occupation to emigrate to the Dominion. 
They will find people there willing to receive them, and any good 
and honest labourer would find occupation at from 4s. to 7s. per 
diem. Not only do 1 say this with regard to male labourers, but also 
with regard to female labourers, for, as we know, we have really a 
surplus of women over men. There is a society here called the 
" Women's Emigration Society," and they, in my opinion, can <1<> 
oserol work in emigrating youug women to British North America. 
A» a friend said to me in Winnipeg, " You can do no more useful 


The Progress of Canada. 

work than in eneouraging young women to come out to tbia place, 
for it is almost impossible for as to find domestic servants." And if 
it is taken up and forwarded by a society of this sort, it would have 
a most beneficial effect upon the fortunes of persons who cannot 
find employment in this country. (Cheers.) 

Mr. W. Fabkeb Ecroyd, M.P. : I came here as a listener, and I 
do not know that I have much title to speak, because, in the first 
place, I was unfortunately prevented coming in time to hear what. 
I believe, was a very interesting paper read by the gallant Colonel, 
and, in the next place, I had not the pleasure of accompanying my 
friends, Mr. Staveley Bill and Mr. Bankin, to that boundless terri- 
tory of the great North-West which they recently visited, 
regards that great bundle of questions which come under the name 
of " Fair Trade," I am sure you will not consider this the proper 
occasion to enter upon a discussion of them. (Hear, hear.) There 
is in this country a feeling of the deepest interest in the prosperity 
of its Colonies, not only because we feel that they are our own 
flesh and blood, that they are united by the closest ties, but also 
because it would be contrary to nature that within the limits of 
our almost unbounded Empire we should not find the best possible 
field for emigration and the employment of English capital. (Hear, 
hear.) I confess that whatever interest I have taken in the future 
Federation of the Empire and the drawing closer the commercial 
relations between the Mother-Country and the Colonies arose from 
the reflection how extraordinary it was that, with an Empire con- 
taining within its bounds all varieties of soil and climate, and 
under the control of our own time-honoured Government, wa 
should not have found larger scope for our surplus population and 
our surplus capital. (Hear.) Yet we all know it has not been so. 
(Hear.) This great country, having magnificent undeveloped 1ft: 
of its own in all parts of the world, is content to receive great part 
of its food supplies from countries which put almost prohibitive 
duties on its manufactures. (Hear, hear.) I yield to no one in 
my attachment to the principle of free trade. I believe if it could 
be universal it would raise the world in a manner that we cannot 
describe. But we know well that free trade in the broad aense of 
the term ie not at our command. We have tried to do our part, 
but it requires that foreign nations should do their part as well 
before any real freedom of interchange is established. (Hear, 
hear.) It is indeed a strange phenomenon that English capital 
and emigration have rather directed themselves to the great pro* 
tectionist States of America than to our own Colonies. (Hear, 
hear.) The policy of protection — whatever the disadvantages which 

The Progress of Canada. 


can no doubt be proved to impose upon those young countries 
rhiefa have adopted it — has also brought them some important com- 
leiir, hear.) I have no doubt that although the 
of wearing apparel has been raised something like 70 per 
it the United States by the operation of their enor- 
Unlf. this u'ireu instance has done a great deal to attract 
English labour and English capital to that country, because the 
iee of labour and the remuneration of capital employed there in 
taction of textiles must, on the whole, be considerably 
illy raised price of goods; and no doubt thin 
I all aloii-r 1 to divert the current of English labour and 

|>iUl from our own Colonies to the United States. (Hear, hear.) 
Then let us consider the conduct of Canada with fairness : I have 
alvay* endeavoured to do so myself. It is a young nation, with a 
widely -scattered population, chiefly engaged in agriculture, and it 
cannot possibly adopt a system of direct taxation, such as may be 
jvenicutly employed by a nation containing a more completely 
orjpuHJkxl and densely-crowded population. (Hear.) Well, I 
believe that Canada has had a most difficult part to play : she has 
been placed between two great attractive forces. (Hear, hear.) On 
the one hand she has been desirous to approximate her policy as 
rly a* pos&ible to that of the Mother-Country ; on the other 
•he has felt keenly the difficulties imposed on her by that 
led land frontier which ho slightly separates her from the 
United States. She has seen that their protective policy, by raising 
ited States, was drawing aside capital and labour 
to that country which ought to have enriched her ; and bo she has 
endeavoured to steer a middle course, and to solve this difficulty as 
beat she might. And I think those Englishmen who, in their 
devotion to the absolute principle of free trade, have thought that 
Canada under these trying circumstances ought to have adopted a 
policy permitting the completely free import of manufactures, have 
failed to take into account the difficulties of her position. (Hear, 
bear.) 1 believe it is disadvantageous for any country to be deve- 
loped only upon the lines of agricultural industry. (Hear, hear.) 
1 have no doubt whatever that the United States, in this respect at 
leart, have been wise in their generation ; enjoying through the 
bounty of Providence and the wonderful richness and extent of 
their territory, almost a surplus of the commodities necessary for 
they have sought rather to attract all the industry, enterprise, 
thill, and spare capital they could from countries where those 
things abounded, and so to develop their resources more rapidly, 
and to moke their national life quicker and more active and varied, 


The l'rogress of Count, 

than to aim only at obtaining the necessaries of life at the lowi 
range of what may be termed scientific cheapness. (Hear, bear.) 
I can understand that policy on the part of a new country; and 
therefore I can understand that under ber peculiar circumstances 
Canada may have gained in some degree by approximating to it. 
That does not, bowever, shake my faith ill the great benefits of 
universal free trade, though it modifies my judgment of the course 
that Canada has pursued. I should like, in conclusion, to express 
in few words bow very near to my heart is this great question 
the Consolidation of the Empire — (hear, hear)— bow very closely 
Inluve it to be intertwined with all that is most important 
regard to our own future, morally and socially, in this country, 
and to the maintenance and cultivation of that spirit of real 
patriotism without which an empire, however widely spread, only 
contains the seeds of weakness and dissolution. I think tin 
be no higher sphere of thought and action for any Englishman 
who loves his country and hie race, than the effort to lessen the 
future number of those miserable creatures who crowd our streets, 
and whose degradation daily makos our hearts sorrowful, by pro- 
moting the prosperity of those provinces of the Empire where they 
might become happy wives and mothers, and occupy that place 
which a benevolent Providence had destiued for them. By such a 
course we might create such additional strength in the Colonies of 
this great Empire as would react upon the strength and welfare of 
the Mother- Country, and would afford us, at all events, an arena 
for future free commercial exchange which would make us com- 
paratively indifferent to the course that other countries might 
pnrsue. (Loud cheers.) 

The Noble Chairman ; Before concluding this discussion I would 
remark upon what Colonel Arbuthnot said that he had learnt in 
Canada — that the application of the higher tariff on imported 
goodB has decreased the price of many articles in Canada. 

Colonel Arbuthnot : I said they had not increased the price. 

The Noble Chairman : I can give you an instance where the coat 
of the article has decreased in consequence of the higher tariff 
being put on, Now, the price of refined sugar in one year was 
greatly decreased after the imposition of the tariff, and for this 
reason, that the American refinerB, being highly " protected," were 
able to undersell and entirely ruin the Canadian refiners. Wben 
they accomplished the Canadian's ruin they were able to charge 
whatever price they chose for refined sugar. There was no chance 
fir the Canadian refineries to revive so long as the United States 
eujar could come into Canada free. As soon, however, as t 

Tkt I'ii- ida. 


moderate duty was it. made a difference in favour of 

tadutn sugar. Their refineries revived, and the price of sugar 

at more than confirms what Colonel Arbuthnot said ; 

and I believe I am correct in what I state. (Hear, hear.) I have 

no farther remarks to make upon the discussion, winch has been a 

one ; and I shall offer your thanks to Colonel 

Grant C nig and eloquent paper, and ask you t > join 

with me in the expression of an ardent wish for the rapid progress 

and rwrly development of the magnificent country upon which be 

baa discoursed. (Loud cheers.) 

Colonel Grant : I shall ask your permission for a few minutes 
while I endeavour to reply to the very flattering manner in which 
yoo have responded to the resolution which has been put to you by 
his Grace the Duke of Manchester. I listened with a great deal 
of pleasure to the interesting and altogether fair speech made by 
Mr. Frescr Rae. lie reminded me, in speaking of the boundaries 
of Manitoba, that Parliament had passed an Act enlarging those 
boundaries, and that they were an accomplished fact ; but I am in 
a position to inform him that they are not yet defined, but that a 
Commission has been appointed for the purpose of settling them 
at an early date. (Hear, hear.) In my paper I stated that the 
price of the land set apart by the Government in the North- West 
Tfxntory was payable in periods exceeding three years. Mr. Rae 
corrected me on that point, and said I was wrong, and that the 
terms of payment were restricted to three years absolutely. Now, 
1 have an official document of the Government of Canada in my 
band, and the regulations issued by the Department of the Interior, 
which controls these matters, and I will read them : — 

Agreements may be entered into with any company or per- 
sona (hereinafter called the party) to oolonise and settle tracts of 
Land on the following conditions : — a. The party applying must 
satisfy the Government of its good faith and ability to fulfil the 
stipulations contained in these regulations, b. The tract of land 
granted to any party shall be in Class D. 

The odd-numbered sectiom within such tra;t may be sold 
Is the party at two dollars per acre, payable, one- fifth in cash at 
the time of entering into the contract, and the balance in four equal 
annual instalments from and after that time. The party shall also 
pay to the Government five cents, per acre for the survey of the 
land purchased by it, the same to be payable in four equal annual 
instalments at the same time as the instalments of the purchase 
money. Interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum shall be 
charged on all past due instalments." 

The Progress of Canada. 

I think you will admit that, notwithstanding the few criticisms 
somewhat adverse to Canada by Mr. Rao. he has most un- 
bounded confidence in the country, for he told us he had invested 
largely there, and hoped to profit to the extent of many million* of 
dollars, and I sincerely hope he may. I felt much gratified at the 
practical speech I heard from Mr. W. J. Harris. There is one 
point he raised which can be easily answered. lie said, in talking 
of the vast production of grain which would result from the open- 
ing up of the North-West, he did not know where this large in- 
crease was to be sold. I think, on reflection, he will agree with 
me that if there is to be an increased production of grain there 
will also be an increase of mouths to eat it. (Hear, hear.) W ■ 
are developing this land in Canada because the populations of 
Europe are increasing and overflowing ; and the people who are 
going out there to cultivate the land and produce the grain will 
supply the constantly increasing population, not only of Eng- 
land, but of other countries of Europe. I am much indebted to 
Colonel Arbuthnot for drawing ray attention to a rather important 
omission in my paper — and I shall take care that it is rectified — 
that is, the omission of my valued friend Sir Leonard Tilley's name 
from the list of distinguished men of whom Canada is proud. It 
was entirely accidental, and I am happy at having this opportunity 
of saying that amongst the prominent men of the Dominion there 
is no one who has done so much to advance its prosperity in every 
way as our able Finance Minister. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Hepple 
Hall tried to be a little captious in reference to my statistics, and 
drew my attention to the fact that I dealt with them only up to 

-). and went no further. If you will refer to page 158, you will 
find I made special reference to the returns given to me quite 
recently by Sir Leonard Til ley, and that the figures came up to 
the year 1681. The date at which the Parliamentary returns are 
made np ends on June 80, and the returns of 1880 were only 
presented to Parliament in 1881 ; and as we had only entered upon 
the year 1882 within the last few days, you will see that the 
returns furnished have been up to the latest period at which 
I iament receives them. (Hear, hear.) In conclusion, I feel 
tint I cannot refrain from expressing my deep sense of gratitude 
both la Mr. ritavelcy Hill, M.P., and Mr. Farrcr Ecroyd, M.P.. for 
the valuable and able speeches which tboy have made this evening. 
They have spoken of Canada in a kind and encouraging spirit. 
The views they have expressed were those of gentlemen of broad 
and comprehensive experience and the result of actual observation, 
ar, hear.) And I am quite certain that such opinions, coming 

The Progress of Canada. 189 

from gentlemen in their position, as representative men in England 
and as the actual result of personal research, will have more 
weight and more influence than all the crude observations that 
may come from men with antediluvian ideas, who neither know 
anything about the country, or who perhaps care little less about 
it. (Cheers.) I am deeply grateful to you, my Lord Duke, for the 
complimentary manner in which you have spoken of my paper, as 
well as to the other speakers who have so generously credited me 
with the sincere intention to present Canada before this audience 
as an active and progressive country. I am satisfied that tbo 
result of this discussion, circulating as it will throughout England 
and Canada, will have the effect of opening men's minds to the 
real condition of the Dominion, and to a better knowledge of the 
policy which we are pursuing for the purpose of developing its 
vast and extensive resources. (Loud cheers.) 



A special general meeting of the Fellows waB held at the Rooms 
of the Institute, 15, Strand, on Tuesday, the 7th March, lS>i'2. 
His Grace the Duke of Manchester, K.P., Chairman of Council, 

Amongst those present were the following : — 

The Lord Kintmird. Sir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart. ; Sir Edward W. 
Stafford, K.C.M.G.; Sir Henry Bnrkly, G.C.M.G.K.C.B.; Sir John C 
Sir Bryan Robinson. Sir Robert Torrens, K.C.M.G. ; Sir Charles Clifford, 
Captain Bedford Pim, R N. ; Major-General R. W. Lowry, CB. ; the Reva 
C. F. Stovin, A. Styleman Herring, B.A. ; Messrs. E. Hepple Hall, F. P. 
Labilliere, J. A. You], C M.G. ; John Rae, M.D., F.R.8. : W. Walker, 
Henry J. Jourdain, J. V. Irwin, John Munro, H. W. Frcelaml, 
W. H. Squires, W. G. Lardner, C. F. Pfoundes, William Wilson. 
Frank M. Dutton, Stewart (uirdncr, A M. Brown, M.D., Jiiin.s T. Whitr, 
H. H. Brown, Hyde Clarke, DC.L. ; H. B. T. Strangways, W. Agnew 
Pope, J. G. Brex, Francis Renshaw, George Moffutt, A. J . Perceval, F, 
W. Stone, B.C.L. ; Aloxander, Rivington, J. D. Wood, A. B. Abraham, 
A. R. Campbell-Johnston, G. Molmeux, and Frederick Young (Honorary 

The Honorary Secretary read the notice convening the meeting, 
which had been sent to every Resident Fellow. 

Tiie Noble Chairman (who on rising was received with cheers) said : 
Gentlemen — Since the last Annual General Meeting a Committee 
was appointed, consisting of Sir John Coode, I>r. Rae, Mr. Moly- 
uenx, Mr. J. Dennietoun Wood, and the Honorary Secretary, to see 
whether it would be possible to obtain for this Institute more suit- 
able accommodation. They took an immense deal of trouble, as 
you must be aware would be necessary for such a purpose, in 
seeing many houses ; and they ultimately noticed one, which lean- 
not say they recommended very strongly. But the decision of the 
Council was against taking the house which they proposed. The 
expense would have been considerable, and, as we thought, beyond 
our means ; out in their report, with respect to the houses which 
they had visited and this house which they spoke about, at the end 
of their report they recommended that the Institute should consider 
the advisability of obtaining Incorporation by Royal Charter. The 
Council were unanimously of opinion that it would be desirable, 
and it seemed to us in accordance with the rules that it would be 
necessary to summon a General Meeting to get the sanction of such 
Fellows as choose to attend, who would be representing the whole 
body of the Fellows, to authorise the Council to take the necessnry 
steps. I therefore will move the first of the resolutions, and 

Special CkhciiiI Meeting. 


John Coode will second it, to the effect. " That it is desirable that 
the necessary steps should be taken ko procure the Incorporation 
by Itoval Charter of the Royal Colonial Institute." (Cheers.) 

Sir Jim v C'ihjok : My Lord Duke. Lord Kiunaird, and Gentlemen, 
— I presume I am called upon to second this resolution bom the 
circumstance that I had the honour of bfling Chairman of the Com- 
mittee to which his Grace has alluded. With regard to the houses 
thai we hare had in view, his Grace has told you all that need ho 
Mid on that subject ; but in the course of the investigations it did 
occur to as that whether we succeeded now or a little while hence, 
is finding more suitable premises for conducting the business of 
this Institute, it would be necessary that we should be incorporated 
in »Atae shape or other. (Hear, hear.) At present we have no 
legal corpus aud if we had succeeded in finding suitable premises in 
the absence of a deed or Charter of Incorporation, the Council 
individually would have had to become liable for the rent of those 
premises — (hear) — and I think the Fellows will all agree that that 
is not a fit and proper state of things. (Hear, hear.) We cannot, 
in legal language, be seed or sue, and I hope we shall never be 

(A laugh.) Wo cannot as a body even take a lease of any 
for tlie Institute, and, moreover, if some wealthy colonist 

at any time thiuk fit to leave as a " handsome legacy " of, 
say XlO.OoO, £16,000, or £30,000, or to present us with a consider- 
able gift during hi» lifetime, it is almost certain that his legal 
adviser would say we are not in a position to give a legal receipt for 
it. because this Institute has no legal corpus ; and I am quite certain 
that in the ease of a legacy left to the Institute we should have a great 
difficulty in giving such a valid receipt for it as would satisfy 
executor*. (Hear, hear.) It is a matter of common sense to men 
of business that we ought to possess a legal status and be incor- 
porated in some shape. This Institution has grown to such an 
extant that it has become absolutely essential to its future welfare. 
There are two ways of doing thie. One is under the Companies' 
Arte, by which we could obtain a deed of incorporation through 
the Board of Trade, and we could thus be incorporated without tin- 
use of the word "limited," although we should be really a limit..! 
body so far as regards individual liability. As far as we can 
gather, the expense of this would not be very inconsiderable, for, 
speaking in round numbers, there would be a fee of about £80 or 
a"i0 to be paid the Board of Trade, and a further fee of about £'20 
for the registration at Somerset House, so that the official fees for 
incorporation under the Companies Acts would be about £60 or 
4&0, whereas the departmental fees in the case of a ltoyal Charter 


Special General Meeting. 

would be about £150. (Hear, bear.) Now we must look at the 
thing in this way. I take it that the legal expenses would be 
pretty much the same whether we are incorporated by deed umh r 
the Board of Trade, or whether we are incorporated by Royal 
Charter ; because the document must be substantially the same in 
either case — it must be framed by legal hands. (Hear, hear.) The 
only difference, as far as I can make out, is this — that in the case 
of the Board of Trade we could proceed by solicitor only, whereas 
in the case of an application to the Privy Council for a Royal 
Charter we could only approach them through a member of the 
Bar. As far as our information goes the difference in the expense 
betwirri tin' two courses would be about i'150. The cost of a Royal 
< 1 in rter, we assume, would be not less than £800, and certainly 
should not exceed, even if it amounted to, as much as £ too. Look- 
ing at our present position, and remembering the prominence 
which this Institute has now obtained, and the importance of put- 
ting ourselves right as regards the British public, and of maintain- 
ing the position, which I think we are entitled to claim both at 
home and in the Colonies, and looking further at the fact that we 
have the Noble Duke in the chair to-day as the permanent Chairman 
of our Council, and last, not least, bearing in mind the hononr 
conferred on us by the illustrious Prince who has consented to 
preside over this Institute as a body, it would, I think, be some- 
what infra </<;/. if we went in for incorporation under the Companies 
Acts. (Hear, hear.) I think as the difference in cost will be only 
about £150, and considering the difference in the status of the 
Institute which will be acquired from our incorporation by Royal 
Charter, I have great pleasure in seconding this resolution. 
Sir Bryan Robinson : Your Grace and Gentlemen, — I have come up 
to town to-day for tin- porpoM ol expressing my full concurrence 
in the object on which we meet here ; and for the purpose of pro- 
posing an addition to the clause now read, which is very much in 
conformity with the opinions expressed by the seconder. The mode 
suggested for obtaining incorporation is by Royal Charter. Now 
there are other, and I think more eonvenient, modes of attaining 
the same end. A Royal Charter must be strictly followed in all par- 
lors, and the mode of its proceeding must be also carefully 
considered beforehand, and definitely determined. Now in addition 
to the mode of obtaining incorporation by means of a Royal 
rt> r there is the power of obtaining our incorporation under 
the Lin 1'ihty Acts ; and although it appears from the 

expression of some opinion to-day that to obtain an Act of Incor- 

Sptdal General Meeting. 


n under tho Limited Liability Acts would be somewhat dero- 
gatory to the Royal Colonial Institute, I myself do not sympathise 
with that view, for it is in every respect au unobjectionable pro- 
ceeding. It will secure all the benefits we require, will be speedily 
obtained, and will save £800 or £'400 of our funds, which ought 
not needlessly to be thrown away. In addition to that, 
there i» a third mode by which the Act of Incorporation might 
be obtained, that is, by a short Act of Parliament. Thus, there 
are three modes by which our object may be secured, and by my 
amendment I propose to invest the Council with the power of select- 
ing the best. No doubt, considerable expenses must be incurred in 
approaching any public bodies in England through the agency of 
oar learned friends, who greatly rejoice in the doctrine of fees and 
refrmhiT*, and the more the dose is repeated the better they like 
(Laughter.) Yet I think the Council ought to be able to take 
into their consideration which is the better or best way <>f the 
three to obtain our end. I only propose now to indicate what it is j I 
am not going into it. I think, as I said before, that this Institute 
in erery respect deserves the distinction of a Charter. I thiuk its 
papers are peculiarly interesting. I venture to say that there is 
not to be found in any collection more valuable statistics than are 
bound np at the end i if every year. In every respect we have obtain '1 
that position that we ought to be incorporated ; but I think our 
i of usefulness would be promoted, and the strength 
of unity would be advanced, if, at the same time, we were 
authorised to establish in unison with the Institute a Colonial club, 
which is much wanted, A club would do very well, and would give 
great energy to the Royal Colonial Institute. But you cannot get 
» club without money, and you will not get money withoal limi 
Lability re, the limited liability is indispensably requisite if 

we seek to have the foundation of a club attached to us. I now 
beg to propose these words, which you observe only give authority 
to the Council to take the matter into consideration, and determine 
the beet mode of procedure : " That the Council be empowered to take 
into their consideration the three modes above specified, and select 
the one that shall be deemed the most convenient." (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. A. B. Abraham : I beg to second that. Tin- practical object 
•we have in view would be defeated if we found that the authorities 
were no* I to grant us a Royal Charter. I thiuk I am right 

■tating that the authorities were for some time past very much 
indisposed to grant further Royal Charters, and although we have 
bean favoured with very great influence— perhaps not more than we 
di— i is — yet we ought not to reckon upon that ; for I think I reoob 


Special General Meeting. 

lect hearing, although I may be misinformed, that upon 
occasion, although His Royal Highness was very much interes 
in some institution, yet he failed to obtain for that institution 
Royal Charter. The amendment will ensure our attaining our 
object under any circumstances, and there can be no harm what- 
ever in it. I cordially agree with the remarks made aa to the 
necessity for our following this up, by establishing some club or 
institute ; but I think the mode in which we should do that would 
have to be left to the Council. I think it would involve, amongst 
other things, a considerable addition to the subscriptions of the 
Non- Resident Fellows. I do not know whether that is a matter 
which the Council have had under consideration, but I think that 
the proposition for raising funds ought to be brought forward in a 
practical way, and that the Non-Resident Fellows, who have had 
very great advantages certainly by being members of this In- 
and who come here as strangers, ought to have the opportunity 
given to them of responding to the suggestion that their subscrip- 
tions or entrance fees or something of the kind should be increased 
to enable them to assist in the great work in which we are all 
engaged. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. EL B. T. Strangways : I think I may say that the Council have 
had fully under their consideration the question of incorporation by 
other menus than by a Royal Charter, and that after considering 
the question they decided to recommend this meeting to apply tor a 
Royal Charter, I should like to say that I think it would be v 
had tactics indeed to go to a public office and say, " If you do. 
give us what we want we don't care about you, and we will 
something else." We are going to a public office for this Charter, 
and we ought to say, " Our desire is to have it, and that it is not 
our intention to fall back upon some other means of procedure if 
wc do not get the charter." (Hear, hear.) I understood Sir Job 
Coode to say that part of the expense of applying for a charter 
would be the necessity of employing counsel. I don't know v. 
Sir John has ascertained that to be the fact ; my impression is tiiat 
it is not necessary, unless the application is opposed. I agree with 
Sir John Coode that if we are to be incorporated we may as well 
do it in a respectable manner; and there iB no reason why we 
should not do bo. Incorporation by a Royal Charter is in every 
way more respectable than any system of Incorporation under tin 
Companies ActB, which savour strongly of the Stock Exchange. 
think Mr. Abraham proposes that we should increase the sul 
tions of Non-Resident Fellows. Now, that's very easy to propose 
it is easy to call the spirits from the vasty deep, but will they come 


Special General yieetlng. 


.) Perhaps a member of the Finance Committee will 
I me if I am wrong, but I nay we have some 400 Non-Resident 
Fellows — nearly one-third of the whole number — who are at tliiy 
time in arrear with their subscriptions, and I am not including the 
carrot year in that. But it is only natural that tbey should be. 
A great many of them when they come over here are asked to join. 
Tbey ask, " How much ?" The reply is, " Only a guinea," and the 
response is, " You may put my name down for that ;" and some of 
tbem keep their names on the books for a year or two, and then 
the Council have to recommend that their names shall be struck 
off, and then when they go back to the Colonics we find from 
experience that they do not always keep up their payments. (" No.") 
I bare heard it stated by collectors of money that by increasing the 
amount due that you very seldom increase the chances of the 
recovery of any portion of it. (Laughter.) The fact is, we ask 
the Non-Resident Fellows to pay us a guinea, and that the expense 
attending each Nou Resident Fellow is about 12s. 6d.. and he gets 
oothing from us but that volume of Transactions, which I will 
venture to say there are not a dozen Fellows out of the whole 
Institute that ever take the trouble to read. (" No, no.") I am 
glad to hear that. I never read it myself. (A laugh.) I never 
take the trouble to read a volume through when I get it, as we have 
the report sent to us after every meeting, and I should not think of 
reading them twice over. If this Institute ie to prosper, something 
will have to be done to lift it out of the sleepy hollow into which it 
ha* fallen. We are doing no mere now than when we had 500 
lowi. There are the same number of papers read as were read 
some years ago. The quality of them is just about the same, and 
they were always very good papers. 

Mr. J. A. Yocx, ( LM.G. : I rise to order. It ie always interesting 
to hear what Mr. Strangways says, but— — 

Mr. II. W. Frkklako : I am afraid if we get into a discussion on 
the amount the Nou- Resident Fellows have to pay we shall never 
have done. 

Mr. H. B. T. Stkangways : I wonld point out that the Fellow who 
provoked this remark was not called to order, even by Mr. Youl him- 
self, when be proposed to increase the amount of the funds at the 
expense of Non-Resident Fellows ; however, that matter can stand 

Mr. J. Dexkistoun Wood : I think the question before us is whether 
the Institute shall be incorporated, and if so, whether it shall be 
voder the Companies Acts or by Royal Charter. With regard to 
the first, your Grace and Sir Julm Coode have stated reasons why 


Special General Meeting. 

it is necessary that the Institute should be incorporated. I would 
take leave to add another one. It is this. Probably we shall try 
at some time or other, when our funds are in a more flourishing state 
than at present, to own some building where we can hold our 
meetings. To do that it will he necessary to raise money, and that 
can only be done by issuing debentures, and there must be some 
authority to issue those debentures. (Hear, hear.) I come to t 
question of the form of incorporation. Sir Bryan Robinson h 
suggested that the question, which is the best mode of obtaining 
in • rporation, should be referred to the Council. I agree with him 
bo far, that I think we ought not to tie ourselves down to incorpora- 
tion by Royal Charter. (Hear, hear.) He has proposed three 
alternatives — the first, incorporation under the Companies Acts, 
second by Royal Charter, and the third by Act of Parliament. 
am afraid that the plan of seeking incorporation by Act of P:irlia 
ment we shall find is far more expensive than the others. (Hear, 
hear.) I feel certain, moreover, that a Bill for such a purpose would 
have no chance of success. Therefore, our choice lies between 
incorporation by Royal Charter and incorporation under 
Companies Acts. If the meeting is in favour of incorporati 
under the Companiea must give 6ome definite instruction 
the Council, and not leave it to the Council to decide. I think 
was the only member who advocated incorporation under 
Companies Acts ; I did so because I believe that incorporati 
under those Acta would be cheaper than incorporation by Royal 
Charter. Incorporation under those Acts would answer all the 
purposes we have in view. Moreover, I feel somewhat doubtful it 
we should get incorporation by Royal Charter if we apply for 
We have heard a great deal about the expense ; it is not in 
question between the two modes of incorporation, of £150 or ±'2' 
We may apply for incorporation under Royal Charter and 
refused it, and then the whole of the money we have spent 
have been thrown away. I do not mean to say that I think t 
the expenses amounting to £150 or £"200 would be incurred if we 
did not succeed in obtaining a Royal Charter, but certninly if we 
apply for incorporation by Royal Charter, and do not succeed m 
that, we sboald bo put to considerable expense. Now if we up] 
for incorporation under the Companies Acts, there iB no doulil 
should obtain that with the greatest facility. One gentleman ttx 
that incorporation under the Companies Acts savoured of tb 
Exchange. I do not think so at all. There is a very respectab 
body, the Incorporated Law Society, a body elected by the 
Court, and the Incorporated Law Society is inco: 





Special General Mating, 


panics Acta ; that is a highly respectable body, and it 
expends thousands of pounds every year. There are also some 
religion* societies connected with the Church of England incorpora- 
ted under the Companies Acts. Therefore it is rather going too far to 
»y that being incorporated under the Companies Acts smells of the 
^change. Now, what would it come to ? If we were incorpor- 
1 by Royal Charter, like all bodies incorporated by Royal Chart, i 
ihoold hare the right to put the words *' Incorporated by Royal 
»r" after the name of the society. If we are incorporated 
er the Companies Acts we should not be able to do so. But 
question is, is this distinction worth the difference in the cost, 
worth the risk of an unsuccessful application ? For my part, 
1 said before, when the matter was brought before the Council I 
in faTour of seeking incorporation under the Companies Acts, 
I was in the minority of one, and I did not press my views 
(Laughter.) I only wish therefore to Bay that if this 
thinks we should M6& for incorporation under the 
Companies Acts, and not by Royal Charter, they must not leave it to 
the Council to decide, but must give the Council definite instructions 
to eeek incorporation under the Companies Acts. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. H. W. Fheelam) : I should like to say one or two words 

with reference to the amendment of Sir Bryan Robinson. I 

r ure to hope that the plan proposed by the Council will be 

■doptedas it stands, — that a Royal Charter will be applied for, and 

that we shall not look at this question merely as a matter of pounds, 

thilling*. and pence. I do not wish to speak with any disrespect 

of throw bodies which apply under the Limited Liability Act, and 

lo which Mr. Denuistoun Wood alluded ; but I think that we have 

higher eossiderationi to regard, and the feelings of our countrymen 

is the Colonies themselves to consider. (Applause.) Their 

•uate of the value and importance of this Society would I think 

depend very considerably upon the question of whether or not we 

were protected under the Limited Liability Act or incorporated by 

Royal Charter. I may venture further to allude to one point wnicii 

strike* me aa objectionable in the form of the terms of the 

Amendment which Sir Bryan Robinson has put forward. I think 

be proposed — and I do not know whether it will be moved as an 

instruction to the Council, perhaps not absolutely as an instruction. 

bat at all events as a suggestion to the Council — that they should 

take into consideration the importance of attaching to this Institute 

a clnb. (Hear, hear.) I speak under correction, but it struck me, 

•o far an the observations reached me, that if such a suggestion went 

eut, and was added to the resolution it might of 


Special General Meeting. 

itself create obstacles in the way of our obtaining a Royal Charter 
of incorporation, and for this reason. Yon must recollect that a 
club is a speculation. There are two Colonial clubs already in 
existence, and a club might not answer. (Hear, hear.) We are 
happily in a position to say that, unless through some act of great 
imprudence, which I do not anticipate, and which I hope that none 
of you anticipate, on the part of the Council, this Institute occupies, 
and will continue to occupy, a position which it seems to me that 
nothing can shake. (Hear hear.) It stands upon the foundations 
of the Empire, and will I hope last as long as those foundations shall 
endure, and with as much credit to its members, as those distant 
Dependencies confer on the Empire itself. (Hear hear.) I do hope 
that under the circumstances we shall adhere to the proposal to 
have this Institute incorporated by Royal Charter ; and at all 
events that we shall not in any way mis. up this question with the 
question of a club. (Hear, hear.) I am afraid that such a project 
would import an element of danger into this question and that it 
would be better that, at present, we should keep ourselves clear of 
it. (Hear, hear.) 

Sir Bryan Robinson : It has nothing whatever to do with this 

Mr. LABnxTERE : I hope the meeting will adopt the original 
motion, and reject the amendment. The latter appears to be either 
too weak or too strong. It proposes to give the Council the option, 
which they have already exercised, of applying for incorporation 
under the Companies Acts or by Royal Charter. But as the 
Council have already decided, I do not see what advantage it would 
be to pass the amendment of Sir Bryan Robinson, asking them to 
do that which they have already done. The Council have decided 
against incorporation under the Companies Acts. If a practical 
result is to come from any such amendment it must take a much 
stronger form. It must take the form of a direction from this 
meeting to the Council to apply under the Companies Acta 
(Hear, hear.) With regard to the point which has been raised by 
Mr. Wood and others — the doubt of our getting incorporation under 
Royal Charter — I do not think there is a shadow of a doubt upon the 
subject, if we only make a proper application. We have had 
under our consideration in the Council the fact of other societies 
having obtained Royal Charters within a recent period, in fact, 
within the last few months. I believe that within only two or 
three years the Society of Surveyors in this country has obtained 
incorporation by Royal Charter. That is a highly respectahle 
society ; but I do not think I do it any discredit by saying that it 

Special General Meeting. 


does not occupy in this country and the British Empire the position 

which the Royal Colonial Institute occupies — (hear, hear) — and I 

do not think we ought to fear to attempt that which the Society 

of Surveyors has already accomplished. I do hope, therefore, that 

the amendment will not be carried, but that the original motion 

be adopted by the meeting. (Hear, hear.) 

Sir Beta* Robinson : May I say one word with regard to the 

I have lately had with respect to the difficulties of obtain- 

a charter of incorporation ? I happened to be a member of a 

large society which has been for many years incorporated, and it 

waa our wish to have a supplemental charter, everyone being in 

favour of it. No vexatious obstructions were interposed, but the 

roatine mode of proceeding was found dilatory and difficult ; and I 

greatly fear that difficulties will be experienced in the Royal Colonial 

Institute obtaining a Royal Charter at all. The mode of procedure 

ta Ihii. If we seek for incorporation by Royal Charter, we have to 

submit oar plan and the powers of the proposed charter in all their 

detail* to the Attorney-General. After those details have rj 

Wider his scrutiny, they are submitted to the Committee of the 

<.<viiu-il, where they undergo an amount of discussion and 

Klay, which many of us whose heads are grey will be greyer 
fare it comes out of that ordeal . mid then the proposed charter 
11 emerge with Miggestions of a minute character for us to meet 
ain. All this time expense is going on, and difficulties are in- 
e» easing and time flying, whereas the mode of proceeding suggested 
by me and confirmed by others, by referring to tbe Limited 
Liability Acts we want nobody's leave. We go to the Board of 
Trade, pay the fees, and become an incorporated body with limited 
liability, and can establish a club or do anything else within our 
at a comparatively small outlay. And why should wo, as the 
of the general body, throw away money and gain no good 
? It has been said that the Council have already rejected 
a reference to the Limited Liabilities Acts ; and therefore it is a 
work of surplusage my coming to give them the suggestions I 
have done — ('* No, no") — well, it has been said so. 

Mr. J. A. Youl, C.M.G. : There is uo doubt the Council took into its 
Consideration all you said, and decided upon the Royal Charter. 

\'>nui Robinson : Well, there is no doubt the Council night 

approach the matter otherwise if authorised to do so, and then 

they would consider the matter fortified by the expression of 


Mr. Frederick Young : I did not intend to take any part in the 

but I wish to call the attention of the meeting to an 


Special General Meeting. 

observation of Sir Bryan Robinson's with reference to tbe difficul- 
ties of obtaining a Royal Charter. No doubt tbey might possibl; 
be somewhat considerable, but I wish to remind him of the ft 
that other societies with similar principles and objects as our own 
— amongst them the Royal Geographical Society — have got their 
charters — (hear, hear) — aud if they have theirs, why should not 
\\v .' <He!ir, hear.) There may no doubt be some difficulty in it, 
but not, I apprehend, so much as some people seem to fancy. 
The Council have taken the whole of this matter into considera- 
tion, aud they come before the general body of Fellows to ask their 
co-operation and support in doing what they behove will be for the 
best interests of the future of this Institute. (Hear.) I am one of 
the chief spending organs of the Institute, and occasionally I am com- 
pelled to dip my hands rather deeply into thepookets of the f 
tbe Fellows, but this is only for what I feel to be for the furtheran 
of thuse great and national objects for the promotion of which the 
Institute is founded. I do think this is not a question to be de 
tenniued by whether we spend one hundred or two hundred pound 
more or less. We must look at the thing on a tittle broader and widi 
footing than that alone. (Eear, hear.) I admit that we should be 
reasonably economical, but we may be too much bo. We must 
recollect that we are not a society which is formed with the object 
of making money, or for commercial and trading purposes. It is 
not merely a question of what is called pure economy in the saving 
of our corporate funds. (Hear, hear.) I should like to take this 
opportunity of mentioning another point about which there- 
to be a little inaccuracy. I think Mr. Strangways said that we bad 
400 of our Fellows in arrear with their subscriptions. I must correct 
him by saying that the number is only 105 who owe for more th 
one year at this moment. (Cheers.) 

Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. : I should like to ask your Gra> 
whether the amendment is to be tacked on to the first or second 
resolution ? 

The Noble Chairman : The first resolution. 

Captain Bedfokd Pim, R.N.: Well, Ido hope that this Institute will 
back up the Council to the utmost of their power in asking for a Koy:il 
Charter. It is no use humbugging about with any other sort of 
incorporation. (Hear, hear.) I happen to be a member of tie 
Trinity House, and know that the Brethren went in for a supple- 
mental Royal Charter, and had no difficulty about it. I do not think 
there would be the smallest difficulty in getting a charter for the 
Royal Colonial Institute. I believe the Government would giv 
it with great pleasure ; all that has to be done is to petition the 

Spec'ml Gr.ncval Mcftnnj. 


authorities for such charter ; this would only cost pen, paper, 
.«. and a little brains. (Laughter.) Then with regard to the 
expense of the " refreshers " spoken about for counsel : I happen 
to b* a member of the profession to which the speaker alluded, and 
I do not suppose there is nny member of this Institute who is more 
heart and soul in its welfare than myself, and, being a barrister, f 
■hall be proud to do all the legal necessities for nothing. (Laugh- 
It i» quite true a barrister must be engaged, but that is only 
to father the charter. But who would draft the charter really ? 
Why, the Council of this Institute, and who aro so capable of doing 
that work ? The barrister would simply be needed to put his impri- 
matur to it. (A laugh.) I will do this for the Institute as a labour 
of love, if they like. I have been a good many years at the Bar, 
Dearly ten, and my services shall be freely rendered without the 
of a Mingle farthing. In fact, I should consider it a pride and 
pleasure to help your Grace and the Council in what we ah must 
think a good work, and I do hope the meeting will strengthen your 
hands to the utmost of their power in the efforts to obtain a lioyal 
Charter, and thus consolidate the Royal Colonial Institute. 

'an* Coode : Might I be permitted to say a word by way of 
i .' Having been Chairman of the Committee I have made 
\j inquiries on the probability of our obtaining a Royal Chu 
and tho result of my inquiries just comes to this, that in the case of 
a professional body applying for a charter there might he difficul- 
ties, bat in the case of a body such as the Royal Colonial Institute, 
which ban nothing but Imperial interests to serve and no profes- 
sional objects to be gaiued, tho difficulty I believe at once vanishes. 
Even if it were not so I hold in my hand a charter obtained by a 
professional body, the Surveyors' Institute, granted as lately as 
80th Augu Now, in the face of that fact, what becomes of 

the alleged difficulty ? and I behove only about a year or two back a 
Royal I MM granted to the Accountants' Society. In tlio 

ease of both those bodies the professional difficulty existed, and not- 
withstanding that fact it has been overcame. But We are in a 
totally different position. We have, I venture to think, equally large 
interests to guard as the Geographical Society, which, as you know, 
I* incorporated by Royal Charter ; and when you take into oonsi< 
lie ration tho fact that tlie incorporation by charter, as far as we can 
IMirl 1 not entail a greater additional expense tlmn about 

ut must decide for themselves whether 
they will authorise the to apply for incorporation by 1 
rur or under the Companies Acts. (Hear, hear.) 
Major- General R. \V. Lowby, C.B. : I feel confident, my Lord Duke, 


Special General Meeting. 

from what you have yourself Baid, and Sir John Coode bo convincingly 
urged, as well as from what the gallant officer near me, whom I 
suppose I must now call "the learned counsel," haB 60 well eu- 
forced, I need say very little on this auspicious occasion. I am 
8 are the Council will be glad the Fellows present have 60 thoroughly 
discussed the subject of a charter for the Royal Colonial Institute, 
and that, in taking whatever steps may be necessary to give effect 
to our wishes, they will ho most ready to avail themselves of any 
additional light which such discussion may have thrown upon it. 
I would therefore earnestly ask Sir Bryan Robinson not to press his 
amendment, but to let there go forth from this General Meeting a 
unanimous expression of opinion that it is due to our Colonies, to 
this the Mother-Country, and to the great work and rapidly growing 
influence of this Institute, that the earliest steps be taken to have 
it endowed with a Royal Charter of Incorporation, and leaving to 
its Council — in full confidence — the manner of doing so. 

Sir Bryan Robinson : It seems to he the opinion of this meeting 
that my amendment should not be pressed. My object is to 
strengthen the hands of the Council, and although I am still of 
same opinion that it would be prudent to give the Council 
opportunity of expressing their views, and as my gallant frie 
General Lowry thinks we should be unanimous, and the 
of this meeting seems to be against me in this matter, I beg 
withdraw it. (Cheers.) 

The Noble Chaibman : Then I will put the first resolution. Yon 
have all heard it read, and all of you in favour of it please to hold 
up your hands in the usual way. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Major-General R. \V. Lowky, C.B. : After what I have already said, 
and after my friend Sir Bryan Robinson's graceful and graciom 
accedal to my request, I need detain the meeting no Ioul- 
Bimply confine myself to moving — as I do now — the adoption of 
the resolution entrusted to me, " That the Council be requested, 
and are hereby authorised, to take such action as may be necessary 
to obtain such Royal Charter." 

Mr. F. Dutton : I have great pleasure in seconding this resolu- 
tion, aud this sentiment will I feel sure be echoed by the other 
members of this Institute now present ; and as a young member it is 
perhaps not inappropriate that 1 should be allowed to do 60, 46 1 
may not unreasonably look forward to having the honour and plea- 
sure of being a member of this Institute for many years to come, 
and in that sense 1 feel justified in taking a prospective view of the 
question just discussed. 1 can only say that I — and other Fellows 


■Special General Mrethuj. 


I am tore with me — aro looking forward to this Institute making 
farther continual progress, in the future no less than it has done up 
to the present time ; and I have a feeling of great satisfaction that 
the amendment proposed by Sir Bryan Robinson has been withdrawn, 
and that the decision of the Council, arrived at, as we know has 
been the ease, after careful consideration of our interests, should be 
adopted. (Hear, hear.) I am sure that the feeling of every Fellow 
moat be that the prosperity of this Institute is largely owing to the 
great interest taken in it by the Council, and if the only obstacle 
standing in the way of our obtaining a Royal Charter is a question 
of ways and means, we have this satisfaction, that our funds are 
ample and continually increasing, and that we shall not miss the 
comparatively small cost which the incorporation by Royal Charter 

.i»iU. I have mnch pleasure in seconding this resolution. 

The resolution was put and carried unanimously. 

The Noble Chairman : I think it has been the intention of the 
Council to send their respectful congratulations to Her Majesty on 
Her escape from the shameful attempt on Her life — (cheers) — and 
as the Institute is here assembled in general meeting, I think they 
ought to take the opportunity of authorising the Council to Bend 
an Address from the Institute as a whole instead of only from the 
Conned. I may take it that you give your unanimous consent to 
inch a resolution ? (Applause, and hear, hear.) 

Mr. Frederick Young : Perhaps I ought to mention that His 

Grace was not at our Council meeting, held an hour ago up-stairs, 

this question was brought before us ; and we came to the 

usion to send an Address on behalf of the Fellows of the 

Institute of the character and nature to which His Grace has 

referred. (Cheers.) 

Mr. 8traj«gwayb : I think it would have a more general appear- 
anoe if the Address were presented from this meeting instead of 
from the Council. 1 will move an amendment to that effect. 

Soblc Chairman : 1 will put it to the meeting, and take it 
as the authorisation from the meeting. 

Mr. Frederick Yocno : The Address will be " from the Council 
and Fellows." 

Mr. Btranoways : But the Fellows have been left out. 

Mr Pardon me, the Fellows are not left out. 

The Address was then agreed to by acclamation. 

Sir Charles Stirling, Bart., moved a vote of thanks to the Noble 

Sir Charles Clutord seconded the resolution, which was passed 


Special General Meeting. 



To the Qiiem't Most Excellent Majesty, 

The Council and Fellows of the Royal Colonial Institute desire 
express their deep feeling of detestation and indignation at the recent dastardly 
attempt upon the life of Your Majesty, and to offer their loyal and hearty 
congratidations upon i'uur Majesty's happy escape — a feeling which they are 
fully assured is shared by every subject of i'our Majesty in the Colonies. 

They rejoice that the Almighty has been graciously pleased to preserve a life 
so dear and so precious to Your Majesty's subjects at home and in every 
Dependency of the Empire — a life which they trust may be prolonged in 
happiness and peace for many years to come. 


Chairman of 
Royal Colonial Institute, 15, Stband, London, 
7 th March, 1S8J. 




A\i>t March, 1882. 

I have had the honour to lay before the Queen the loyal and dutiful 
Address of the Council and Fellows of the Royal Colonial Institute. M the 
subject of the recent uttempt upon the life of Her Majesty. 

And I have it in eomiutmd to assure you that ller Majesty is deeply 
sensible of the loyalty and affection of her faithful subjects. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

»f. V. Habcoubt. 
The Honorary Secretary, 

Royal Colonial Institute, Id, Strand. 

Royal Colonial Institute, 16, Strand. 

9th March, 18S2- 
Dear Sib, 

I have the pleasure to forward to your care, for the information of H» 
Royal Highness the Friuce of Wales (as President of the Royal CoIobiaI 
Institute), m oopy of an Address, which has been adopted by the FellowsdU* 
Institute, at a Special Meeting on Tuesday last, and signed on their be 
the Duke of Manchester, expressing their heartfelt congratulations t" II" 
Majesty the Queen on her provideutial and happy escape, on Thursday la* 
from the hands of an assassin. 

Special General Meeting. 205 

The Address has been forwarded to Her Majesty' sTriuoipal Secretary of State 
for the Home Department, for presentation to Her Majesty. 

I have the honour to remain, dear Sir, 
Yours very faithfully, 

Frederick Yotrwo, 

Honorary Seoretary. 
Lieut. -General 8ir D. M.|Pbobtn, K.C.S.I., C.B., V.C. 
Marlborough House, S.W. 

Marlborough House, Fall Mall, S.W. 
March Mh, 1882. 

I hare the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of ye ster- 
day's date, with which yon forward, for the information of the Prinoe of Wales, a 
copy of an Address adopted by the Fellows of the Royal Colonial Institute, at 
a Special Meeting on Tuesday last, expressing their congratulations to the 
Qaeen on Her Majesty's providential eso<tpe, on the second instant, from the 
hands of an assassin. 

The Prinoe of Wales desires me to beg that you will inform His Graoe the 
Duke of Manohester (your Chairman of Council) and the Fellows of the 
Institute that their loyal and hearty congratulations to the Queen on Her 
Majesty's escape, have caused His Royal Highness much gratification. 
I hare the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient Servant, 

D. M. Peobyn, Lieut •General, 
Comptroller and Treasurer to 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 
Frederick Youjto, Esq. 
Honorary Secretary, Royal Colonial Institute. 



The Fifth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Grosvenor Gallery Library, New Bond-street, on Tuesday, the 
14th March, 1882. In the absence of His Grace the Duke of 
Manchester, KP., Chairman of Council, the chair was taken by Sir 
John Coode, Member of Council. Amongst those present were the 
following : — 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, K.P. ; Sir Thomas McClure, 
Bart., M.P.; and Lady McClure, Sir Henry T. Irving, K.C.M.O., 
Governor of British Guiana ; Sir Algernon Borthwick, Sir Edward 
W. Stafford, K.C.M.G. ; Sir Charles E. F. Stirling, Bart. ; Mr. David 
Maclver, M.P. ; Major-General R. W. Lowry, C.B. ; Sir Henry Barkly, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., and Miss Barkly ; Sir Francis D. Bell, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for New Zealand; Miss Levin, Messrs. H. W. Freeland, 
James MacGeorge (South Australia), J. L. Montefiore, Edward C. Healy, 
Hugh Jaruieson, J. C. Kemsley (Cape Colony), F. D. Dearo (Cape Colony), 
R. J. Van Ryck de Groot (British Guiana), J. Henniker Heaton (New 
South Wales), Captain Alfred Maloney, Colonial Secretary, Gold Coast; 
Messrs. R. W. Dibden, J, Dennistoun Wood, C. J. Cooper (Japan), J. 
Keltie, D. W. Lindesay, Alex. MacRosty, Leedhani White, Alfred Sye 
John Payne (Natal), A. J. Cunningham, Alfred Harris, Boehm, Geor] 
Reid (Cape Colony), Chas. J.Follett, B.C.L.; Robert G. Webster, Captain 
F. W. S. Grant (Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry), Messrs. W. G. 
Lardner, R. Scott, J. Wheeler, Kenray Murray, S. W. Silver, Hon. Henrr 
R, Russell, M.L.C. (New Zealand), Messrs. Stephen Bourne, F.S.S.; 
W. E. Grigaby, LL.D. ; R. Carr, Chalmers, J. R. Sheldrick, William 
Griffith, Thomas Allen, Henry Clark, J. Whittall, John Wertheimer, Ala. 
YoiiBg, Mrs. and Miss Ware, Mr. A. J. H. Baasa (Sydney), Mrs. and Mi* 
Tyler, Messrs. F. E. Ady, Ball, James Edgcome, W. S. Reid. Christopher 
Ellerby, George Wedlake, T. G. Pleydell (South Australia). 
Macpherson, Harold Gore-Browne, A. H. McDonell, H. W. William*, 
Mibs M. E. White, Messrs. A. T. Simpson, C. T. Just, Mrs. W. J. Hams, 
Miss Katherine E. Harris, Messrs. A. Stewart, Robert Marr. Colonel 
Martimlalo.C.B.; Miss Martindale, Messrs. George Roffey, Samuel Woods, 
H. Burlton, J. Joshua, Henry Obre, Nicholas Synnott, T. Huypers, M» 
FTaser, Mr. and Mrs. H. Binns, Messrs. Marmaduke C. Pike, If. Mao 
Donald, Cftlvocorcssi, E. Harris, D. D. Daly (Straits Settlements), JiOW 
C. Crawford (New Zealand), Commander H. G. Simpson, R.N. (Queens- 
land), Messrs. J. A. Quinton, Edward Lucas, A. G. Perceval 
Gray, C. Pfoundes, J. Knight, J. Beaumont, William Andrew, C. Dnnckky 
[ Melbourne), T. H. Faulkner, J. Bruce (Cape Colony), G. Moffatt (Canndi), 
R. G, C. Hamilton, J. W. P. Jauralde, H. F. Reeve, W. R. Mewburn. 

Fifth Ordinary General Mfftinij. 

June* Laughland (Victoria). A. Mackenzie Mackay (Victoria), C. Ray, 
F. Birelay Banbury. W. J. Clark (Victoria), N. E. Lewis (Tasmania), 
Paul F. Tidinan, S.Gilfillan, Frank M. Dutton (South Australia). Charles 
Payne (British Guiana), Walter Peace (Natal). James Hora (Victoria), 
lira. Julia C. Becker, Mr. H. Kaims- Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander 
Land*]* (Victoria), Dr. Laudnle, Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Mann, Messrs. 
Richard Lloyd, James T. Wliite (Ceylon), J. R. Boyd (Ceylon), Claude 

• 2, M.A., W. L. Shepherd (New Zealand I, William llemmaut 
(Qosfi Mrs. Bae, Miss E. Skeffington Thompson, 

Mmii W. R. Richardson, J. Richardson, J. Sparks, James Windus, Mr. 
■ad Mr«- Hepple Hall (Cauada), Messrs. George Dihley {Cape Colony), 
New Zealand), F. P. Labilliere, E. A. Wallace, F. D. 
Rich (New Zealand). Rev. R. Goodwin, M.A., Messrs. F. Glover, W. 
Leatiiim Bright. D. II. Wulwyn, Paget A. Wad*, Francis Renshavv 
Colony), Mr. and Mrs. W. Westgarth, Messrs. G. C. Ormond (New Zea- 
land), Robert Nairn (Now Zealand). John A. MacPherson (Victoria), J. D. 
Thntaaon (Cape Colony). J. H. Watson (Cape Colony), Morton Green 
(Natal raid, R. S. Anderson, H. J. Glennie, Martin, 

J. Betoridgc. II. F. Hooke, George Stevenson, W. Stevenson, II. J. 
I'rtuur. T. Usfaurne, John Ashwood (West Africa), Seth Taylor, F. A. 
Hj-mbnan, Thomas Sturdy. Major Trail (New Zealand), J. J. Tylor, 
Samuel Aw-or. W. A. Tyler. W. M. BarradeU, B. Wyche, K. Wyche. Hiatet, 
E.G. Nubet, Major Craigie, Messrs. Henry Chaytor, McMaster, Pickering, 
Imnwr Millar. John Howard Howard, E. H. Gough.Thos. Archer (Agent- 
Geaand for Queensland), John S. Prince (Cape Colony), J. S. Knevett 
(Brititi 0. Charles Williams (British Guiana), Fred. Jas. Lloyd, 

Brown, M.D.. Major P. R. Champion, R.M.L.I., and Mr. Frederick 
Young (Honorary Secretary). 

Tha Honorary Sccbetaby read the Minutes of the last Ordinary 
General Meeting, which were confirmed, and announced that since 
the last meeting, 22 new Fellows had been elected, viz., G Resident 
and 16 Non-Resident. 

Resident Fellows : — 

A II. J. Baaas, Esq. (late of New South Wales), Charles Edenborough, 
r«<l«ri<-k 1 q., Robert Giffen, Esq., Assistant Secretary 

(\«murrcial Department, Board of Trade ; W. J. Harris, Esq., and T. 
Vernon. Eaq. 

Non Resident Fellows : — 

PMdariek l:-i!!' Natall, Hon. W.J.Clark, M.L.C. (Victoria), H. 

Victoria). G. II. Garrett, Esq. (Sierra Leone), Rev. Canon 

Oaal iCbjw Colony), Andrew Gilmour, Esq. (Metboomn), Charles Lumley 

Hill. E»q.. M.L.A. igu^.nsland), Frank Hood, Esq. (Lagos), M. L. 

Slierbro'), John McLennan, Esq. (New Zealand), D. 

Mom«. E«q- (Jamaiea),0. I.. O'Connor, Esq. (Mauritius), Edward D. 

i. I. Roclutrow (New Zealand), George 
Esq. (Molbounioi, llawtrey Thwaites, Esq. (Ceylon). 



ft Ordinary Gentrol Meeting. 

The following donations, presented to the Institute since the 
last Meeting, were announced : — 

The Government of Canada: 
Bene Books. 1ML 

lb* Government of Ceylon : 

Proceedings of the Legislative Council. 
The Government of South Australia : 

Parliamentary Debates, 1880. 
The Government of Tasmania : 

Journals of the House of Assembly, 1878-79 and 80. 

Acts of Parliament, 1836-SO. 4 Vols, 
Colonial Office : 

Payne's Lagos and West African Almanac, 1882. 
The Agent-General for New South W*} 

Registrar-General's Report on the Vital Statistics of Sydney 
and Suburbs, 1881. 
The Anthropological Institute : 

Journals of the Institute. Vol. XI., No. S, February, 1882. 
The Liverpool Free library : 

39th Annual Report. 
The Royal Commission for the Australian Exhibitions : 

Report of the Royal Commission. 1882. 
Colonel T. St. L. Aleoek : 

Histoire Phiiowofhique et Politique des etablissenient et du 
Commerce des Europeans dans les deux Indes. • 
C. H. Allen. Esq. : 

The Anti-Slavery Reporter. Vol. II., Nos. 1 and J. 
J. G. Bourinot, Esq. (Ottawa) : 

The Canadian Monthly, January, 1882. 
C LX Collet- Esq.: 

Diplomatic Review. Mr. TJrquhart's Pamphlets. 
Dr. T.«iglu»m Dale (Cape Colony 1 : 

Cape of Good Hope University Calendar, 1^ 
Henry Gray. Esq.: 

The Classics for the Million. An Epitome in English ol H" 
works of the Principal Greek and Latin Authors I 
H. H Hayter, Esq. : 

Victorian Tear Rook, 1889. 

Statistical Register of Victoria, 1880. 
Hugh Muuro Hull. Esq. : 

1 ikk | Tasmanian Almanac, 1882. 

Mr*. M. H. Mai 

Queensland Parliamentary Debates, 186245. 
J. Menaies, Esq ? 

New Muthods for Wool Washing. 

The Commrrcud Advantages of Federation. 


1 Vol.. 

Charles Meldrum. Esq. : 

Weather, Health and Forests — Report on the Mortality 
Malarial Fever in Mauritius. 

G. Molineax. Esq. : 

Memoir of the Moliueux Family by the donor. 

K. O. M. Nicl.ol, Esq. : 
An Essay on Sierra Leone, 1882. 
on. H. R. Pipon Schooles (British Honduras) ; 
British Honduras Almanac, 1882. 

J. Gibson Starke, Esq., M.A. : 

Ceylon Blue Books, 1851. 

Lieut. -Colonel Win. White, Ottawa : 

Canadian Blue Books, 1881. 

HE ( 

kmjls then called upon Mr. William J. Htaais, F.S.S., 
tlie following paper, entitled — 


1 think it is unnecessary for me to enlarge on the fact of there being 
■> general desire on the part of the inhabitants of Great Britain aud 
also of oar Colonial population in all parts of the world for a tighten- 
ing of those cords which bind us to one another. Paper after 
paper is read at these meetings testifying to the feeling which 
exist* on both sides, and I believe that it has no distinction in 
party politics. There is therefore no necessity for me to trespass 
on politics, even if such a thing were allowed. I have no doubt 
that if it were put to the vote of all Englishmen in all parts of the 
world, whether home or Colonial, that there would be nine in favour 
of the union of the Empire where there would be one against it. 

Sir Henry Parkes, the Premier of New South Wales, bore 
witness to this in a Bpeeoh he made in New York during last mouth, 
and predicted that the natural future of Great Britain and her 
Colonies would be that of complete Federation. 

I most, however, look a little beyond that feeling of sentimental 
on and mutual consideration which finds such ready ttipres- 
at these meetings, and see if there is some underlying bond of 
which, by being strengthened, would for ever set at tast nil 
talk of separation of any one of the component parts of the Empire 
(rem tin- BlIsVK 

ve below some figures from the official returns showing him 
the export* from this country have grown more with our own 
than with other countries during the l&et twenty years. 

210 The Commercial AdcantoQH qf Federation, 

«m or Tnt Yilci of EtroiTu or B«itho Pioncci iitd Jlm-ririviii, rT«.cLc»i»« 
nr Fokiov »wo Colokiil, i>t»Tii«apt»«ijto Foisiox CoOYTalM IX* R»iti«« 
PoMiuiom, Duiuro r«« list TrntHTT Yi»»*. 


•: ro. 


Foixio* Cocitubi:— 
Other Countries 




511. Ml, 171 






MM ;-».'..'.»• 



IncreaM over preceding 






Oerre&iw ovrr preceding 


IncreaM over preceding 





ForeLpn .'ovntnee ... 
Britiab Poswauoni 


Increase over preceding 

l. 1 1 mi 11 1 m mwmllin 

period ... 




363.071 1,1X7 




' >1.1M» 



£ .lM..«i),l7» 

f • bSMMH 



On examining these figures, the increasing importance of our 
Colonial trade becomes at onoe conspicuous. 

Thus in the five years, 1876 80, the decrease in our expor 
the rest of the world amounted to £200,895,645, compared with 
the previous quinquennial period, while the exports to our Colonies 
advanced £15,826, 864, Tbh increase is the more important seeing 
that prices of all our exports were very much lower. Probably 
if the prices of 1871-5 had been maintained, the increase might 
have been 100 millions instead of 15 millions. It must also be 
borne in mind that our exports to the Colonies consist almost 
entirely of manufactured goods, and that they, therefore, represent 
a much larger employment of labour at home when compared with 
those of the rest of the world. My object this evening will be to 
-how that by a federation of all commercial interests the rates of 
iso might be not only maintained but enormously increased. 

The great example which we have of successful Federation is that 
of the United States. The Northern States saw the immense import- 
ance of Federation bi 1864, when the Southern States declared their 
independence. It is well known that the question of slavery alone 
■a ■hi Id never have caused the North to spend all the blood and 
IttMUM tbut MM HMO spent, and to burden the imtiuu with a debt 
amounting to £500,000,000. Had the South been suooesaful 

■■d General Meeting. 


proper authorities for such charter ; this would only cost pen, paper, 
and ink, and a little brains. (Laughter.) Then with regard to tie 
•nm? of the " refreshers'' spoken about for counsel : I happen 
to be a member of the profession to which the speaker alluded, and 
> not suppose there is any member of this Institute who is more 
heart and soul in its welfare than myself, and, being a barrister, I 
•hall be proud to do all the legal necessities for nothing. (Laugh- 
ter.) It h <[iiite true a barrister must be engaged, but that is only 
f.ith. r the charter. But who would draft the charter really? 
be Council of this Institute, and who are so capable of doing 
that work ? The barrister would simply be needed to put his unpri- 
aiatur to it. (A laugh.) I will do this for the Institute as a labour 
of love, if they like. I have been a good many years at the Bar, 
nearly ten, and my services shall be freely rendered without the 
cost of a single farthing. In fact, I should consider it a pride and 
a pleasure to help your Grace and the Council in what wc all must 
think a good work, and I do hope the meeting will strengthen your 
hands to the utmost of their power in the efforts to obtain a Royal 
Charter, and thus consolidate the Royal Colonial Institute. 

-Ions Coode : Might I be permitted to say a word by way of 
itlanation ? Having been Chairman of the Committee I have made 
ly inquiries on the probability of our obtaining a Royal Charter. 
anil the result of my inquiries just comes to this, that in the case of 
professional body applying for a charter there might be di1 
but in the case of a body such as the Royal Colonial Institute, 
which has nothing but Imperial interests to serve and no profes- 
sional objects to bo gained, the difficulty I believe at once vanishes. 
Even if it were not so I hold in my hand a charter obtained by a 
professional body, the Surveyors' Institute, granted us lately as 
b August, inyl. Now, in the face of that fact, what becomes of 
the alleged di] ' and I believe only about a year or two back a 

Royal Charter was granted to the Accountants' Society. In the 
oaM of both those bodies the professional difficulty existed, and not- 
withstanding that fact it has been overcome. But we are in a 
totally different position. We have, I venture to think, equally large 
interests to guard as the Geographical Society, which, as you know, 
is incorporated by Royal Charter ; and when you take into consi- 
der., that the incorporation by charter, as far as we can 
ascertain it. "ill not entail a greater additional expense than about 

ie Fellows present must decide for themselves whci 
they will authorise the Council to apply for incorporation by Royal 
C barter or under the Companies Acts. (Hear, hear.) 

eneral R W. Lowry, C.B. : I feel confident, my Lord Duke, 


77te Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

than they can exchange with other nations, with many neces 
charges added. They practice the most complete free trade between 
all parts of the Union, and if there were no other country in the 
world the United States alone would prove the soundness of the 
views of Adam Smith. 

Agriculture has, however, thus far been developed at a greater 
rate than manufacturing industry, and hence they have a surplus 
for export, which has increased enormously during the last five 

Senator Morrill, in his speech on the Tariff question in the 
United States Senate, on December 8, 1861, made use of these 
words : M Agriculture has made immense strides forward. The 
* ' recent export of food products, though never larger, is not equal 
" by twenty- fold to home consumption." According to his opinion, 
therefore, the great Federal Union does not seem to be in any large 
degree dependent on exports of food. If the food exported only 
reaches one-twentieth part of that consumed there would be no 
very serious loss if the export ceased. I am, however, disposed to 
doubt the correctness of this opinion. I believe that it would take 
America some years to recoup a serious diminution of her export trade 
in food. Her export trade in cotton is comparatively secure to her. 
No country in the world has such advantages for cotton culture, and 
the peculiar quality grown becomes a necessity in the manufactures 
of older countries. I will now give a few figures, showing the in- 
crease in wheat culture. The acreage under wheat has increased 
from 19,900,000 acres in 1871 to 86,000,000 acres in 1880. The 
export has increased in a still more important ratio, viz., from 
5,0Q0,0Ij0 quarters in 1871 to 21,000,000 quarters in 1880. 

The increase both in acreage and exports of maize or Indian 
com is in like proportions. It is therefore quite evident that 
idture has made greater strides than any other industry, 
seeing that the produce is far more than can be consumed. 

Comparing the increase in land under wheat with the increase 
in railways opened, it is remarkable to Bee how the one has kept 
pace with the other. Thus in 1870 there were 46,000 miles open, 
and in 1880 nearly 90,000 miles. The progress in this country for 
the same period haB been from 15,500 miles to 17,000, or on!/ 
2,400 miles here against more than 40,000 there. 

As regards the increase in national wealth during the decade, I 

take the following extract from Senator Morrill's speech : " Our 

" aggregate wealth in 1860 was 19 bUlions of dollars, but is esli- 

" mated to have advanced in 1880 to over 40 billions." It is probable 

^lalthe national wealth now amounts to close upon 10,000 millions 

The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

21 I 

■lands sterling. The American plan of calculating national 
wraith is, in my opinion, more correct than that adopted by Mr. 
Giffen and other political economists in our own country. They 
■imply take the value of everything existing in America, and reckon 
nothing fur investments of their citizens in other countries. In 
Mr. Giffen's calculations all the investments of Englishmen in 
America are computed as national wealth, but it is very difficult to 
understand how such wealth could possibly be made available for 
national purposes. 

The next point to notice is the increasing independence of the 
wage-earning classes. 

In I860 the number of workpeople, men and women, employrd 
in cotton manufactures, was 122,000, and their earnings were 24 
millions of dollars ; while in 1680 there were 175,000, and their 
earnings were 42 millions of dollars. 

In I860 the number of men and women employed in the woollen 
industry was 41,000, and their earnings were 91 millions of dollars, 
while in 1880 the number was 140,000, and their wages 47 millions 
of dollars. 

Wagee in all other occupations have advanced in a similar way. 
The eoet of living is in some respects considerably more than in 
thiii country, and in other respects very much less. In all pro- 
bability a working man can live about as cheaply there as here, 
bat be has more to spend, and consequently lives better in America. 
The Wages of form-servants who live in the house, aud have every- 
thing found except clothes, are more than double those paid in tin 

Pauperism is almost unknown, and the deposits in savings banks 
are estimated to amount to over 160 millions sterling, or more 
than double those of England. 

Wealth and the good things of this life are more equally divided 
than in this country, and the population is every week increasing 
by upwards of 15,000 immigrants, who bring with them little 
■■■iritis the clothes on their baoks. 

The Public Debt has been reduced from about 500 millions 
ling in 1870 to S!)0 millions in 1880, and the interest thereon 
26 to 16 millions. 

The American people depend on their own inherent strength 
rather than on armies and navies. They value home industry more 
then foreign commerce, and have nothing but their coasts to defend. 
They, however, admit the commercial value to a nation of its 
exports by a clause in their Constitution which prohibits any 
being levied thereon. 




214 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

In concluding my remarks on the great results of Federal union 

in the United States, I will now read some of the concluding remarks 
in the speech of Senator Morrill, made in the Senate only two 
months since. He says : " England with all her faults is great, 
" but unfortunately has not room to support her greatness, and 
" must have cheap food, and be able to offer better wages, or part 
" with great numbers of her people, I most sincerely hope ber 
" statesmen — and she is never without those of eminence — will 
" prove equal to their great trust and to any crisis; but we cannot 
" surrender the welfare of our Republic to any foreign Empire. 
" Free trade may or may not be England's necessity. Certainly 
" it is not our necessity, and it has not reached and never will 
" reach the altitude of a science. Any impost on corn then it is 
" clear would now produce an exodus of her labouring population 
" that would soon leavo the banner of Victoria waving over a 
'* second-rate power." 

It is the latter part of these remarks of Senator Morrill which I 
challenge, and the rest of this paper will be devoted to an attempt 
to refute them. 

Having shown what an important matter Federal union has been 
to the United States, I next come to the consideration of the posi- 
tion of this country in regard to her ColonieB, and to a comparison 
of the results which should follow from our adopting a similar 
policy. The objection generally raised is that the ocean divides us, 
»nd that therefore the cases are wholly dissimilar. It is a very 
shallow objection. Our own skill in shipbuilding and navigating 
is equal to the enterprise which the Americans have shown in rail- 
way construction. It is the industry of all others of which we are 
most deservedly proud, and the necessity of greatly increased ocean 
carriage to and from all our Colonies would vastly promote it. Our 
wealth in iron and coal in England is undoubtedly greater than 
that of the United States. Our agricultural land in the Colonies is 
more extensive. In one thing we must confess some inferiority, 
viz., in the quality of the cotton produced compared with America; 
but against this we produce tea and coffee, which articles are not 
produced by America. 

Our Colonies are comparatively undeveloped, and therefore no 
very important manufacturing interests have yet grown up. ^\ e 
should not attempt to discourage any manufactures in them that 
are likely to lend to a successful home supply, but it would be most 
unwise to foBter by protection those which are not. The ability to 
produce food and raw materials on the part of our Colonies is the 
chief point we have to consider, and whether it would 

onies is me 
i be to the 

Tne Commercial Advantages of Federation. 316 

material well-being of both to fuse tbeir interests in siu-h 
• manner as to make our future trade flow more in one 
channel than it has hitherto done. There is no doubt about the 
capacity of England to produce all the manufactures required by 
the Colonies at the cheapest possible cost, and I have no doubt 
about the Colonies being able to produce our food supply. I shall 
renew aa shortly as possible the agricultural capacity of each of 
oar larger possessions. 


Of all oar Dependencies, India seems likely to do most for Dfl 
some years to come. In that vast country we have a popu- 
lation in great part given up to the pursuit of agriculture : 
•boat 70 per cent, of the adult males are employed in this 
oecap»Uon ; and although the cultivation may be in many cases of 
the rudest kind, yet it only requires time and the invention of suit- 
able labour-saving implements to improve it greatly. To attempt 
to alter the present system, and to supplant it by a sudden intro- 

Eon of English or American machinery, no doubt would be a 
it. The Indian farmer is like all others ; he knows what his 
soil and climate will produce, and he has established a rule of 
lb of his own, which science can doubtless improve upon but 
cannot upset. India is probably at the present time more given up to 
agriculture than any country in the world. It therefore seems 
strange that with the demand for imported food which has existed 
in Kngland for the hint twenty years, there should have been bo 
little received from India until the last three or four years. I well 
remember the first arrivals of Indian wheat in Loudon, When 
the samples were first shown at Mark Lane the general verdict of 
the corn trade was that it would never come into consumption in 
Ibis country. The grain seemed to be nothing but shells, and the 
floor bad been eaten out by weevils. It is perfectly wonderful h>w 
this state ol things has been improved upon since then. Instead of 
toe grain taking months to arrive at the port of shipment from the 
interior, and thus being subject in that hot country to the ravages 
of weevil, it now comes down in a few days. The result has been 
that we now get all qualities of wheat from Bombay and Calcutta 
in as good order as we do from the United States. There is a great 
variety in quality, from the finest white wheat almost equal to 
i, to the coarsest red, which, although selling at a much 
pnoe, produces certain glutinous qualities which could only 
i»ly be found in the wheat of other countries, and on which 
in this country were almost dependent. The export from 


The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

all Indian ports of the wheat harvested in 1881 will probably 
amount to 4,500,000 qrs., or more than one-third part of the 
whole supply required by the United Kingdom ; but this probably 
does not represent one-third part of what India can spare. What 
is needed is an extension of the railway system into those fertile 
tracts which lie too far from the trunk lines made by Govern- 
ment. As I have before explained, these lines have been made in 
the United States with a view of producing their own traffic, 
population, and towns. How much more successful might they 
be in India, where the cultivation is already in existence and the 
population already provided. 

It would be presumptuous in me to animadvert on our Indian 
railway system. The Government has thus far kept nearly the 
whole of it in its own power. The policy may be right, but to a 
commercial mind it seems that enterprise is somewhat checked by 
these restrictions. I am told, however, that no private enterprise 
would have started the work without Government intervening. The 
length of railways thus made during the last thirty years in India 
is only about 10,000 miles. In the United States, on the other system, 
it is 90,000 miles. The Indian lines have been made in a most sub- 
stantial manner, and there has doubtless been some gain in this r< 
spect over private enterprise in the United States. In India the ao 
age under wheat is said to be about the same as in the United States, 
viz., 86,000,000 acres. The disadvantage which the Indian fanni 
suffers from in competition with the American is dearer oarriagc. 
This may be to some extent removed by the speedy construction of 
railways into all the producing centres. We have refused to foster 
new industries in Iudia, such as the manufactures of cotton fabrics, 
greatly to the disgust of many of the natives ; let us show them by 
our future conduct that we desire to foster that great industry whii 
seems to be so peculiarly suitable to their climate and population 
Even as a matter of Belf-interest it must pay our Government. The 
taxes in India are raised from the land ; the average tax on every 
acre of cultivated land amounts to two shillings, which is calculated 
to be five and a half per cent of the value of the produce. By 
making these railways, and thus increasing the value of the land 
and bringing a larger quantity into useful cultivation, the Govern- 
ment, at the expense of some little outlay — possibly unremuneratiw 
at the first — would prepare the way to a future large increase of 
revenue, and would lessen the percentage which that revenue would 
bear to the value of the produce grown. Canals also should be made, 
wherever practicable, and especially in the districts which are 
devoted to rice culture. The wheat plant is not so dependent on 






The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 


rain as Uto rice, bat still the produce is increased considerably in 
i neighbourhoods which are available for irrigation. There is 
advantage which the Indian farmer has over the American : 
hi* wants are smaller and bis labour is extremely cheap. But against 
this most be set the ocean freight, which can never be equalised. 

By encouraging the construction of public works in India, how- 
ever, the outward freights from this country would become more 
active, and steamships could then afford to perform the return 
journey at a more reasonable rate. The Suez Canal charges alone 
amount to aa much as 2s. 6d. per qr. on every quarter of wheat that 
comes from India to this country by steamship. Shipowners cannot 
therefore afford to bring wheat from Caloutta at an average freight 
much below 10s. per qr., or from Bombay at 9s. por qr. Compared 
with the freight from New York to Liverpool there is thorefore a 
disadvantage to the Indian grower of at least 5s. or 6s. per qr. 

The chief districts in India for the growth of wheat aretho Punjaub 
and the North-west provinces. The Central provinces, Berar Bad 
Bombay, are also increasing their growth quite as fast as the 
facilities for transport can be provided. 

The Indian land-tax is a far heavier burden on agriculture 
than any similar tax in the Western States of America. 


Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand grow as fine wheat as 
any country in the world can produce. The climate of New 
Zealand is especially suited to a large cultivation of all grain ; 
it u less subject to drought thun that of Australia. The growth 
of wheat in Australia has been developed to a considerable 
eitenl for many years past Wheat-farming has not, however, ad- 
vanced nearly bo rapidly as sheep-farming. There are large tracts of 
hand which are excellent sheep-runs, and pay better in that form than 
in any ether. The recent discovery that fresh moat can be brought 
from the Antipodes in a frozen state has a most important bearing 
on oar trade with Australia. The meat arrives in our docks looking 
as fresh as the day it was killed ; it is then removed into special 

: :gerating-chambers constructed for the purpose by die Royal 
• ma Dook Company, and kept there until sold. As usual with 
new thing* there is a sort of prejudice on the part of tho Intel; 
against frozen meat, but it is probably made the most of with a 
new to buy it the cheaper. The recent arrivals have made about. 
ftd, to 6d. per lb., and are said to pay a profit , at all events the ship 
meets continue. Butter is also preserved in the same manner, and 
it is likely that this will be a great success ; I hope that it may 

218 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

ultimately take the place of the French supply. Wool is the most 
important export of Australia, and the demand for mutton and 
wool together will hriug into profitable occupation vast tracts of 
land that would not grow wheat. 

There is, however, au immense acreage available for the growth 
of wheat ; nothing is needed bnt the railways to connect it with the 
shipping ports. The colonists do not regard wheat as a very paying 
crop ; nevertheless, it is calculated that from the crop just harvested 
thttC will be 2,000,000 qrs. to spare for export. Australia, as com- 
pared with the United States, stands at a greater disadvantage even 
than India does. There is, again, that item of freight. It cannot be 
reckoned at less than 12s. per qr. from Melbourneor Port Adelaide, 
against 5s. from the Atlantic ports of America. Thus there is 
disadvantage attending the Australian supply of about Tb, per qr 
and as labour is about as dear in Australia as in the United 
there is no set-off on that account. The same disadvantage attendi 
their competition in meat and all perishable products. The 
cost of refrigerating chambers on board ship is considerable, and 
instead of being only for a fortnight's voyage the expense has to be 
incurred for one lasting about six weeks. The trade is of great 
value to our mercantile marine, and with an encouragement to rail- 
road development, by which we should have good outward freights 
for iron as well as inward freights for provisions, it would bring 
much greater prosperity to us as shipowners than any one-sided 
trade with the United States is ever likely to do. 

The capacity ot New Zealand for exporting is at present limited 
to about half a million quarters of wheat, but, as before said, the 
climate is more suitable than that of Australia for wheat funnm 
and there is no reason why the quantity should not increase fo 
fold when the country has been more developed. English cap; 
at the present time even are only too glad to make large outlay 
both in Australia and New Zealand, and if the political position in 
regard to this country were strengthened by Federation, the flow of 
capital would be all the greater. 

The capabilities of Australia for wine-growing are undoubtedly 
very great. The late treaty with France acted most prejudicially 
that interest ; nearly all the Australian wines, being of grea 
strength, had to pay 2s. 6d. per gallon duty for entering this 
country, whereas the light wines of France only paid Is. per galloa 
If Australian or Cape wine comes into competition with any British 
manufactures, such as beer, the duty ought not to exceed the excise 
which is paid at home. By giving this relief we should stimulate 
the growth in Australia and the Cape Colony, and give our colonists 








Tlir Commercial Advantages of Federation. 


advantage in fostering an industry which will no doubt become 
important addition to their prosperity. 


The paper which was read in this Institute last month gavo the 
members a glowing description of the future prospects of our North 
American dominions. 

The province of Manitoba and the neighbouring territory extends 
on r 100,0' o,000 acres of the finest land in the world. This land is 
said to be more adapted for the growth of wheat than for any other 
purpose. Colonel Grant informed us that in order to make it avail- 
able much railwn y work had to be done. Canada therefore stands at 
some disadvantage with the I'nited States. In the first place, the 
cost of freight from Montreal is more than from New York ; and 
in the second place, the cold is more severe, and shipments cannot 
be made during the winter months, when the St. Lawrence is frozen. 

I took occasion in the discussion which followed the reading of 
Colonel Grant's paper to animadvert upon the support whieh the 
reader gave to the protective puliey adopted by the Dominion, more 
particularly so since an attempt is evidently made to foster certain 
industries which probably would not sueited without, protection as 
against the Ifotha-OouutlJ. The noble Duke who occupied the 
chair, explained, when I eat down, that it was impossible for Canada 
to protect these industries from competition on the part of the I 
States without likewise protecting them from ourselves. This ex- 
planation shows tome how very far we are from Federation with 
our Colonies. The true principles on which Federation should be 
based would be those on which the different parts of the United 
States ure bound together — viz.thutof the nearest possible approach 
to free trade amongst all the component parts. England, I fear, has 
missed the opportunity of complete free trade with her Colonies, 
but I see no reason why our steps should not be gradually retraced. 
Where tariffs have been established for revenue purposes, they 
cannot be at once done away with ; the finances of the particular 
Colony would bo disorganised by such an operation, but a gradual 
process of reduction and ultimate extinction should be adopted. 
u re, fin the other hand, the tariff has been imposed for the purpose 
of building up special trades, certain circumstances should be taken 
into account before any alteration in made. The chief thing to 
consider would bo : lias the industry, so protected in its infancy, 
a reasonable chance of success in its older age ? 

The disadvantages from which the food producer in Canada 
■offers in comparison with one in the United Sute««x*\«sr)«a*&* 


The Commercial Advant-ages of Federation. 

No greater difference could possibly be made than about 2s. per qr. 
in the cost of laying down wheat in England. 

If any advantage be given to our other Colonies over foreign 
countries, Canada could not lay claim to so much as Australia and 
India. I imagine the general feeling of most Englishmen would be 
rather to give our colonists equal advantages with foreigners, than to 
punish foreigners for their sakes. 

It is impossible to say what quantity of wheat British North 
America will be able to supply ; the quantities named are almost 

Commercial Tbeaties. 

Having referred above to the nature of our commercial treatie 
as affecting Federation with our Colonies, I will now give a fen 
particulars bearing on this point 

At the present time there exist about forty commercial treaties 
between Great Britain and various other nations, large and small. 

I will give the terms of the treaty with Belgium, dated July 23, 
18G2. The clause regarding the Colonies runs as follows :" Art 
XV. Articles, the produce or manufacture of Belgium, shall not be 
subject in the British Colonies to other or higher duties than those 
which are or may be imposed upon similar articles of British 

This treaty is still in existence, On the 6th August, 1866, ti 
Leyi slatures of the Australian Colonies obtained power by a special Act 
of Parliament " to alter, revise, and amend their tariffs; and the 
" same, when so altered and amended, shall bo considered valid." 
Prior to this date all alterations, &c, had to be submitted to the 
approval of the Queen. It thus becomes a matter of great doubt 
whether, since that Act, the Australian Colonies have been in a 
position to depart from our treaty with Belgium or not. Moreover, 
by the favoured nation clause which exists in nearly all our treatie 
with foreign countries, there is very little doubt that every cont 
iug power can claim the Baine rights as Belgium obtained by tha 
treaty. If this be so, it is impossible for the Colonies to grant to 
Mother-Country any advantages that all other countries would not 
equally share in. But now I come to the most important treaty of 
all, viz., that made with the German Zollverein on May 80th. 
and which now exists in the same form with Germany and Austria- 
Hungary. The Colonial Clause runs thus: "In those Colonie 
" and ' Possessions ' (of Her Britannic Majesty) the produce of the 
" States of the Zollverein shall not be subject to any higher or other 
•' import duties than the produce of the United Kingdom of Great 

The < ial Advantage of Federation. 

-lain and Ireland, or of any other country of the like kind ; nor 
M shall the exportation from those ColonieB or Possessions to the 
*' Zollvrrein be subject to any higher or other duties than the ex- 
*• portation to the United Kingdom of Oreat Britain and Ireland." 

This not only binds our Colonies to give every facility to the 
Zollrercin which they give to the Mother-Country, but also prevents 
the Mother-Country from making any commercially advantageous 
arrangement with her Colonies which she will not equally extend 
to Germany, and consequently to all other nations which have the 
moat favoured nation clause. 

In some treaties the word " Colonies " is alone used, in others 
Dominions," in others " Colonies and Foreign Possessions,'' 
asd in others " British Territories." 

The fact is, wc have thrown away our powers in the most lavish 
manner in these commercial treaties, but, most fortunately for us, 
they have nearly all reached the date when, by giving twelve months' 
notice, we can terminate them. It is a most important matter for 
Parliament at once to investigate, and especially so since the French 
Government entirely ignores that any of the Colonies have the 
te interests aa the United Kingdom. 

Concxudino Remarks. 

I have endeavoured to point out to you, in the first place, by the 
ipie of the United States, what an important element Federa- 
ls in a nation's development ; and how it brings into play the 
of capitalists, and builds up within a country that ex- 
of productions which such a country as the United States, 
coch an Empire as Great Britain and her Colonies, may be said 
to possess in equal bounty. I have, in the second place, shown 
what articles of commerce our various Colonies stem to be most 
fitted to produce, and how, by encouraging the trade in those articles, 
wa should encourage our own home trade at the same time. The 
extension of railways in a productive country I hold to be 
synonymous with the increase of its internal wealth, and without 
railways the finest lands in the world may he utterly useless. The 
admission I have been compelled to make in each case where I have 
compared our Colonies with the United States, is that the culti- 
vator of the soil cannot possibly obtain bo high a price for his pro- 
doe* aa the producer under equal conditions in the United States, 
from the one fact that ocean freight is cheaper from New York than 
from any of our own Possessions. The question therefore arises 
whether we can redress this disadvantage under which our Colonies 
Ubour, and put them on the baiuc terms as other countries, such 


The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

as Russia, Prussia, the United States, and all other food-producii 
countries. A great objection is expressed by most of our politicians 
of both parties to a tax on food. I do not for one moment share in 
that objoction under present circumstances. The world has ap- 
plied itself to the production of food in such a wonderful manner 
during the last few years, that, if it had not been for disastrous 
harvests in Europe since 1878, there could have been no demand 
for such enormous quantities as have been sent forward. As it is, 
the price of wheat daring the three years 1878-79-80 was only 
44s. lid. per qr., a price which is considerably below the cost of 
production in this country, after jiaying a moderate rent and the 
burdens incident to agriculture. 

There is a law of commerce which has general application, that* 
failure in the supply of any article is made good to the producer to 
some extent by a corresponding advance in the price. But this has 
not held good, and the three years of our worst crops were years 
greater cheapness than have been known in the present cen 
excepting two periods of the same duration, when the low price 
caused by enormous crops at home. The question for Englisi 
to consider is whether they have bound themselves to an opinion 
which is to regulate their future commercial conduct against all 
reason to the contrary. I have endeavoured to show that 
Colonies have the means of supplying us with all the food wa 
quire, and that they are now competing with the United States 
Russia for that supply, although they do so at a great disadvan 
to themselves. I have shown that they are able to take from 
the materials which are necessary for the almost unlimited exten- 
sion of this supply. But can Englishmen expect that either of 
these results will follow unless our emigrants and settlers i 
distant lands can make as good a living as they could by em 
to the United States ? We desire to benefit our own flesh and 
blood, and they desire in return to benefit us. They have proved 
their ability to produce food as cheaply as we could possibly wish to 
have it. Australia has sent us her mutton at 5d. per lb., India 
has sent us her wheat at 40s. per qr., Canada has sent us her to 
at Gd. per lb. What more do we want ? Is it good policy to make 
food any cheaper than this ? Can our home supply be kept up ■ 
this country if we do, and if we reduce it further is there not » 
^reat political danger hanging over us ? To come to plain speak- 
/ ing, I would propose that we invite all our Colonies to enter a 
Federal Union, on the understanding that a compensating duty 
levied on the imports of wheat and meat from other countrk.-t, 
that the Colonial exports may yield as good results to the growers 

lis has 
ears of 
ce was 
it all 






The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 


s» those which come from Russia and America. I would allow 
them to charge import duties as against foreign countries, if they 
'.cess of those charged on our own manufactures ; but they 
mu»t make a gradual reduction in their tariff as regards ourselves. 
I much doubt if we require any protection with them as against 
foreign countries, but the right ought to be reserved. 

a Mr. Cobden negotiated the French Treaty in 1860, the 
Preach negotiators argued that free trade on equal terms was ira- 
poadblo, as England had some advantage in coal, Ac. which the 
och could never have. It was maintained at the time, that even 
Mr. Cobden admitted that there was some reason in the objection. 
b there not the same reason in the respective position of Great 
Britain and her Colonies in contrast with other sources of supply ? 
We are farther apart, and the disadvantage can never be made 
good while our present policy prevails. There is another reason why 
a lax on these articlesof human food would not be at all unreasonable 
u again *t foreign countries : the produce of our own land is taxed in 
Tarioaa ways to the tune of something like 10 per cent, on its 
value. On our system of mixed farming this amounts to 4s. per 
on a quarter of wheat worth 40s. ; Jd. per lb. on meat worth 
7|d. pi;r lb. Why should not other countries pay as much ? The 
only argument I ever heard against it was that the charges of 
transport were sufficient protection, but the charges of trans- 
port aro not now the half of what they used to be from such 
porta a* New York, Odessa, and St. Petersburg. Why should the 
bod coming from these places not contribute to the revenue as 
much as our own ? We levy the same tax on foreign spirits as we 
•barge by excise on those made at home. Why should we give the 
■altera of gin an advantage over the manufacturers of food ? The 
argument might still have force against taxing our Colonies where 
the charge* of transport still amount to moderate protection. 
Barely on such conditions onr Colonies would be only too happy to 

I great Federal Union, with local govern - 

the way open to their public men to 

[other Country. My paper ia devoted 

ktions, and I will not, therefore, trench 

of the question, but surely we have 

lies who would soon make known to us 

the Colonics really were. As regards 

■ in Europe would bo much reduced. With 

pire we could afford to watch the quarrels of 

t comparative unconcern, and war should be 

except where the vital interests of any part 

224 The Commaxi'tl Advantages of Federation. 

of our great Empire were affected. The answer that I shall reoei 
is, of course, the usual one : " The people of England will never 
allow a tax on food." If the people of England really wish to give 
their brethren abroad an inducement to enter a great Customs 
Union, it is the only way in which it can be done. The Colonies 
cannot be stimulated in any other way. We cannot put a tax on 
foreign cotton or wool, or, in fact, on any raw material used in 
manufacture, which is largely produced in foreign countries. Our 
success depends in great measure on our being able to produce 
manufactures at as low a price as possible, and any duty that we 
place on the raw material would be paid by the colonists themselves 
when they have to buy the manufactured article. . 

Wheat has for years been too cheap in this country. | It is rr 
a question of averting a further fall than causing any important 
rise. Even if the price rose 3s. per qr., it would not cost the work- 
ing man with a wife and family more than 10s. per annum extra. 
Our import of wheat, with an average harvest, is 13,000,000 qrs. 
If we had to pay 8a. more on that, it would amount to about 
£2,000,000 to the country. The remission of the tax on tea would 
far more than make it good to the consumers. It always seems to 
me somewhat absurd to make a matter of such small importance 
into a question of principle. There is no parallel between the pre- 
sent time and 1846, when the sliding Bcale tended to prevent foreign 
countries from growing much wheat. We should stimulate growth 
in our Colonies more than we should stop it elsewhere. 



Priors of Enolish Whrat. 

20 years from 1800 to 1819 88e. Od. per qr. 

30 „ 1820 to 1849 67«. 6d. ,. 

26 „ 1850 to 1874 63s. Od. „ 

1 „ 1876 to 1881 46b. lOd. ,, 

4 „ 1878 to 1881 *6s. Od. „ 

The above table, to which I desire to call your special attention 
shows what a very important decline there has been in the valo 
of wheat. No doubt in the eariy part of this century, when w« 
were little more than half what they are now, and the price 
wheat nearly double, a rise or fall of a few shillings per qua 
was of the greatest importance to the comfort of thousands 
families ; but now the tables are turned, and our home production, 
which iB of greater moment to us than any other, is dwindlii 
away, from the simple fact that it will not pay ; and surely if 
are to allow this state of tilings to continue we ought at least 

The Commercial Adwrtiag** of Federation. 

give to oar colonists the same chance of prospering by oat wants 
m is enjoyed by the otber nations of the world. By this means 
we should do our part towards the attainment of that Commercial 
Federation which I have in this paper endeavoured to show would 
be of »nch benefit both to the Colonies and to the Mother-Country, 
QWlMHtinfi our Empire by the mutual interests of all parts of it. 


Thr CmiRMiN : As tliis is a subject on which opinions differ 
very widely, and upon whioh some gentlemen present may feel very 
warmly, I should like, before the discussion commences, to express 
I be hope — which I am sure would have been urged by His Grace the 
Duke of Manchester if he had been in the chair to-night — that the 
discussion will be carried on temperately and dispassionately by all 
who may take part in it. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. (tuivKR : There is no one in this meeting who can be more 
surprised at this sudden call than I am. I had not the slightest 
idea that I should have to open this discussion j but I thought 
I might be allowed the privilege, as a stranger here for the first 
time, of taking some part in it. I will not, however, shrink from 
the invitation to commence the discussion. I confess that the 
che er s which greeted the reading of the paper by my friend, Mr. 
-ris. rather led me to suppose that I am in a small minority here 
to-night. (No, no.) Well, I am very glad to hear Mr. Harris has 
quote d in this paper such distinguished names as those of Adam 
Smith and Richard Cobden, names which will be revered as long as 
the English language is known ; but surely there have been things 
said to the paper to-night which are almost sufficient to make those 
two distinguished worthies rise from their graves. These names 
ware most ingeniously used in the paper ; they were quoted by the 
writer as great authorities in Ins judgment ; but I confess that I 
moat have read backwards everything that I ever read from Adam 
Smith and Richard Cobden if 1 could imagine for a single moment 
that they would have supported the main proposition of Mr. Harris. 
(Hear, hear.) For unless I greatly mistake — by the very hasty and 
e ur so ry perusal of the paper as he has read it to-night — and no one 

•iiis room will regret more than I shall myself if 1 either misjudge 
Mr. Harris's sentiments or the argument: I say, unless I have 
altogether mistaken the drift of the paper, it cornea to this, that my 
briead would levy a protectionist duty on wheat and meat from the 
British Colonies with a differentiated scale. (No, no.) Perhaps 
g— llsmcn will allow mo to finish the sentence — (hear, hear, and a 
i) — differentiated scale according to the geographical distances 

•Jiii The Commercial Advantages of I 

from which they come. (Hear, hoar. Now, I ask the gentlemen 
-who Interrupted uie just now, have I misconstrued the paper ? It 
I have I shall be very sorry. I understand the idea to be that there 
should be a Bcale of duty of such elevation from the nearest country 
from which our largest supplies come, that there might be a tapering' 
diminution in the rate of duty — so much from Canada, so much less 
duty from Australia and New Zealand, and so much from India, if it 
happened to come by the Cape route, and so mnch less if it came by 
the Suez Canal. (No, no, and hear, hear.) Gentlemen will, I pre- 
sume, follow me in the discussion, and I shall be most glad to know 
that I have misapprehended my friend's meaning. As 1 understand 
the paper it proposes in the first place a duty on wheat in the 
interest of the Colonies and the home consumer, which I canno; 
quite see, and that that is not to be a uniform duty on wheat and 
meat, but that there s to be a sliding scale, not according to the 
price at home as formerly, but a sliding scale which is to be rege- 
lated geographically. (Hear, hear, and No, no.) Well, those who 
follow me in the discussion will be able to point out if I am wrong, 
and if I am, I shall be only too happy to be corrected. All I take 
leave to add at the present is this, that if that, or anything like 
that, is the proposal which my friend recommends, I do not think 
it would be an unfair request to address to him something like 
that question which was lately propounded in another place tv 
Homo Rulers — " Gentlemen, how are you going to do it ? " 
Home Rule members were called upon in Parliament recently to 
show how they were to maintain the United Kingdom with a sepa- 
rate Parliament in Ireland. And I hold that any gentleman iii 
nineteenth century who asks us to go back to the exploded methods 
of taxation is bound to show how a sliding scale, regulated by gto- 
graphical distance, could be settled and practically carried out at 
this time of day. Now, the paper to-night relates to a great snbjfl 
it is something about Federation ; and it pains me extremely even w 
appear to be speaking in opposition to a writer who is recommend- 
ing Federation, because, so far as this paper is a recommendii 
of Federation, I distinctly believe in it. (Hear, hear.) >1 
I not only believe in Federation as a great political principle, 
but it seemB to mc that it is the principle of government which ifl 
more distinctly emerging just now than any other principle of 
government. Whether we look to what happened a little while ago 
in the Far West, or what happened more recently in Germany, at 
what is looming in Russia, or what is taking place in the detached 
provinces of Turkey, it is clear that Federation as the principle of 
government is Bteadily growing East, West, North, and Bouth, and a 

/ Atlcanttigcs of Federation. 227 

proclamation for the management of our great British 
ipire 1 cannot conceive. (Hear, hear.) It is a regret to me that 
.•u iwm to oppose it, and the more so because there are commer- 
cial advantages about Federation, though not in the direction 
pointed out by Mr. Harris. But what are they? I take leave to 
»ay to the reader of the paper that, although I cannot agree with 
him that any such system of finance or tariff arrangements as that 
which he has sketched out would ever work, I do most heartily 
believe that if a good Federal-working arrangement for the remoter 
parts of the British Empire could be made, the chanco9 of war 
would be less, and the immense benefit to commerce would be that 
capital, being made more secure, investments would flow more 
freely into Colonial channels, and a more constant interchange of 
interests would take place between the Mother-Country nnd her more 
or lew distant dependencies ; they would feel more effectually that 
tbey had a Mother-Country, and we should be more frequently re- 
minded that we had children at distances from ns, and all would 
be benefited. (Hear, hear.) But my friend's illustrations of the 
advantages of Federation seem to me greatly out of point He 
drew them nearly all from the United States of America, which he 
all compactly together. You have only to look to the map to see 
that any other arrangement than a Federal one there would be 
moat disadvantageous both politically and commercially. But 
when you look at the distance which lies between the ports of 
Greater Britain, to say nothing of difference in circumstances and 
interest*, the most casual observer must see that the Federation in 
that ease is an altogether different matter. (Hear, hear.) There- 
fore it seems to me that it would not do for us to be led away by 
the example of America. When my friend came to go into details 
of the American people, he told us that the great prosperity of 
America had arisen from the illimitable lands and the great fertility 
of the soil, and the railway facilities of that country. But what 
ha* Federation to do with railway facilities or the making 
of railways? We all know that the normal conditions whi.-li 
■rot in America are the explanation of its progress, no doubt 
helped by Federal Government ; but if there is one mistake 
which we could make more than another, it would ho to be 
ao misled by the American example as to suppose that what 
mite there would necessarily suit here. (Hear, hear.) I thank Mr. 
Harris for directing attention to so deeply interesting a subject. 
Mr. l)\rw MacIver, M.P., said: Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and 
Gentlemen, — I did not intend to trouble you this evening with any 

228 TJu Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

words of mine, but the statements which have fallen from my friend, 
Mr. Glover, are of such a character that I would like to say some- 
thing in reply. No one knows better than Mr. Glover — for be is a 
shipowner — the entire inappropriateness of the comparisons which 
he has made. No one knows better than he — for it is his business 
— that for any purposes of freight-carrying, many miles by sea are 
less an obstacle than a shorter distance by land. To all practical 
intents and purposes, therefore, the eastern and western portions of 
the United States of North America, separated as they are by a long 
railway journey, are farther removed from each other than this 
country is from the seaboard of India, or even Australia and New 
Zealand. For purposes of freight-carrying, 

11 The sea* bat join the nations they divide ; " 

and no one knows better than Mr, Glover — for it is his business — 
that wheat can be brought from one portion of the British Empire 
to another across the seas more cheaply than by a long railwiij 
journey across the continent of America to the eastern seaports and 
then across the Atlantic. Adam Smith has been referred to, and I 
wish, of course, to speak of him with respect ; but even Adam Smilli 
was sometimes mistaken. He lived before the days of steam navi- 
gation, and therefore could not foresee the great changes which 
steamers would bring about. I have no doubt that there are many 
lure who are readers of his great book, "The Wealth of Nations," and 
those who are familiar with it will have no difficulty in turning 10 
the pages where Adam Smith, knowing nothing of steam navigation, 
predicted that importations of grain or butchers' meat could never 
be large, and that the farmers of this country would always have in 
their favour the natural protection of long distances. But in this, 
as everybody now knows, Adam Smith was quite wrong — wrong only 
because he knew nothing of steamers, and at the time he lived no 
one in hiB wildest dreams could have predicted the wonderful 
changes which modern inventions, and especially the use of iron in 
shipbuilding and railways, and the application of steam, have 
brought about. We who are shipowners — for, like my friend, Mr. 
Glover, shipowning is my business too — know perfectly well that the 
relative cost of conveyance of food by sea, whether it be grain, or 
whatever else it may be, is less for long distances than for A 
ones. It is altogether a question of so much a day for the ship, and 
so much a day for coals. The port charges and labour at each end 
are very large items, but the same whether the voyage is a long one 
or a short one ; and no one knows better than Mr. Glover that we 
have not merely the cost of the homeward journey to considoi, but 

The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 229 

the all-round expenses of the ship — I mean the cost of the journey 
both oat and home. But while on this point I would like to say 
that, although I concur generally with the admirable paper which 
Mr. Harris has read, I think he is somewhat mistaken where he 
•peak* of the disadvantages at which India is placed as compared 
with the United States of America in regard to freights. I say 
>f Australia or New Zealand, because my own vessels have 
not hitherto gone there, and I am therefore not in a position to 
•peak with the same positive knowledge that I possess in regard to 
Calcutta and Bombay. I have, nevertheless, no doubt that what I 
am about to say in regard to India will, to some extent, hold good 
el*ewh. re ; hut I prefer to speak of India because I happen to know 
all about it, and so does our friend, Mr. Glover, here, although it 
did not rait him to say so. Like myself, he is interested in vessels 
of various kinds, and both he and I know of a good many 
which are earning nothing at all ; but, on the other hand, both he 
and I know something about steamerB of another kind, and we are 
each of us interested in some which manage to make a very good 
firing indeed out of the present rates of freight ; a living so good, 
in fact, that with a little outward freight to come and go upon, 
Ibcrv would be plenty of room for a considerable redaction m 
rates of freight. Mr. Harris, in the paper which he has read, 
accurately enough the present rates of freight on wheat from 
Pen bay and from Calcutta, but he does not mention — because he 
was probably not aware of it — that outward freights to India are 
at the present moment worth next to nothing. The return journey, 
therefore, has practically to pay for the whole expenses of the 
voyage, and at these rates of freight not merely does so, but, in the 
ease of properly-designed and well-managed steamers, leaves a large 
profit besides. If this can be done when outward freights are 
worthless aud where the homeward journey has to bear almost the 
whole of the charges, I contend that an improved outward trade 
would have the effect of very materially reducing the homeward 
rates upon wheat This, of course, makes the general argument of 
Mr. Harris all the stronger. India, for purposes of grain-carrying. 
H really uot bo far away as would seem, and there are, I think, 
many reasons for believing that neither from there nor from 
Australia or New Zealand will the existing high rates of freight 
upon wheat be permanently maintained. Everything, as I believe, 

PiU to a general cheapening in the cost of conveyance by sea. 
Colonies are already brought nearer to us than our forefathers 
d have believed possible, and, thanks to the rapid increase in 
m navigation, every year as it goes by will bring them nearer 

230 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

and nearer still. Mr. Harris, therefore, as I believe, is quite justi- 
fied in the general conclusions which he has presented to us, and I 
entirely believe it will be to the interests of this country to look for 
its food supply rather to our own dominions than to the outside 
world, who close their doors against our manufactures and who 
decline to trade with us on equal terms. With regard to the 
theories of Mr. Cobden, I think some disappointment must be ac- 
knowledged. There are few who can now honestly say that things 
have worked out as Mr. Cobden thought they would, and as *e 
were all taught in our younger days to expect. There was a time 
when Mr. Cobden had no more enthusiastic follower than myself; 
I was brought up in what the Cobden Club still consider to be tbe 
true faith of orthodox political economy; but my last public 
appearance in support of such doctrines was upon the Liverpool 
landing-stage. I was, some years ago, one of a deputation from the 
Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, who there waylaid Mr. Weld:, 
the American Ambassador, on his arrival in this country, and jire- 
sented him with an address of welcome. Our President took the 
opportunity of exhorting him upon the advantages of free-trade, 
and 1 can remember what Mr. Welch told us in reply. He thanked 
us for the address and for our kind words of welcome, and went on 
to say that he quite believed we in England had devoted much 
attention to the subject of free-trade, and had determined on the 
course which suited our country best But, he added, there was 
only one tiling he asked of us in return, which was that we would 
bo good enough to believe that they in America had also devoi 
some attention to the subject, and had not, without consider^ 
determined upon the course which suited their country best, 
think our deputation felt " shut up," or, at all events, we ouuht to 
have, felt so. But up to that time I, like many others, held the 
faith which some statesmen on both sides of politics, mostly of 
mature years, still teach us, but which some of them, if they had 
their lives to live over again, would, I have no doubt, gladly cast 
aside. But it is too much, perhaps, to ask old men- to make 
public acknowledgment that during all their long years of 
political life they have been mistaken. Enow it they t 
because the logic of events is against them ; but confess 
they won't. But this interview with Mr. Welch, and subgeqm 
personal acquaintance with friends across the Atlantic, h,< 
me to believe that their statesmen are neither fools, nor lunatics 
simpletons, but that they are as deservedly respected as our 
and that in their rejection of the doctrinaire teaching of Mr. Cob 
"en they are sustained by the common-sense of a shrewd 


* I 

mercial Advantages of Fed 


Chairman, in response to 
the subject of this paper 
I had a strong inclination 
and call it a " History of 

who understand their own interests perfectly well. Are those 
among? t ns right — 1 cannot think they are — who set up free-trade 
H a kind of fetish to worship ? I no longer believe in such teach- 
ing ; bat it seems to me to be mere insular arrogance that we in 
this country should set ourselves to be the only people who enjoy 
a full knowledge of fiscal questions. AU the rest of the world is 
not in benighted darkness, as the followers of Mr. Gobden are bo 
fond of telling as ; but we in this country would, I think, do well 
if in oar fiscal policy we took example by the younger and perhaps 
the wis«r nation across the Atlantic. 
Mr. J. Hcvkikeb Heatom : Mr 
your call, I may say that when 
was announced on " Federation," 
to draw up a companion picture, 
the Thonaand-and-one Attempts and Failures to bring about 
Federation in Australia." In my picture I should sketch the 
feondation of the Australian Colonies : New South Wales in 
17*8, Tasmania in 1803 (separation in 1825), Western Aus- 
tralia in 1829, South Australia in 1835, Victoria in 1851, and 
Queensland in 1859. I should briefly sketch the causes of separa- 
tion through dissatisfaction with the centralisation policy adopted 
in all orders, and local laws being made in Sydney ; and having 
obtained separation I would picture the delightful state of chaos 
existing, each Colony jubilantly celebrating its birthday in a 
equalling the 4th of July Independence Day of America; 
Colony having an entirely independent European postal sys- 
a different Customs tariff, and a railway gauge. Then I think 
toe mosaic would be complete. (Hear, hear.) In looking on 
this picture I am reminded of another island, which I shall call 
Beraiaria, and which is now calling out for Home Rule and for 
decentralisation ; but I shall not be guilty of the bad taste of 
further referring to that island beyond saying that we in Australia 
pasiH through such a lire. It is interesting to trace the numerous 
attempts made within the past twenty-five years to bring about 
Federation. Twenty-five years ago — that is, in 1857 — a Select 
Committee of the Legislative Council of New South Wales reported 
in favour of Federation. This committee, presided over by the 
venerable Sir Edward Dcas Thomson, recommended " a meeting 
of delegates from the four Colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, 
Sooth Australia, and Tasmania, with a view of devising a plan for 
a general Parliament for all the Colonies." I would continue to 
trace the history of the Federation question by showing that all 
Australian statesmen, or all worthy of the name of statesmen, had 

282 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

at one period or another sought for Federation ; and amongst these 
I would mention the honoured names of Sir Charles Gavan Duff;, 
of Sir Charles Cowper, of Sir James McCulloch, of Mr. J. G 
Francis, of Sir Arthur Blyth, of Sir Charles Lilley, of Sir He; 
Ayers, of Sir Henry Parkes, of the Hon. James Service, of the Hon. 
Geoffrey Eagar, of Mr. Murray Smith, of the Hon. William Morgi 
and of Sir Robert Torrens — all worked hard or spoke eloquently 
in favour of Federation. I need hardly refer to the valuable work 
done in England to bring about Federation by the Royal Colonial 
Institute, by its model and courteous Honorary Secretary, and 
by that excellent little newspaper, The Colmim mid India. I rise, 
sir, with all due regard for the force of words, to express my 
conviction that there iB no hope of Federation in my lifetime — 
(hear, hear) — and it will only be brought about by one of two con- 
tingencies. The first is the appearance of a hostile Russian squad- 
ron in Australian waters, or some such common danger that will 
force a union ; the second contingency is the passage of a measure 
through the British Parliament making Federation oompulsory. 
The colonists would be indignant, would accept this latter alterna- 
tive as some people take medicine — that is, with a wry face, but 
with the knowledge that it was a prescription from their physician 
or their common good. (Laughter.) In conclusion, I beg to say 
that we are very much flattered by the splendid tribute paid 
to the Australians. I, too, believe in the manhood of the 
Australian colonists, and that the example inculcated by our 
ancestors in the Old Country will be acted upon in defending 
our shores from the enemy, and maintaining freedom on th« 
virgin soil of Australia, making it the home of the brave and 
the good. (Cheers. ) 

Mr. Haicombe : The call made upon me is quite unexpected, but 
I am unwilling not to respond to the call, because on every occasion 
on which it has been possible for me to do so I have always raised 
my voice in expressing a belief that some sort of confederation 
between the Old Country and her Colonies was the best thing that 
could possibly be done for both parties. (Hear, hear.) To my 
mind the question of Federation is so large a one that it is impos- 
sible for any single individual to lay down the exact lines on which 
that Federation shall take place. My belief is that it should bo 
a Federation having for its object the protection of the trade of 
England and her Colonies as against other countries — (hear, hear) 
— in whatever way that may he done most beneficially to both ; and 
it should be a Federation that would have the effect of directing 
the surplus population of England to her Colonies, rather than to 



The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

bare it to drift away and swell the production and the manufac- 
tures of the United States. (Hear, hear.) We may agree as to 
principle of Federation, and the principle must he a broad one; 
the details must be left to the united wisdom of statesmen in 
Old Country and in the Colonies. I was very glad to hear the 
speaker say that the oldest and the best statesmen of the 
Australian Colonies have for many years past felt convinced that 
such a Federation was a matter that would be beneficial to their 
country. (Hear, hear.) The mere fact that the population of tbe 
Australian Colonies have not at present entered into such a scheme 
is do argument against it, but simply shows that the great states- 
men, as if usually the case, are in advance of public opinion. I do 
not see any great difficulty in the Federation of the Colonies and 
the Mother-Country, and the Colonies themselves would be much 
rapidly brought into Federation with each other if the move- 
t in favour of a general Federation came from the Mother- 
try, which is the source and centre of Colonial life. The 
in his remarks thought it necessary that in any scheme of 
a they should take into consideration the interests of the 
British agriculturist. No doubt the British agriculturist is at the 
present time in an exceedingly bad condition ; but, as far as I can 
M*. there is no chance of any import duty being levied upon corn 
to long as England is especially a manufacturing country ; and I 
with these numerous imports coming into this country, the 
of England will even more rapidly go to the wall than at 
Tbe only hope I see for English agriculture is that a large 
of tho country should be used for other purposes than those 
hich it ia now employed. I refer more particularly to the pro- 
ion of articles of high value which now swell the exports from 
Continent to such a large extent ; for instance, the production 
ter, poultry, and numerous other things which could be grown 
profit if the land were held in smaller divisions. However, 
that is a matter I am not prepared to go into to-night. I must say, 
however, in conclusion, that I, in common with many other 
colonists, when we come to England, and see the whole time of 
Parliament devoted to almost any other than Colonial questions — 
ar) — feel that those great questions affecting all ourinterests 
likely to come forward for some time ; and we can only hope 
these ideas may be forced upon the minds of our legislators by 
of meetings of this kind, and by the constant expression of 
blio opinion in favour of a commercial union between England 
the Colonies ; and that oveutually the Home Parliament will 
to a Utile more time to questions, the importance of which 

234 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

is bo rapidly increasing with the increase of the Colonies 

The Earl of Dunraven, K.P. : I con with the greatest truth say 
what has been said several times already, and I have no donl 
with equal truth, that I came here quite unprepared to mat 
any remarks whatever ; and I have to thank the Chairman for his 
courtesy in allowing me to say a word here now. My chief reason 
for doing so is to try and clear up what appeared to me to be 
rather a serious misunderstanding as to the meaning of the paper 
read. Mr. Glover stated that the suggestion was that a certain 
duty should be placed upon breadstuffs and other provisions — in 
fact, that a differential scale should be arranged, so as to equalise 
the distance between the various Colonies and other countries and 
Great Britain. Well, that is not at all what I understand Mr. 
Harris to say. (Hear, hear.) I understood him to suggest that a 
certain duty Bhould be put upon the produce of other countries, but 
none upon the produce of the various portions of the 
Empire — (hear, hear) — that they should be given a certain 
advantage to try, if possible, to make up for certain dis- 
advantages tinder which they at present labour. That appears 
to me to be quite another thing. As to the expediency of 
it, no doubt there is much to be said on both Bides. I am inclined 
to think it would be a move decidedly in the right direction. I am 
not about to enter upon the subject of free-trade or protection. I 
am very much of a free-trader myself ; but this is a matter of 
expediency, and I hold it to be very bad policy to lay down a hard- 
and-fast line of any kind, and assert that under no circumstance* 
would it be wise to de^. u from it. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Glover 
wanted to know what would be the advantage to the consumer in 
England of such a scheme as Mr. Harris propounded. Well, one 
the great advantages appears to me to be that by favouring thi 
Colonies we Bhould certainly divert the stream of emigration to the 
Colonies ; and considering that one Canadian, or one Australian, 
or one New Zealonder is worth to us as a consumer of our goods 
about as mucli as twenty or thirty of the inhabitants of the United 
States —(hear, hear) — it appears to me that to a produoing nation, 
as we essentially are, it is of enormous advantage that we should 
do all we can to foster the growth of those countries which 
good customers. (Hear, hear.) Even if, therefore, I were one 
the most bigoted or fanatical free-traders I could perfectly under- 
stand that it might bo advantageous to give way in a case of that 
kind, and to agree to the imposition of a certain duty — say, upon 
American wheat — if I saw clearly that by doing so I should turn 





j of 

Commercial Advantages of Fab ration. 


the tide in favour of Canada, for instance, and thereby give us, I 
■ > III hope eventually, a great deal of additional employment for 
English capital and English working-men at home. Mr. Glover 
also commented on the fact that the British dominions are very 
much Mattered ; he likened us to red spots on the universe, ami 
commented upon the generally spotty appearance of the British 
Empire. 1 I ..m. 'liter.) It is true it is somewhat scattered, but the 
various portions tiro scattered in the best possible way ; they are so 
•eattcr* ■ y can produce everything that is produced on the 

globe, and have the best and easiest means of communication — that 
is, by water carriage. (Hear, hear.) It is not necessary to point 
oat the difficulty of transporting goods across the Rocky Mountains, 
from the Atlautic to the Pacific coasts, as being a great deal more 
expensive than the sea-carriage from our farthest Colonies to 
England. ( Hear, hear. ) But there are other and greater advan- 
tage* in favour of Federation than those I have mentioned, but I 
have not time to speak about them now. There is one thing I wish 
to allude to — that is in reference to what Mr. Henniker Heaton said 
about the difficulty experienced in Australia of getting the Colonies 
to join together. Well, one of the readiest solutions of the diffi- 
culty probably would consist in the confederation of the Empire, 
hear.) Because if certain of the Australian Colonies joined 
the rest of the British Empire, then the position of one, or two 
t that are left out would become so uncomfortable and dis- 
advantageous to them that they would be most happy to come in. 
I quite agree with the last speaker who expressed that view of this 
it questiou, which is by far the greatest question that can occupy 
i»h and Colonial statesmen. I agree with him in hoping that 
receive more attention than it has received up to the present 
le. The affairs of this country are very great and voluminous, 
business does not stride through Parliament quite as rapidly as 
ought to do. (Hear, hear.) But this question is of 
enormous magnitude, and the future of the country is so intimately 
vui.l up with it, that no doubt before long it will receive the 
ition it deserves. (Applause.) 
W. Westoarth : We have had a very interesting paper from 
imstauce. if no other, viz., that the author of it spoke of 
subjects with which he was practically acquainted as a merchant, 
which gave life and character to much of what was read. There is 
also another view of it which is extremely interesting to me, viz., 
that he spoke out his mind. It is very easy to understand what he 
meanB, and what that is is plain. I need not repeat what has been 
more than once in the meeting, that his commercial views 

Tm C: 

/ I •• ieritioru 

with tiw views and experience of this country. 
It is very evident thai than an two -news of the Federation of oar 
Empire, or, as I prefer to say, of the unity of oar Empire. One is 
with regard to what is purely economic, and the other, which is a 
with regard to what may he considered beet 
Then is oat doubt that there is much to 
be said on either aide here. Many could and do imagine that the 
Empire could not be eon solids hd upon a purely free-trade basis ; 
that is a question for as, and we could imagine it put to us as a 
really practical question (which certain Canadian friends have done 
lately), whether we should allow the Empire to go to pieces under 
free- trade, or whether we should mmftrw to a certain extent our 
free-trading. Now, that is a very serious question — (hear, hear) — 
and is (who can deny ?) well worth consideration. The view of our 
co untr y is — and the people generally have had long experience of 
it — that it is bettor to go upon the lines of free-trade, because yon 
have thus the largest relative production. (Hear, hear. | You ma; 
or may not have the best, socially and politically, but you certainly 
have in free-trade the greatest production or outcome of labour. 
I Hear.) That is the doctrine of free- trade. Tou may suppose 
that a country of free-trade makes, say, from the outcome of its 
labour 100 ; or if it prefers, on one theory or another, to go into 
protection, it makes an outcome of only 75 ; the question is whether 
in this sacrificing outcome of 75 we may have a better social and 
political condition. This country has said, " You make a sure 
sacrifice by lapsing to the 75 per cent.; but you have no certainty 
when there that you have a better state of things, socially and 
politically, than if you adhered to the 100 upon the lines of free- 
trade." (Hear.) I was much struck by reading in a paper by Mr. 
George Baden-Powell (and I regret he is not here) a remark on the 
commercial statistics of New South Wales and Victoria. Mr. Baden- 
Powell remarked that, according to the statistics, New South Wales 
was progressing in manufactures at a greater pace than Victoria, 
although the latter protected her manufactures and New South 
Wales did not. (A Voice : " That is not so.") Well, lie further 
confirmed this view by adding that incipient shipbuilding in Vic- 
toria had been almost shut up through the protection ; whereas the 
shipbuilding in New South Wales was prosperous and increasing. 
(Hear, hear.) Now, the reason of that, as every free-trader will point 
out, is, that it is to the interest of all countries to open their ports and 
have all their materials of free choice — the best quality at the lowest 
price — from the whole world ; in short, the best and cheapest 
materials, in order that they may have the cheapest and best pro- 

The Commercial Advantage* of F<<hr«tion. 237 

dnctions ; and that is the opinion of our Home Government and 
Home country. We had an interesting discussion upon this point 
lately in a Tariff Congress, which was summoned at the instance of 
the Dominion Board of Trade of Canada, which met in London, 
representing the principal Chambers of Commerce of the Empire. 
They met in February last year at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 
and we bod a very considerable discussion, and the Congress has 
k«pt itsrlf alive to this day under the name of the British and 
Colonial Union. The object of Canada was, as stated by the 
representatives, especially by Mr. R. R. Dobell, of Quebec, almost 
precisely to the effect of our able lecturer. It was certainly very 
interesting to notice the effect of this proposition upon the meeting, 
representing as it did, although not perfectly then, the Chambers 
of Commerce of the Empire ; yet a very decided majority of them, 
about seventy-four persons in all, were present, and a most in- 
teresting meet in? it was. Now, the Canadian ideas were supported 
by the West Indies, and partially supported in other quarters, but 
decidedly negatived by the majority of the meeting ; that is to say, 
the majority of the Colonial Chambers of Commerce decidedly went 
with the Home Government in the matter of commercial views. I 
•hall only say a few words more on the subject of Imperial Federa- 

Ntion. I quite agree with all that has been said as to the importance 
of it in the sense of a united Empire. Mr. Heaton said it would 
not come in his time. He is, comparatively speaking, a young 
man, and I will make the other remark that, if it will not come in 
his time, it will not come at all. (Hear.) Whether, as has been 
•aid, the Empire is going towards dissolution in the politically dis- 
united condition in whioh it is now, I would take an instance of 
the mode in which it would go by degrees to dissolution in all the 
principal Colonies. We are all quite happy ; there is great satis- 
faction and goodwill prevailing ; and yet the seeds of dissolution 
are certainly being sown at this very moment. In fact, I some- 
times think that that evident unwillingness on the part of the 
Home Government to move — for it ought to be the duty of the 
Home Government to move first towards bringing the Colonies 
into a more united Empire than they are at present — that that 
unwillingness, I repeat, is a practical confession that the time has 
almost gone already for doing it. They see, even now, so many 
difficulties in the way. But what I was going to remark is that 
Sir Henry Parkes was alluded to as having come in a sort of 
ambassadorial character from New South Wales. Sir Henry, as 
you are perhaps aware, went round by the United States with the 

st present. Now, I need 

That is clearly a step 

of tto Empire, as if you took an axe and 

out at tk* great old oak. (Che- 

I go ob. I bare not the least doubt that Sir 

far the unity of the Empire as 

httle matter of a separate treaty 

advantage of it, would outweigh 

1 so with like steps as like oppor- 

The Colonies have no intention 

nevertheless, as they will not 

they do, in matter of fact, help to 

■tea. I would only say that I go 

I do not like to call it -• Federa 

of the Empire. (Hear, L 

I revolution, and I think the required 

tying at once for a formal Federation 

(Hear, hear.) If you mean to 

• Federal Parliament over the 

, yon will, I fear, be in the same 

yoo are now ; and the F>: 

to drift, will hare fallen to pieces many 

sampler modes of procedure, 

I wa merely, in conclusion, say that that is 

I most, m ring, at once join issue with tn; 
it that the Empire is at this 
i of enawtonaa. (Hear, hear.) If Mr. Westgarth 
I to satotafcaat the weed " disorganisation," then I will agree 
with htm ; far if thai it what he means, I think he is quit 

Ml to to faaaoced that an Empire like ours, which has gro 
«l» within tto memory of tea* of the youngest amongst us, coald 
kl fulliaaj ■|j«Milllll1 l«n f - - *■ — ) -- i I think it is 
jgione atoald take place here, pointing oat 
> the atoa foattoa in one quarter and whan difficulties exist 
ta another, in order that they may be gradually removed, and ulti- 
mately that we may attain to that complete Federation which is 
the goal we should always keep in view. (Hear, hear.) Having 
colly had tto honour of dealing with the question at con- 
toierahle length in my paper read bat session before this Institute, I 
am Mot again going over old ground ; but I have been very much 

which I ventured to throw forth 
amount of approval this evening. 






Commerrvi! Advantage of Federation. 


to say in my paper that if, at the time when the Com 
Laws were repealed in this country, the policy adopted had not been 
that of absolute repeal, but if England had preserved an import 
duty upon corn coming from Russia and the United States, and 
allowed corn to come in free from the British Colonies, the result 
M have been that the vast population which has gone from the 
British Isles to the United States, and built up manufacturing 
industries to compete with the manufactures of this country, would 
hare been diverted to the British Colonies ; and men who are now 
oaUide the Empire, and beyond the shadow of the British flag, 
would have remained under it, and our Empire would have been 
morr completely built up than it is at present. (Hear, hear.) 
That was one view I endeavoured to bring out in my paper, and it 
has met with much approval this evening. Mr. Westgarth has told 
as about Sir Henry Parkes having gone to the United States for 
the purpose of entering into a Commercial Treaty, which I sup- 
pose would be intended to establish differential duties as between 
New South Wales and the United States. (No, no.) I quite 
agree with the gentleman behind me who says " No, no," because 
such a thing is utterly impossible according to the present Con- 
stitutions of the Australian Colonies. I think it is desirable at 
this time, while we are considering the effect of the breakdown 
of the Commercial Treaty with France, and the Bill which has 
been submitted to the French Chamber, to pass differential dir 
to the disadvantage of the British Colonies — (hear, hear) — that we 
should know exactly what the position of things is constitutionally. 
(Hear, hear.) Now, under the Constitution Act of New South 
Wales, 18 and 19 Vic. c. 54, ss. 44 and 45, and the Constitution 
Act of the Colony of Victoria, 18 and 19 Vic. c. 55, ss. 42 and 43 — 
the terms in the two Acts being identical — it is provided that " it 
shall not be lawful for the Legislature of the Colony to levy any 
duty, impose any prohibition or restriction, or grant any exemp- 
tion from any drawback, or other privilege, upon the importation 
or exportation of any articles, nor to enforce any dues or charges 
upon shipping contrary to or at variance with any treaty or treaties 
eooclttdihl by Her Majesty with any foreign Power ;" and, " sub- 
ject to the provisions of this Act, and notwithstanding any Act or 
Acts of the Imperial Parliament now in force to the contrary, it 
■ball be lawful for the Legislature of the Colony to impose and 
levy such duties of Customs as to them may seem fit, on the 
importation into the Colony of any goods, wares, and merchandise 
whatsoever, whether the produce of or exported from the United 
Kingdom, or any of the Colonies or dependencies of the United 

240 The Commercial Advantage* of Federation. 

Kingdom, or any foreign country. Provided always that no new 
duty shall be so imposed upon the importation into the said Colony 
of any article the produce or manufacture of or imported from any 
particular country or place, which shall not be equally imposed on 
the importation into the said Colony of the like article the pro- 
duce or manufacture of or exported from all other countries and 
places whatsoever." Now these terms are very clear and specific ; 
but it having been found extremely inconvenient that the 
Australian Colonies, with their long inland boundary-lines, should 
not be allowed to adopt differential duties as between them- 
selves, the Imperial Parliament wisely passed a short Act in 1873 
— the 21 and 22 of Vic, o. 22 — amending the Australian Constitu- 
tion Acts, and allowing differential duties to be levied to this 
extent : " The Legislature of any one of the Australian Colonies 
shall, for the purpose of carrying into effect any agreement 
between any two or more of the said Colonies, or between any 
one or more of the said Colonies and New Zealand, have fall 
power from time to time to make laws with respect to the remissio 
or imposition of duties upon the importation into such Colony i 
any article the produce or manufacture of or imported from any 
other of the said Colonies, or the produce or manufacture of or 
imported from New Zealand. Provided always that, for the pur- 
pose aforesaid, no new duty shall be imposed upon, and no existing 
duty shall be remitted as to, the importation into any of the 
Australian Colonies of any article the produce or manufacture of 
any particular country which shall not be equally imposed upon or 
remitted as to the importation into such Colony of the like article 
the produce or manufacture of any other country." It is impos- 
sible, in the face of terms bo clear aa these, to say that New Sooth 
Wales, or any other of the Australian Colonies, can enter into any 
commercial treaty whatever with any foreign country, except this 
Act of 1878 be first amended by the Imperial Parliament. I think 
it is very desirable that we should understand this at the present 
moment. (A Yoice : " How about Canada ? ") According to the 
Dominion Act it appears that Canada may make whatever altera- 
tions she likes in her fiscal arrangements, subject, however, to the 
sanction of the Queen. The 91st section of the British North 
America Act of 1867, 80 Vict.,c. 8, provides that "the Queen, 
Senate, and Commons" of Canada may "make laws ... in rela- 
tion to all matters not coming within the classes of subjects by this 
Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of the Provinces; and 
for greater certainty, bat not so as to restrict the generality of the 
foregoing terms of the section, it is hereby declared that ... the 

Th* Commercial Advantages of Federation, 241 

exclusive legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada extends 
to all matters coming within the classes of subjects hereinm 
enumerated.'* Then follow twenty-nine headings, of which No. 2 is 
" The Regulation of Trade and Commerce." The distinction 
between Canada and Australia is therefore this : no alteration in 
the fiscal arrangements of the Australian Colonies, involving 
dinVrrtitial duties between them and any other countries, within or 
without the Empire, can be made without an Act of the Imperial 
Parliament ; whereas, as I understand it, in the case of Canada an 
alteration may be effected by the sanction of Her Majesty ; and, of 
course, in all questions affecting the Mother-Country or any foreign 
nation, the Queen would be always advised by the English Ministers 
here who command the majority in the House of Commons. 

Mr. Wkbtgakth : I would explain that Canada has been allowed 

malce a special agreement with the United States. 

Mr. LtfcTbLTKBK : But that would not have been done without the 
sanction of Her Majesty, who, of course, acted under the advice of 
her Ministers here in England ; and so practically in both cases 
the Parliament here has complete control of such matters. (Hear.) 
Bat in the letter of my friend, Mr. Frederick Young, to the Timtt, 
a very sound and wholesome principle was laid down — namely, that 
this country ought not to accept for herself from France any oon- 
Mssion with regard to tariffs which shall not be extended to the 
Colonies. (Hear, hear.) I most thoroughly endorse that principle, 
but it must be borne in mind that this state of things may arise. 
1 believe we all feel that negotiations with respect to the renewal 
of the treaty with France have quite fallen to the ground. If that 
be so, and there is no treaty with France and no agreement with 
bar Government that we should have the benefit of the " most- 
f» vuunsl nation " clause, then France may do what she likes. Her 
Legislature may impose high tariffs upon goods introduced into 
Prance bom the British Colonies, or she may impose high tariffs 
upon goods introduced from the Mother-Country, and give the 
Colonies the advantage; and how are we to prevent her doing so if 
we have no treaty or agreement with her whatever ? She may put 
or 50 per cent, duty upon a particular article coming from 
id, and let that article, if it come from one of the British 
in free, or vie* v«m& : and England has no means of pre- 
it She might try retaliation or a war of tariffs with 
France; but then she would depart from that policy which she 
has so long laid down — the policy of universal free-trade. Hear, 
hear > 

Mr. i. DnmwTocm Wood; Although I am an ardent supporter of 


The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 



federation, yet I think it a pity some speakers to-night have dwelt 
upon the general subject of Federation, instead of dealing with the 
subject brought forward by the paper. It is no doubt true that the 
word " Federation " occurs in the title of this paper, but the whole 
of the paper is directed to a particular subject — the question of 
duties to be imposed upon the produce coming from other countries 
than our own Colonies. If I might have suggested a title to the 
reader of this paper, it would have been one which would have 
kept clear of the word " Federation." Instead of calling the paper 
*' The Commercial Advantages of federation," I would have entitl 
it, " The Commercial Advantages of Handicapping.'' (Laugbtei 
For if I have been able to understand the drift of the paper at 
my conclusions are those arrived at by Mr. Glover — that the system 
advocated by this paper is to put the Colonies on a footing of 
equality with the United States. (Hear, hear.) There was a com- 
parison of the expense of freights from various Possessions and 
Colonies of Great Britain as compared with the freight from the 
United States. For instance, the reader of the paper has told us 
that freight from India ia 5s. to 6s. per quarter more than it is 
from the United States to England, and from Australia 7a per 
quarter more. And, again, the freight from Canada would be 2s. 
per quarter more than from the United States. Now, what is the 
conclusion drawn from all this ? Why, that the Colonies cannot 
compete on terms of equality with the United States unless handi- 
capping duties are imposed. That is to say, that so much more is 
to be put upon goods coming from the United States and so much 
less upon the goods coming from India, and still less on goods 
coming from Australia. If there is to be one rate of duty 
ott goods coming from the United States, and there is to be only 
one rate of duty, though a low one, upon goods coming from all 
Colonies, irrespectively of their distance from England, why, the 
Colonies will still labour under these relative disadvantages : the 
producer in Australia will still be at a disadvantage as compared 
with the producer of corn in India ; and the only way to reallj 
equalise them will be to put a duty of 12a. on all corn coming from 
the United States, a duty of 5e. on corn coming from India, and 
so on ; so that, putting the duty and freight together, the amount 
paid by the exporter of corn from these countries will be the same. 
Now, it may be intended as a boon to those countries, but I fail (o 
see how it will be any advantage to those Colonies, to have • 
duty imposed upon the corn exported by them, even if a higher 
duty is put on the corn exported from the United States. But 
a* o 0e one p erBon w ]i will be benefited by it. I do see very great 

The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 248 

advantage indeed to the English farmer in the first instance, and 
only for a short time, hut in the long run, and for ever, to the 
*-f*»«K landlord. fOh I and Hear, hear.) So that this scheme, 

the pretence of conferring a great boon upon the colonists, 
really a scheme for taxing the people of thiB country for the 

t of the British landlord. (No, no, Hear, hear, and cheers.) 
And then, what benefit would it be to those Colonial producers who 
do not raise corn ? For instance, what benefit would it be to the 
Australian wool-grower ? (Hear, hear.) Mr. Harris has told us 
that we cannot put any duty on wool, because wools enter into 
British manufactures, and the latter are exported to the Colonies. 
Therefore, if you put a duty on wool, the colonists would have to 
pay that duty in the long run. It comes to this — that the Colonial 
producer of corn would have a protective duty, and the producer of 
wool would have none, and the consequenoe would he that the 
people in England would have to pay more for their corn, and 
would have less to spend on their clothing ; and if they have to pay 
more for their corn they would have less money to spend in buying 
woollen goods. (Oh ! and Hear, hear.) Now, we have been told 
of the disadvantages which the Australian Colonies and India to 

extent labour under as compared with the United States, 
axe told that it is much more expensive to export food from the 
Colonies to England than it is to export food from the United States 
J> Eugland. I concede that; but there is oneway, and a very 
good way indeed, of remedying that, and what is it ? Why, instead 
of sending the corn from Australia to the mouths in England, let 
as take the mouths in England to the Colonies, and let them con- 

the corn there, and so save the freight t (Laughter.) Sir, 

■ my proposal ; if the Colonies wish to benefit themselves, 
U they wish to benefit this country, let us jointly — if you choose, 
Great Britain and the Colonies together — promote a large scheme 
of •migration. (Hear, hear.) Then the corn will be produced, 
and will be consumed, by the colonists themselves. But I do 
protest against this most shallow attempt to raise the ghost of 
protection under the pretence of a boon to the Colonies, to tax 
the corn imported into this country for the benefit of the English 
landlord. (Cheers.) 

Mr. H. CHArroB : It appears to me that our friend who has just 
spoken is not a British landlord, from the feeling way in which he 
goes so deeply into the subject. (Laughter.) However that may be, 
of course we must leave him to his own views, but their logical result 
would be to depopulate this httle kingdom, and bring it down to a 
fifth, sixth} or tenth-rate power in the world. It has now some 


214 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

85 millions of people, and producing 11 million quarters of wheat and 
importing 18 million quarters ; then, to equalise its consumption and 
production, you must retain 16 millions and export 19 millions of 
the population. That is the logical result of his argument. (Hear, 
hear, i Now, I will not trespass on your time at this late hour in 
respect to this matter of Federation. You have heard a very able 
paper, and whether it be in ail respects perfectly correct or feasible, 
is certainly one to which you can direct your thoughts with profit 
and advantage. There are one or two subjects mentioned by 
speakers which lay at the root of the matter. Let me ask, in the 
first place, what is it causes us to assemble here to-night ? Is it not 
the distress and degradation of trade and agriculture — the depression 
of labour — the want of employment, that lies at the bottom of your 
assembling here to-night ? (No, no, and Hear, hear.) Well, those 
subjects have been brought forward in the way they have, not on 
the question of fair trade as against free trade, hut brought 
forward to promote employment and seek the welfare of onr popu- 
lation, that we may all thereby thrive. I will grant you that I am 
an English landlord, but I am also an English trader. I thrive 
more by trade than I do by land — (laughter) — and I say that the 
degradation of 20 millions of people who are concerned in or are 
more or less dependent on agriculture is not the right way to pro- 
mote your welfare. Is it not largely the basis on which you collect 
your taxation ? You have heard a great deal of late years about 
taxes being taken off; but who pays any less ? (Hear, hear.) They 
tell yon that taxes have been taken off this, that, and the oti 
but who pays less ? On the contrary, we pay millions more than 
we did before. (A Voica : M Because we consume more.") But 
yon pay Bome 80 millions more than you did thirty or forty yean 

Mr. Glover: I rise to order, Mr. Chairman. These are grossly 
inaccurate figures. 

Mr. MacIveb : I wish to vouch for the accuracy of the figures. 
I looked them up the other day myself, and they are quite 

Mr. H. Chaytob : You are paying 85 millions instead of 65 millions. 
and I say you are paying that notwithstanding the blessings you have 
from this free-trade. To give some idea how this taxation bears, I will 
suppose a case, viz., that three-fourths of our trade belongs to hone 
and one-fourth imported ; and the reason why you are so heavily 
taxed is that those three-fourths pay all the taxation. You give 
your markets away to the Frenchman and the foreigner, which to a 
V '•ent displaces our own labour — that which ought to be 

The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 


adding to oar wealth. Whatever the relative proportions may 
to, the argument goes that far. That being bo, it astonishes 
ma moat amazingly that free-traders can advocate commercial 
treaties. When a man goes into a treaty he is bound hand 
and foot. Where is bis freedom ? Can anybody say that a 
man can be free when he is bound hand and foot ? 1 
aay that treaties are our curse and our bane, and we don't 
want them, and can do very well without them. (Laughter.) 
have an old saying in Yorkshire, " Will you have it iu meal 
or malt ? " I say it does not matter one jot whether you pay 
your taxation on one thing or another, providing always that 
as you want to employ your labour, you cannot afford to put it 
Upon the raw material. But I say that every thiny you can produce at 
kvm» or manufacture you should put proper taxation upon when that 
thing comes from another country ; I don't care what it is — whether 
food or anything else. You don't, for instance, grow tea. Well, 
than, take taxation off tea, and put it on corn. A moderate duty on 
corn is calculated to amount to 1 Jd. per head per we ek : how 
insignificant is that to the labouring population. It is a mere flea- 
bite. You have degraded — that is, reduced — the employment of 
your agricultural labourer by compelling your tillage to be turned 
into grass. The same reduction has occurred in all trades from 
outward competition. Agriculture is a trade or manufacture as 
wall as cotton or any other trade. Now, what is the fact as regards 
our manufactures and cotton-spinners and wool- spinners. They 
have despised our Home trade ; they have degraded it by throwing 
it away to the foreigner in every way. Well, why should they 
make our Home trade unprofitable ? They degrade our agriculture 
and our Home trade by introducing this competition to our 
markets without any corresponding toll on the things introduced, 
while we pay all market expenses. I agree that tbe speaker from 
New Zealand spoke like a patriot ; but he spoke like a New Zealand 
patriot — daughter) — and for that I commend him. If you will only 
think and read, you will come to this — it takes a great deal of time 
and study, bat you must come at last to this conclusion — that the 
basts of all prosperity is to protect your own labourer, and what 
you have to do is to keep all your trades in a healthy position. If 
you do that, then I have no fear of this country holding its own on 
tbo scale on which we have placed it, the same as any other country 
jan do. t Applause. | 

Mr, Robert G. Wkbstkb : I should like to point out that 
we hare heard the advantages of the Confederation of the 
before discussed in this room ; but I have alwuya thought 

to as; sod 

nuk that from 


i we to give them 

it Whether 
or not, it is not far me to say. Bat I do not 
Federation of oar 
to the Colonies. iHe&», 
We bare tried the " good example " plan, which has failed. When 
Kir William Molesworth and Mr. Charles Bnller were entrusted 
with the settlement of the constitution of the Colonies, they threw 
away a chance that may never occur again — they gave them fall 
power to settle their tariffs as they saw fit. (Hear.) We gave 
them power to tax our exports as they should desire ; and now, 
finding they are important commercial factors, we say, Let as haw 
comm er erial Federation. (Hear, hear.) I pointed out 

Tlie Commercial Advantages of Federation. 247 

time ago, when I read a paper here, how much oar trade with 
the Colonies had increased. That has been also clearly shown by 
the table which Mr. Harris had compiled and placed before us this 
evening. I find that Canada has given as some slight advantage 
over the United States in respect of the burden of the duty on our 
cotton goods imported into that Colony. So that, although Canada 
has become, as we know, slightly protective in her import tariff, 
than is more onerous to the trade of the United States than that of 
Great Britain. (Hear, hear.) And the result is this, that English 
cottons are very much more largely sold in Caaada than they are in 
the United States. (Cheers.) Now, there is one other point I 
tboold like to say a word about ; it has been touched on by Mr. 
Maclrtr ; that is, that if we had free-trade between this country 
and the Colonies, it is easy to see that the grain would come to this 
country cheaper than at present, as' carriage is a very important 
factor in the cost of transmission of corn, and the cost of freight 
would doubtless be less by the fact of the shipowners being always 
able to find full cargoes not only from, but also to, the Colonial 
porta, and not having to go an outward voyage, as now, 
often " in ballast." But if this would decrease the price of 
grain in Great Britain, as it very probably would, we must re- 
member this, that the agricultural interest of this country would 
have to endure even more severe competition than at present. I 
thought we should have heard some rap at the British landlord 
from Mr. Wood. I find that the British landlord is a bugbear that 
is always assailed — (hear, hear) — no matter what the subject may 
be, he is always dragged in to be pointed out as the cause of every 
♦• ill that flesh is heir to." (Laughter.) I think the British land- 
lord and farmer have had for many years a severe tussle to com- 
pete with the American corn sent to this country during the late 
disastrous harvests we have experienced, and that while real 
property is taxed to 12 per cent., personal property only pays 
( par cent to Imperial and local taxation — that is the ratio we tax 
Ilia food-producing machinery of this country, namely, the land. 
(Hear, bear.) Then Mr. Wood said that be thought the best thing 
for the whole of the population of this country was to emigrate 
to the Colonies. 

Mr. Wood : I never said anything so absurd. (Roars of 
laughter.) I said, let the population go from this coon try to the 
Colonic* equivalent to what would be fed by the exports from the 
Colonics to this country. 

Mr. Webstkb : I withdraw the word M whole." But you would 
reduce the amount of the purchasing power of the country if you 


The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

largely assisted emigration to the Colonies. Remember that people 
living in this country arc the best customers for our manufacturing 
commodities, and if you send them out to the Colonies without 
having secured some guarantee of the commercial Federation of 
the Empire, by which we shall continue to manufacture to these 
individuals, you are impairing our manufacturing trade by 
decreasing one of the best markets — namely, our home trade. 
(Hear, hear.) Some statesmen in this country say this, that it is 
towards the States that all eyes are directed at present. (Hear, 
hear.) Now, I do not think bo ; I think it is to our Colonies that 
we ought to look, and to increasing the trade of our Colonies. 
(Cheers.) Even Mr. Mongredien, in his work on " Free-trade and 
English Commerce," acknowledges that, if Canada were a portion 
of the United States, it would bo *' an unexampled anomaly that 
one part of a republic should bo debarred from free commercial 
intercourse with the other parts." If that is so — and with Mr 
Mongredien to that extent I entirely concur — why have those who 
agree with him never stirred hand or finger to prevent this glaring 
anomaly in the British Empire ? (Hear, hear.) Mr. Gladstone, 1 
notice, in attempting to console the farmers of Midlothian on the 
undue pressure they experienced a year or two ago from foreign 
competition, told them that their case was no worse than the 
farmers of the Eastern States of America, who were undersold by 
the farmers of the Western States. He failed to notice tbat in the 
American continent, as within the borders of the United Kingdom, 
there is absolute free-trade, and that each portion of the United 
States adds to the wealth and prosperity of the Union ; that the 
movement of wealth and population from one side of the United 
States to the other makes no more material difference than would 
the displacement of wealth from one English county to another in 
the material prosperity of England. (Cheers.) It is not to the United 
States of America, therefore, that we ought to turn our thoughts. 
(Hear, hear.) I find there is an absence of mutuality in the treat- 
ment by ourselves of the Colonies, and therefore I think that the 
paper read to-night cannot fail to be of great use in pointing oat 
to the public the important advantages that would accrue if 
Oreat Britain were a United Empire. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Wat. Leathaj* Bright : I rise with considerable diffidence to 
put a straight question on a certain subject mentioned by Mr. 
Chaytor, who says that free-trade has degraded our wages in thin 
country. That I deny emphatically. I should like to know in 
what trade wages have been degraded. 

Mr. Cbattob : I said degraded employments. 

The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 249 

Mr. Bright : I don't understand the distinction. (Laughter.) 

employment degraded by producing more employment ? 

Mr. Cbattob: If you like to have the word " diminished," it 

isans the same thing. 

Mr. Bright: That I deny in my port of the country. I have 
for some time an employer of labour in the North of England, 
and I can only say that we are very prosperous there, and that the 
wages of agricultural labourers have increased 40 per cent, under 
free-trade, and that the wages throughout the whole of Lancashire 
have increased 40 per cent., owing, in my opinion, to free-trade. 
Under these circumstances I thought I should like to ask a definite 
question aa to this subject. It seems to me that we are working at 
a false issue altogether. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. Wa Gritfitii : I may say that this is the first occasion on 
which I have been present at the Royal Colonial Institute debates, 
and I mint say it has been most instructive and interesting to listen 
to *o many able speakers. The paper read has displayed much 
ability, but I demur to some of the reasons advanced. The writer 
will pardon me for sayiug that his arguments hardly carry that 
lotos to my mind which he might expect. Of course the word 
" Federation '' is a word of high sound and great significance, and 
we must all feel inclined to what is amiable and wise — that friend- 
ehip should prevail, not only between individuals, but between 
component parts of this mighty Empire; but the example he has 
cited u somewhat misleading — viz., that of the United States of 
f«""" The difference between the United States and our 
Polonies is certainly very great. Federation in the United States 
produces what international jurists call a Bundesstaat, a supreme 
Federal Government. It implies the same Judicature, the same 
Legislature, and one Governor, controlling, according to constitu- 
tional law, subordinate Legislatures and Governments. (Hear. 
hear.) Therefore, if you say it wdl be a good thing that we should 
hare Federation because it would be of commercial advantage to 
the Colonies, it seems to me a false argument to say it would be a 
good thing to have a commercial Federation of the Colonies 
i the Federation exists in the United States, and has produced 
good results. But I feel inclined to approach more closely to 
the direct challenge which the reader has given. He has quoted a 
sentence from the able Senator of the United States, an authority 
who asserts in effect, that if a duty is imposed upon the importa- 
tion of corn into England, the sun of England will set and her 
prosperity be gone. Now, there seems great force in that remark, 
and the remark was also borne out by that Ambassador with whom 

**, mi m Fan miin at Iimpoui, and abo, I 

ft? the ■■! s na h nj «f das n mlij. Thai Axnbas- 

BM rr:?- 
: Bbi I 

to some 

BM Been pnpoaem Bant wb uaonae saapoee u ax span noil — 

half » crown * day, and spend 

nan an bread, we must see at 

wtt tax * vonhl W apon poor nan. (Hear, hear.) 

toe cost of amsar to the respectable classes, we find 

mnpared Wiethe 
tread ■ the most important item o{ 
bat b magnificent to the other 
esaans. It is a poor nan's staff af fife. It is sot the luxury of 
the rich. Is it Ink, just, or equitable that the labouring dieses 
shull bear the lead of the taxation, while the wealth? and higher 
classes wonid eatape ? (Bo.) Bnt what is the argument proposed ? 
Kot that it would be a benefit to the landlords; I do not think it would 
be so great a benefit to them as some anticipate, because dearness of 
corn would lead to tins* — that we should find many lands which are 
ada p te d for dairy produce, an d won id par well as dairy farms, brought 
intderarabbs cultivation and inad* corn lands. (Hear.) Now. it is not 
for the benefit of the country at huge that unsuitable land should 
be made to grow corn ; let the suitable land grow corn and the suit- 
able land grow grass. That I think, on sound economical princi- 
ples, wonid be of advantage to the conn try. (Hear.) Bnt apart from 
this argument, it appears to me that the talented anther takes s 
one-sided view of the question. What is the return we are to receive 
from our Colonies for this great sacrifice on the part of England ? It 
is proposed to impose a heavy tax on the lower classes for the bene- 
fit of our Colonies. By all means let us have Federation, goodwill. 
and united interests ; but do not let the expense of it be all on one 
side. Do the Colonies contribute anything to the Home Government? 
Do the Colonies pay any part of the heavy taxation which the Eng- 
lish nation has to bear ? Are they not free from those taxes ? Do we 
not defend them and provide large forces, military and naval, to 
protect them ? It seems to me that the bargain is that the Mother- 
Country should pay the first, and the Colonies at her expense enjoy 
the results ; and although I should be most willing to see anything 
carried out that could be equitable and politic, yet I think some 
other plan should be proposed by which we should be united 

TJu Commtrcial Advantage* of Federation. 251 

we look at the history of our different Colonies and posses- 
l, it mnst be granted that the circumstances are very different. 
have had their origin in conquest, others in emigration ; 
still are mere settlements under military government, others 
for themselves. Their commercial interests no less than 
their geographical positions are different. To use again the remarks 
of the Ambassador, each country must be cognisant of the circum- 
stances peculiar to itself. (Hear, hear.) Now, anyone acquainted 
with our Colonial system knows the diversity, nay conflicts, of in- 
terests of its various members, and that these countries have usually 
proceeded from the more simple form of government and have 
acquired this greater freedom. But why has this greater freedom 
bean conceded to them ? Not for the advantage of the Mother- 
Coontry, but for the advantage of the Colonies themselves They 
have wanted it, and it has been given to them. Certainly, when 
the lees advanced want greater freedom, the example set already 
should be followed in their instances ; it is but proper that that 
feftKig should be satisfied, and that we should, in trying to pro- 
mote their welfare, consider what is most for the benefit of each. 
The whole is made up of the parts, and I think we are more likely 
to beneSt the Colonies generally by promoting those measures 
which are beneficial to each particular country, than by adopting a 
system which theoretially would benefit them all, but practically 
only certain ones. (Hear, hear.) The system proposed is that a 
heavy duty should be imposed upon corn imported from the United 
States. But that will not change the geographical characteristics 
of any Colony. It has been said one duty ; but when you consider 
that the exports of corn from Australia, India and other parts of 
the British Empire must vary, the freights differ, and that some 
Colonies grow no corn at all, then you will see that the advantage 
could not be universal ; but one Colony would gain much more than 
another, and that it is only one or two particular Colonies that 
would benefit if this were carried out. Distance still remains, and 
distances considerably differ. (Hear, hear.) The Chairman re- 
minds me that my time is expiring ; I therefore omit to mention the 
Beans by which I would promote a real and substantial Federation 
in feeling and in interests, and not merely in name ; and I conclude 
these desultory remarks — desultory they are, for when I entered the 
room I knew not what was to be the subject of discussion — by ten- 
dering my thanks to the author for his instructive and pleasing 
contribution to Colonial — I may say to national — literature. 

Mr. Stbphxm Boubxe : It would ill become one somewhat re- 
sponsible for the figures represented in the table before the audience 

252 The Commercial Advantages of FsJcration. 

not to point out that they do not quite convey the inference drawn 
from them. In 1871 a change took place in the mode of preparing 
the statistics for goods passing in transit through one country to 
another. These, which had been formerly credited to the account 
of the country where first deposited, were subsequently transferred 
to that of ultimate destination. Therefore the large increase of 
exports to the Colonies in the period of five years between 1871 
and 1875 is not quite correct, because perhaps some ten millions a 
year had been previously otherwise carried to account. For in- 
stance, goods sent to Portland for transmission to Canada had gone 
to the credit of the United States, though afterwards they properly 
went to the credit of Canada. That rectification would somewhat 
alter these figures, and also get rid of the apparent anomaly of a 
rapid rise in the Colonial exports in the years 1871-75, as compared 
with 18G6-70, subsequently falling to a considerable extent in 1875- 
80, About fifty millions ought, I think, to be aded to the Colonial 
receipts for the five years preceding 1871 before the comparison will 
hold good. We have heard a great deal about the necessity for pro- 
tecting our Colonies, but it leads me to ask the question, why it is 
that, with all the magnificent countries we have under British sway, 
and all the capital which England has at its disposal for the prose- 
cution of its trade and the cultivation of the Colonies, it should be 
always thought that British productions Bhould want protects 
against those of other countries ? I cannot at all see why we shonl> 
for a moment maintain that there is such deterioration or inferiority 
that we need protection against the foreigner. (Hear hear.) I 
think we ought to be able, with all our variety of climate and all 
our science and other advantages, to hold our own, without requiring 
everything in competition with us to be handicapped (Hear, hear.) 
If in the race with other nations it be so, there is this difficulty 
connected with it, that we should be fostering a trade whicb 
ultimately cannot succeed in holding its own, aud so should be en- 
couraging the investment of capital in places where there are some 
natural or acquired disadvantages which prevent us from competing 
on equal terms with those of other countries. (Hear, hear.) There 
seems to be a great fallacy in the arguments used in regard to the 
small increase which takes place on the expenditure of the family on 
the import duty on corn. You must remember that when com 
rises all other articles rise with it ; and it is not only in the amount 
of food which the individual or his family consume, but likewise in 
the amount consumed by all the men and all families engaged in 
providing other articles which each man consumes. (Hear, hear.) 
Therefore to put a tax on corn would tax the food of the cotton- 


the cotton- 

Ths Commercial Adnxndnjea of Federation. 253 

spinner and the iron-manufacturer, and would add to tli*. cost 
of every article which entered into the consumption of the family. 
I «*"—«'*''» the ten shillings assumed here is somewhat too low as 
it is, evon for a five-shilling duty, and, as a family averages five 
person*, wp most put it at least at 12s. 6d. to 15s. ; and this would 
be doubled or trebled by being paid by those who produce the 
which entered into the consumption of that family. (Hear.) 
all, we must see that everything in the intercourse of nations 
is tending to this — that wherever there are natural advantages 
or acquired facilities for production which enable one country to 
the articles of consumption better than another, the 
will justly demand that he shall have the benefit of getting 
the article* he requires on the most favourable terms. (Hear, 
hear.) It is an ntterly useless task for us to be attempting to 
rectify the inequalities which nature or other circumstances have 
produced. We should be bolstering up this and that interest, 
and. after all, should fail in making this patchwork system 
equitable. If there is to be anything like continuous com- 
mercial intercourse on satisfactory terms we must come to 
free-trade; and having gone as ar as we have in this direc- 
tum, it would be impossible for this country to retrace her steps 
and reimpose dnties, which would only have to be ultimately 
abrogated. (Hear, hear.) The act is, we have gone on spending 
too much money, and have neglected to foster emigration to onr 
ffftlflTOf I believe Mr. Wood is to a great extent right in what he 
lout our people going to the Colonies to eat the corn, instead 
of starving here. (Hear, hear.) I believe he is right that we 
want to send oar population o consume the corn there, and by 
the opportuneness and opportunity of earning wages they may not 
only consume corn as hitherto, but double as much. That is the 
true way of promoting trade, by increasing the population and 
increasing their powers of consumption of other things than corn. 
Then we should have the advantage of feeling that these people 
were the best customers for clothing and other Articles which 
they require to wear and eat, and ko assist in creating universal 
pr osp eri ty throughout out world. (Applause.) 

The Chairman : Before taking the last step in our proceedings 
this evening I should like to say a word or two with the view of 
impressing upon yon the force of a remark made by Mr. Maclver. 
Ba has told us that in considering the question of freight we must 
not regard the outward rate alone. Coming from such an authority 
ae he is. it ought to weigh very greatly with this meeting ; and I 
[y do not agree with the gentleman who said that the effect 

254 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

of distance would still remain, by which remark I presume he 
meant that freights would be governed almost entirely by dis- 
tance. I can give yon an illustration of the error of this view. 
Some few years ago, in the course of my professional avocations, 
some papers came before me bearing upon the question of freights 
in the Home Country — freights representing the conveyance of many 
thousand tons from London to a port in the Irish Sea, and I found 
in this case that the rates ranged from 4s. Gd. to 6s. a ton from 
London to the port in question. Now, at that very time freights 
from London to Dublin, which these vessels had to pass, were 
averaging 9s. a ton. That is a remarkable fact, and it bears out 
strongly what Mr. Mnclver has said, and it shows that freights are 
not altogether governed by distance. (Hear, hear.) With regard 
to the climate of New Zealand being suitable for growing corn, it 
was my lot a few years ago to be in that Colony just after the close 
of the harvest, and I was astonished to see the amount of corn 
produced from a comparatively limited district ; and so far from 
New Zealand yielding only fourfold, I am of opinion that the 
author of the paper put it too low, and I think he might have 
said that ere long we may look to the produce of corn in Ne 
Zealand being multiplied from ten to twenty-fold. (Hear, hear.) 
I will now ask you to accord a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Harris 
for the able lecture he has given us this evening. 

The vote was carried by acclamation. 

Major Champion : Do I understand the lecturer to say there were 
thirty-six millions of acres in India under cultivation ? 

Mr. Harris : Yes. 

Major Champion : I also want to ask what this Institute is 
doing upon Federation, or the whole question of the Federation 
of the Empire ? 

The Chairman : I must rale that Imperial Federation is ontsid* 
the question brought forward by the lecturer this evening. 
(Hear, bear.) 

Mr. W. J. Habbib : Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—! 
feel very much obliged to you for having accorded me your thanks 
for this paper, in the preparation of which I have taken a good 
deal of trouble. I did not write it for the English landowners, as 
someone insinuated, although I am quite willing to confess that 1 
have a great deal of sympathy for them ; but I wrote it for this 
li istitute, and put together what I thought were the best arguments 
inYavour of giving to our colonists, with whom we wish to culti- 
vate'much greater unity and union than we have hitherto don 
aome distinct advantage in joining a confederation 

hitherto done, 

The Commercial Advantage! of Federation. BM 

be mutually an advantage to ourselves. (Hear.) Now, several of 
the speakers have blamed me a good deal on account of this import 
duty which I propose on wheat from foreign countries. It is a 
sort of red flag which I have held out, and the bull has tossod it a 
good deal ; but none of the gentlemen who have spoken against it 
have given mo any credit for the free-trade which is to como to us 
in return with our Colonies ; that is to say, none of these gentle- 
men have taken the trouble to say anything about the corollary to 
the proposition, namely, that our exports to our Colonies are to 
become gradually free of duty, and their exports to us also are to 
continue to bo free on this side. A stimulus would thus be given 
to our manufacturing industries all over the country which would 
revivify our whole system of trade. Now, that is a far more impor- 
tant part of the argument to England than a small differential duty 
that we might put on one or two articles whioh are now produced 
in excess of the demand of consuming countries. The world has 
set itself to produce food far faster than in all probability it can be 
consumed. Now, I am ready to admit with Mr. Stephen Bourne, 
wbo raised the objection, that if we put a duty on wheat we should 
produce industries in our Colonies which might afterwards suffer if 
we took it off again. But I say that if we confederate our Empire 
wo shall never take these duties off again. We shall maintain 
these small duties on every country but our own Colonies; and 
that is how we shall confederate oar Empire. We shall never 
have free-trade with the world. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Bourne seems 
to think we shall, and looks forward to it still. He has wonderful 
faith ; but I have lost my faith. I used to think we should have 
it one day, and that other nations would see it to their advantage 
to give it to us ; but the fact is now quite patent that other nations 
do not intend to alter. But as regards the prosperity of other 
nations compared with our own, I am afraid we prosper less than 
they do. (Hear, hear.) I believe (and this is the object which my 
piper tries to show) that we, with our Colonies, could form quite 
ae successful an Empire or Confederation as the United States have 
done, — perhaps even more successful. (Hear, hear.) I am per- 
fectly certain that the United States during the last ten years, and 
even since the Civil War, have progressed twice as fast as we have. 
ir, hear.) Mr. William Bright (who is the son of the Right 
Hon. John Bright, whom we must all respect) has spoken about 
wages having advanced so much in England, but they have ad- 
vanced far more in the United States, and far more in oar Colonies ; 
and thcreforo I do not see that Mr. Bright's argument has much to 
do with the success of free-trade, for our wage* ■w<a\i5A\*>Vs'*viv va. 

256 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

England if it were not for trades-unions and emigration. It is the 
high wages in Amorica and the Colonies that keep up our wages in 
England. It is the choice that every workman has either of emi- 
grating to an English-speaking country, or taking the wages offered 
at home, and this it is which keeps up wages, and to a certain ex- 
tent makes them advance with the wages abroad. Now, there has 
been a great deal said about creating a scarcity in the supply by 
taxing the American and Russian wheat ; but it must be re- 
membered that wheat has never yet declined in this country to the 
cost of production in America. Well, they must produce it as 
cheaply as our Colonies do, and that is all My proposals would 
give the grower in America equal terms. But we should gain ft 
further advantage by stimulating the increased growth of wheat in 
our Colonies in this way, in that we should hereafter never suffer 
from higli prices. If there is a great deal of wheat grown in 
the eastern as well as in the western hemisphere, we are safe 
of a supply from one source or the other. If one source 
failed, the other would succeed. Therefore the more you stim- 
ulate the growth of wheat in various countries with different 
climates, the more likely you are to be prevented from having 
high prices ; and I believe in the end that this advantage 
would more than neutralise any small advance on the low 
prices now current. Our present policy has a tendency to make 
us too dependent on one or two sources of supply. I believe that 
a very low price for wheat is a bad thing tor the country. I 
believe it is of immense necessity to keep up the home supply for 
political reasons. We might Be put to great straits if we did not 
keep up the home supply ; and if the price of wheat is allowed to 
go to such a low figure that it cannot be produced in this country, 
I think our position would be made extremely insecure. One 
gentleman said that the people had better go to the corn-producing 
Colonies and there eat the corn, instead of the corn being brought 
to them. I do not see how they can go there unless there is some- 
thing for them to do when they get there. They naturally prefer 
to go to the United States, where the conditions of agriculture are, 
for the reasons already explained, more profitable. That ve 
intelligent gentleman, the American ©onsul-GeneraL told me 
other day that since January lss in this year emigration to tba 
United States had been at the rate of 1,000,000 persons a ye 
and he put it very forcibly to me. He said : " Before the Civ 
War we knew what the money value of men was, because we so 
slaves, and the price of a black man was $1,000 to $1,500. We 
he said, " white men ought to be worth $2,000. Now, we import! 

The I -ial Advantages of Federation. 


• year, and what does that come to as increased wealth to 
the nation?" I said, "Two thousand million dollars a year;" 
and he added, »' That is the wealth we are accumulating in immi- 
gration alone every year.'' (Hear, hear.) Now, the plan I propose 
of encouraging the insreased production of wheat and meat in the 
Colonies would attract a vast amount of this emigration to them, 
and I ought to have said more in this paper about assisting emi- 
gration as a necessary part of Federation. I believe the American 
Consul ia quite right in his argument. I believe the result of a 
steady working man going to a Colony produces just so much ad- 
nal wealth to that Colony as his future prodnctive-power may 
be worth ; and if that wealth is produced in our own Empire, and 
Empire ■ nil confederated together with bonds too tight to be 
that it is enriching England at the same time that it is 
olxing the distant Colonies, and providing a splendid future for 
ail those among our surplus population who wish to remain British 
snhjects. With regard to contributions from our Colonies for*he 
fi»«-n of Imperial expenses, I did not enter into that, and I will 
leave it to higher authorities. Bnt I have always thought that the 
Colonies ought to assist us to some extent in the support of the 
vy. There is no doubt that all this extra commerce would want 
tooting, and therefore that ought to be considered by the 
<-£. I think that if beside this some extra advantage was 
given to Englishmen in the acquisition of land it would be about 
as much as we could expect. One gentleman said that the Feder- 
ation of the United States was nothing like the proposed Federation 
of rmr Colonies, because the American Union was not divided into 
separate States. But that is wrong. The United States are com- 
posed of different States under Governments of their own. They 
are, in fact, very much like our own Colonies would be if Federation 
were accomplished, except that they have not adopted tariffs as 
against one another. If the Australian States have jealousies 
themselves, let us simply invite them all to a commercial 
with the Mother-Country, and the intercolonial tariffs of 
Victoria and South Australia would in a very short time be 
ied. At the present time New South Wales has hardly any 
tariff at all ; India has none ; and I think the Colonies which have 
would soon find out that they were losing by them rather 
gaining. At sny rate, a gradual reduction towards the 
Mother-C'ouritiy would he the necessary terms of Federation. Mr. 
Bourne said that when corn rises other things also rise in price, 
l»ut iu this he is wrong. At the commencement of the century, 
for twenty years wheat stood at an average of 88s. per quarter. 

258 The Commercial Advantages of Federation. 

meat was much lower than it is now. He also complains that we 
should be bolstering up industries in our Colonies. Well, I must 
say I think bolstering up seems to pay. If all the world were free- 
traders I should be quite satisfied — perfectly so. (Hear, hear.) 
Then I think England and her Colonies would do as well aa any 
other nation — perhaps better. But, as the rest of the world refuses 
to see things with the same eyes that we do, I say it is our turn to 
bolster up, and I believe if we do not bolster up we shall have to 
bolster down. (Laughter.) With regard to Mr. Glover's remark* 
about my giving different tariffs for different parts of the world, 1 
did not intend to give the impression that he has so skilfully welded 
from my paper ; I simply wished to enunciate a prinoiple, and to leave 
it to wiser heads than mine to work it out Still I think Sir. 
Glover was not altogether out of order in drawing the deduction, 
seeing that I showed that the Canadians would have a very great 
advantage over Australia, which would be hardly fair ; and it 
might possibly be wisdom to give to Canada some advantages io 
the export of timber, and not quite the full advantage in the eiport 
of wheat, My chief reason for comparing the difference in freight! 
was to show that the United States and Russia were in a better 
position than all our Colonies. (Hear, hear.) I did not intend to 
make any differential scale as betweeu India and Australasia, and 
I do not think there should be any made. (Hear, hear.) But all 
these things would be settled by wiser heads than mine. And now 
a few words about the agricultural taxation of the United States, 
As compared with the taxation of other countries, the taxation in 
the Western States on agricultural laud does not amount to sir 
pence an acre. Our taxation in India, where the Government is 
more coBtly, iB 2s. per acre, while the burdenB of all sorts in 
England on land of equal quality amount to, I suppose, about 12a 
or 15s. per acre, independently of the rent. Is it not ridiculooa 
that in consequence of this one-sided free-trade we should be 
obliged to impose upon the agriculturists of this country a t»i 
thirty times as great as the Americans find it necessary to impose 
upon the agriculturists in their country. What is there in tb« 
English farmer's position to compensate him against such an 
inequality that such an amount of taxes imposes ? It is all in 
consequence of this one-sided free-trade. The fact is, you have 
no other way of raising your revenue. (Hear, hear.) H you bad 
some other way of raising taxes you might redeem the inequality; 
but now it is impossible. You will not find any other class of the 
community willing to adopt the direct charges that now fall on the 
agriculturist. We Bee deputation after deputation from various 

The Commercial Advantage* of Federation. 259 

home industries go to Mr. Gladstone, to ask him to reduce taxation 
on their particular industries, but he cannot. It is from no want 
of goodwill on bis part towards the agricultural interest that he is 
bound to refuse their just requests. It is simply because he has 
no other means of raising taxes. With these remarks I will not 
detain you longer, as the time is getting very late ; but if the time 
allowed I think I could go on for about two hours more. (Laughter.) 
I thank you much for your kind vote of thanks, and if I may 
be allowed I will now propose a vote of thanks to the Chair. 
A vote of thanks to the Chairman was carried by acclamation. 


The Sixth Ordinary General Meeting of the Session was held at 
the Grosvenor Gallery Library, New Bond-street, on Tuesday, 18th 
April, 1882. Owing to the absence of His Grace the Duke of Man- 
chester, K.P., Chairman of Council, the ohair was taken by Sir 
Henry Bajikly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Member of Council. 

Among those present were the following : — Sir George F. Bowen, 
G.C.M.G. (Governor of Mauritius), and Lady Bowen ; Sir Richard Temple, 
Bart.. G.C.S.I., C.I.E., Colonel R. W. Harley, C.B., C.M.G. (Governor of 
British Honduras), Colonel Sir Herbert B. Sandford, R.A. ; his Honour 
Chief Justice Ellis (Mauritius), Sir Charles E. F. Stirling. Bart., 
George H. Chambers, Major-General R. W. Lowry, C.B. ; Captain Lov 
Captain F. W. Seafield Grant (Dnko of Cornwall's Light Infantry), Mnjo 
R. H. Vetch, R.E. | Messrs. W. G. Lardner, A. Staveley Hill. Q.C.. HI 
-. Lesley Prohyn, and Henry H. S. Cunynghame (late Special Com- 
missioners to British Guiana), Sir John Coode, C.E.; Sir Robert R. 
Tnrnus, K. C.M.G.: Hon. William F. Littleton, C.M.G. ; Lady Hatherton, 
Hon. S. Constantino Burke, M.L.C. (Jamaica), the Rev. C. F. Stovin, Dr. 
John Roe, F.R.S. ; Colonel Stabh (Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry), 
Messrs. Hugh Jumieson, J. Tlimnikcr ITratnn (Sydney), Charles W. 
(Sydney), Joseph Macdnnald (New South Wales), Alex. Begg, Alex. Ms 
rosty, B. W. Silver, H. E. Montgomerie, G. W.Davidson, James! 
(Mauritius), J. D. Wood, ThomaB McKellar (Victoria). W. L. Me 
Lewis Tessier. W. H. Mare (Newfoundland), W. Agnew Pope, Hen 
Douglas, J. W. Hollway (Mauritius), J. W. Hollway, jun., Fredk. Green 
C. E. Fryer, G. Molineux, E. A. Wallace, Dr. Edwards (late Regist: 
General, Mauritius), Messrs. Haitian, Angt. Wood, R. A. Withe 
(Sydney), T. W. Irvine, Pascoe Caddy (Sydney), Charles Griffith. F. 
Freiher, John Young, Giffard RanBford, Alex. Brown, Miss V 
Major-General Cookworthy, Mr. Arthur J. Sinclair, the Rev. W. H. 
Hastings, Mrs. Corey Hohson, Mr. F. Hall, Miss Field, Miss Hall, Messrs. 
Henry J. Hall, G. H. Hall, Henry Goodliffe, W. Thomson, G. Clerihew, 
M.D. (Mauritius), A. C. Maepberson, C. G. Robson, Percy E. Jourdain. 
John White, Baily, Maurice, Dlcoq, John Colebrooke, Rev. W. H. Gilb 
Messrs. A. Shurpe.A. R. Cox, Miss Amy Cox, Messrs. J. H. Payne,' 
Martin Wood (late Bombay), W. P, Taylor (Simberley), Charles Bob 
Mrs. Fraser, Mrs. Ruybers, Mr. J. Bruce (Cape Colony), Mr. F. D. 
iCape Colony), the Hon. Dudley F. Fortescue, Mr. and Mrs. Fockuig 
(Cape Colony), Messrs. W. C. Argent (Mauritius), P. Darnell Dnns 
(Smnds), James Gilchrist (New South Wales), C. H. Beard (St. Kitte), 
W. H. Field (Montserrat), J. A. TJlcoq (Mauritius), W. Andrews (M»u 
tius), W. L. Shepherd (New Zealand), Dr. F. J. Mouat and Mrs. Moiul 

Sixth Ordinary General Meeting. 


Mr. nail Mrs. C. Pfoundes, Messrs. Claude II. Long, Andrew Stein (Cape 
Colony). Arthur Stein (Cape Colony), J. Howard Howard, A. G. brown- 
ing, Charles Stooke, M. Joly (Mauritius), N. Joly (Mauritius), Sir Du\ul 
Barclay, Bart.. Lady Barclay, Miss Halse, Messrs. John Jiritt, R.N. ; U. 
L. Atulot. W. Kidaon (Mauritius;, E. Clutterbuck, Albert Rutson, H. B. 
Hakwell, W. E. Gngsby, LL.D. ; It. J. Gray (Victoria), Joseph PuUiuson 
rictona). It. F. Carter (.Victoria), John Kidd (Canada), Francis W. Ren- 

Herraann Vow, Mr. and Mrs. Allan Campbell, Miss K. Bowen, the 

Bo wen, Mr. Earnest H. Gongh and Miss Gough, Messrs. A. \\ . 

G. G. Anderson, Edward Keep (New South Wulesi, F. J. 

C.M.G. (Cape Colony). Sheriff B. Hilton, D. C. Kennedy, Alex- 

Browu, J. Gilmer, H. Douglas, Morton Green (Natal), William i . 
Gillie*. B.N., C. 11. H. Moseley (West Africa), C. L. Payne (BritUi 
Guiana), Captain Charles Mills, C.M.G. (Cape Colony), Mr. F. Bui 
Mr. George Tinliue and Miss Tinhne (South Australia), Messrs. Alexander 
Bogen, W. Keswick, John Bate, A. Mackenzie Mackay (Victoria), N. E. 
Ltwu (Tasmania), J. Hughes (Ceylon), W. K. Thomson (Victoria), James 
Mitchell, Mr. George Moffat and Miss Moffat (Canada), Messrs. C. J. 
Cooper, F. P. LabUhere, J. W. P. Jauralde, A. L. MackeUar, R. G. C. 
Hamilton, H. C. McDonald, H. Clifford, Miss Herbert, Miss Lewis, Dr. 
L). Williams, and Mr. Frederick Young (Hon. Secretary). 

The Honobaby Skcretaky read the Minutes of the last Ordinary 
General Meeting, which were confirmed, and announced that 81 
oew Fellows had been elected since the last meeting, comprising 
&} Resident and 11 Nou-ltcsident Fellows. 

Beaident Fellows : — 

8. B. Boulton, Esq., Harold E. Boulton, Esq., B.A. ; George Clerihew, 
E«q., M.D. (late of Mauritius); Charles J. Cooper, Esq., W. Leedhaui 
Crowe, Esq., Henry Douglas, Esq., W. G. Elder, Esq., Maitland Gard- 
ner, Esq., J. F. Hayward, Esq., Frederick Levi, Esq., Arthur W. 
McDonell. Esq., M.D.; Malcolm L. McEacharn, Esq., Robert F. Mackay, 
Eeq., T. M. McLean, Esq., Percy J. Prankerd, Esq., J. Grafton Ross, 
E«M Esq., Edwin Stowe, Esq., M. H. Thomas, Esq., J. 

Sidney White, E6q. 

Kan-Reaident Fellows : — 

John Armstrong, Esq., E. H. H. Atkin, Esq. (Cyprus), C. R. Deare, 
Eaq. (Caps Colony). Hon. John Douglas, C.M.G. (Ceylon), Walter Higgin- 
•ou, Esq. (Gold Cuast), Nathaniel T. King, Esq., M.D. (Lagos), James 
Maedougall, Esq. (Melbourne), Joseph B. Mayers, Esq. (Demerara), G. 
B. Phillips, Esq. (West Australia), C. L. Williams, Esq. (Queensland), 
Jamas Young, Esq., M.L.A. (Bahamas). 

The following donations of books, &c, presented to the Institute 
since the hut meeting, were announced : — 

The Government of Canada : 

Parliamentary Reports and Papers, 1881-8*2. 


Sixth Ordinary General Meeting. 

The Government of Mauritius : 

Laws of Mauritius, 1722 to 1865. 9 Vols. 

Ordinances of Mauritius and Proclamations, 1866 to 1880 
24 Vols. 
The Government of Natal : 

Laws of Natal. 1 Vol., 1882. 

Natal Almanac and Directory, 1882. 
The Government of New South Wales : 

Parliamentary Debates, 1881. 
The Government of Queensland : 

Acts of Parliament, 1881. 
The Government of South Australia : 

Acts of Parliament, 1881 . 
The Government of Tasmania : 

Waloh's Tasmani&n Almanac, 1882. 
The Government of Viotoria. 

Parliamentary Debates. Vols. I. to XXXVI. 

Acts of Parliament. 3 Vols. 

Votes and Proceedings, 1852 to 1880. 88 Vols. 
The Government of Western Australia : 

The West Australian Almanac and Directory, 1882. 
The Colonial Office : 

Victorian Year Book, 1880-81. 

Canadian Parliamentary Papers (various). 

The West Australian Almanac and Directory, 1882. 

The Herald Western Australian Directory, 1882. 
The East India Association : 

The Journal of the Association. No. 1, Vol. XTV., II 
The Free Public Library, Plymouth : 

Fifth Annual Report, 1881. 
The Boyal Geographical Society : 

Proceedings of the Society. Vol. TV. No. 4, 1882. 
The Social Science Association : 

Transactions of the Association, Dublin, 1881. 

Sessional Proceedings, No. 5, VoL XV., 1882. 
The Victoria Institute : 

Journal of Transactions, 1 Vol., 1882. 
J. G. Bourinot, Esq. (Canada) : 

Canadian Monthly, February and March, 1882. 
Bev. John Bridger : 

Colonist's Hand Book, No. 1, Canada. 
W. H. Campbell, Esq., LL.D. (British Guiana) : 

The British Guiana Directory, 1882. 
Sir William Fox, K.C.M.G : 

New Zealand Thermal Springs Districts, 1882. 
Dr. Grieve (Berbice) : 

The Asylum Journal, Nos. 12 and 13, 1882. 



(tun. Harrison and Sons : 

An Answer to Mr. T. H. Farrar and the Cobdeu Chili. 
Professor A. Liveraidge (New South Wales) : 

List of Scientific Papers and Report*. 
J. Stuart Reid, Esq. (New Zealand) : 

Bradshaw's Guide to New Zealand. 
George Robertson, Esq. (Melbourne) : 

The Melbourne Review, January, 1883. 
Lieut. -Colonel William White (Canada) : 

Report on the Exploration of the Country between Lake 
Superior and the Red River Settlement, 1858. 

Report on the Sherhrooke Gold District. 1870. 

Canadian Blue-Books, \hh->. 
Tin' f hurm is then called upon Mr. Hjcmky J. Jourdain to read 
the paper for the evening, entitled — 


Sultn cl>iri.<«iu,' maris »'«•/. 

Happily, the British Colonies, and Mauritius amongst them, are, in 
the present day, much better known than was the case some few 
yean back, and doubtless all present this evening are aware of 
the geographical position of the Colony which is the subject of the 
paper I am privileged to read to you. At the same time it is not 
so very long ago that, returning from Mauritius, I witnessed in 
Paris a dispute, which threatened to become serious, between two 
gentlemen, apparently fellow travellers and friends, solely arising 
from the fact that the one as steadfastly maintained as the other 
energetically denied, that Mauritius was in the West Indies. 
Assuring them that I was homeward bound from that Colony, rid 
Aden and Egypt, I offered to decide the point at issue between 
them, and was laughed at for my pains, so incredulous were they 
both, that I could possibly have selected the Red Sea route as the 
shortest and quickest from Mauritius to Europe. Explanations 
followed, and reluctantly they admitted that I ought to know 
where I was coming from ; and I discovered it was because 
Mauritius was a sugar-producing Colony that the idea had originated 
that it was situate in the West Indies. This fallacy I have since 
found to exist in the minds of many, in other respects, well- 
informed persons. 

You, of course, know better, but will not mind my opening my 
paper with the statement that Mauritius is a htnall island in the 
Indian Ocean, situate just within the tropics, riz., in 20° to 20° 88' 
South latitude, and 57° 17' to 57 J iff East longitude. U w. *W.v 

Mauritius t 

<. qui -distant from the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon, say 2.2i»0 
miles, about 12u miles from the French Colony of Reunion, 5iA) 
mill's East of Madagascar, and about 2,400 miles from Aden. In 
form the island is elliptical, measuring about 86 miles in length, 
and in breadth about 28 miles. The superficial area is taken as 
4.12,080 acres, say 700 square miles. The coast hue is about 180 
miles. The appearauce of the Island from the sea varies accord- 
as one approaches from the north-east, passing the adjacent 
ihk'tH known as Round Island, Flat Island, and the Gunners 0,iin u, 
or from the south-west, when the high, rocky coast of Capo 
Urabant and the Morue is the tirst laud seen ; but iu either cose, 
owing to the coral reefs which, with slight intervals, surround the 
Island, the inward-bound vessel must on its way to Port Louis, 
only practicable harbour for vessels, keep off the coast sufficiently 
to give the visitor to the Island a pleasurable foretaste of 
picturesque scenery which awaits him. From whatever quarUr 
Mauritius be approached the aspect is exceedingly romantic and 
picturesque, and, arriving by the mail steamer, one cannot fail to 
be struck by the bold and grand outlines of the lofty mount.. . 
with their v.u peculiarly formed summits, as, suooesaiv. I\ . 

the "Trois Mamclles," " Corps de Garde," " Pieterboth," and the 
" Pouce " mountains arrest attention, whilst the intervening 
spaces, covered with the verdure of sugar-cane plantations, testify 
to the fertihty of the soil In recent years, unhappily, owing to 
drought and exhaustion of the soil, the seaboard has ceased to 
present the fertile appearance of former years, but this is com- 
pensated by the view one obtains of the plains of the higher table 
UmU forming the still flourishing districts of Plainos Wilheuus, 
Vacoos, and Moka, whilst further round the coast, to the south-east, 
are the will-favoured districts of Savaune and Grand Port. 

Some doubt and diversity of opinion exist as to the precise date 
when the Island, now known as Mauritius, was first discovered ; 
but. whiUt authorities differ as to whether the tirnl lauding was 
effected in 1505-1507 or 1.345, all agree that the first discov. 
was Don Pedro Mascorenhas, when exploring the Indian 0a 
under orders of Almeida, then Governor-General of Poi 
settlements in India, and the exactitude of this stateuieu: 
supported by the fact that, in early history, Mauritius with the 
m%'libouriiig islands forms the group known as " lies Masosxeignes," 
of which Mauritius was designated Beyond placing live 

stock on the Island to serve in ease of need if revisiting a. 
the Portuguese do not appear to h» my advantage 

Pedro's discovery, and when, in 1680, the Isluud, with olhur 



Portuguese possessions, passed under the nominal sovereignty of 
Philip IL of Spain, it continued to be entirely neglected. 

But a better fate was near at hand. In May, 1598, a squadron of 
eight Teasels, under the command of the Dutch Admiral Van Neck, 
from the Texel, for the Dutch possessions in the East. After 
IB the Cupe of Good Hope the squadron encounter' 1 a 

ivy gale, and the vessel commanded by the Vice-Admiral Van 
I'arwiok, separated from the rest of the squadron, happily sighted 
Cerne. On lauding a boat's crew, no trace of inhabitants could bo 
found, and the Vice-Admiral Van Warwick, on 17th September, 
15i>W, took possession of the Island, naming it " Mauritius," not 
only in honour of Count Maurice of Nassau, the then Stadtholder 
of Holland, but out of respect to his superior officer, Admiral Van 
Neck, whose Uag-ship was named the Mnuritiiu. 

I may, perhaps, be here allowed to call attention to an error very 
commonly made. When speaking of the Colony we are now con- 
sidering, many speak of " thr Mauritius," and I am constantly asked 
by well-informed persons, " You know the Mauritius, do you not ?" 
Now they might as well say you know the St. Kitts, or you know 
Ik* Trinidad, or the St. Helena. Van Warwick named the Island 
• 4 Mauritius," and as Mauritius it should be known. I can find no 
reasonable excuse for the introduction of the definite article belore 
tin- name. 

The Dutch appear to have but little utilised their new pos- 
session, and beyond the fact that it was used as a place at which 
their eastward-bound vessels called for live stock and water, and 
that possession as a penal settlement for state criminals from 
Batsvia, under a so-called Governor, was maintained, bat little 
is recorded of the history of Mauritius until 1712, at which date 
the Dutch withdrew to their settlements in South Africa. 

Meanwhile the French had been in possession, since 1(364, of tho 

neighbouring island of Bourbon, and finding Mauritius abaudoned, 

in 1715, M. Dufrene, commander of the French sloop of war 

year, took possession of Mauritius, and renamed it 

lie de France ; " but it was only about six years later thai 
permanent settlement was established, when the Island was 
to the French Fast India Company, in whose possession 
continued until 1767. at which date it reverted to the 
Crown of France. Time will not permit of my referring, in further 
detail, to (lie interesting period when, more especially under the able 
administration of Mahe do la Labourdonnais, the foundation was 
laid for the future prosperity of the Island. During the eleven 
years, 17U S to 1746, that he was Governor of the Island, the culture 



of the sugar-cane was introduced, also cotton and indigo, which two 
last were, however, subsequently abandoned. Any attempt to pass 
in review the noble efforts of this distinguished man on behalf of 
the island he was called upon to govern would far exceed the limits 
of this brief summary ; suffice it to say, that to this day his memory 
is worthily held in the highest regard and esteem by the inhabitants 
of Mauritius. On every side still exist proofs of bis solicitude and 
foresight for the future welfare of the Island, and in 1859, during 
the administration of Sir William Stevenson, a handsome bronze 
statue to his memory was erected, facing the usual landing-place. 
This position was happily selected, for, as one writer on Mauritius 
observes, " it is the first object that greets the eye as you step on 
shore, and it does not need much stretch of imagination to fancy he 
is welcoming the stranger to the shores for which he spent so many 
years of untiring devotion." 

The name of another of the French Governors is likewise held 
in great respect by all Mauritians, that of General Malartic, who 
governed the Island during the troublous period 1798 — 1800, and 
by his energetic conduct saved it from the ruin with which it was 
menaced, owing to the influence over the inhabitants obtained by 
the agents of the Jacobins and Revolutionists in France. Malartic 
died suddenly in 1800, and a monument to his memory in a con- 
spicuous position in the town of Port Louis was completed in 1847 
during the administration of Sir William Gomm, the necessary 
funds having been mainly collected by Lady Gomm by means of » 
fancy fair. 

Both these monuments remain, tributes of British subjects to 
the memory of able administrators of the Island before it became 
a British Colony. 

In 1743 an attempt to take possession of the Island was made 
by the English under Admiral Boscawen, who, finding the forces at 
his command inadequate, abandoned the design. No further serious 
attempt appears to have been made until in 1810, when, owing to 
the continued interference to British trade with the East by 
cruisers whose head-quarters were the harbours of the lie de France, 
it was determined by the Indian Government, already in possession 
of Bourbon and Rodrigues, to effect the conquest of the He de 
France, for which purpose was despatched a military force com- 
prising 15,000 men, supported by a fleet consisting of 27 ships of 
war, besides 50 East Indiamen and transports. After much severe 
fighting both at sea and on land, the details of which I have not 
time here to record, and during which many serious reverses were 
met with by the attacking force, the French Governor and Com- 



mander-in- Chief, General Decaen, was compelled to propose terms 
of eapitulation to the British General Abecrombie, and finally, on 
8rd December, 1810, the Island was surrendered to the British forces. 

At the peace of 1814 the acquisition by England of the lie de 
France and Kodrigues was ratified, whilst Bourbon was restored to 
the French. 

Shortly after the capitulation the name of the Island was again 
changed to Mauritius, under which it has since been known as a 
Crown Colony of the British Empire. 

By the terms of the capitulation it was stipulated that the in- 
habitants were to be permitted to preserve their laws, religion, and 
institutions. These conditions have been so far adhered to that 
the existing laws are based on the Code Napoleon, and Government 
support is continued to the Roman Catholic Church equally with 
that afforded to the Establishments of the Church of England. 
Modifications in the laws have, however, from time to time been 
introduced by rules of court and local ordinances to such an extent 
thai beyond the fact that in theory the principles of the Code 
Napoleon are maintained, Mauritius may almost be said to possess 
a eodo of laws of its own, difficult to administer, and still more 
difficult to be satisfactorily understood by the uninitiated world at 

Montgomery Martin, writing in 1885 on Mauritius, pointed out 
that, notwithstanding the terms of the capitulation, no Colonial 
Assembly had been established, which, previous to its capture by the 
British forces, had been one of the institutions of the Island, and he 
added : " I trust the day is not far distant when a Colonial Assembly, 
chosen by the property and intelligence of the inhabitants, will 
give a renewed and permanent stimulus to the prosperity of the 

This has not, however, boon the case, and Mauritius continues 
to be governed as a " Crown Colony," under the control of the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Governor and Council, 
the latter composed of eight official and eight unofficial members, 
are named by the Imperial Government ; the latter, it is true, are 
selected by the Governor, subject to the Queen's approval, but 
however judiciously selected they be, they do not possess that 
representative character which their nomination by the inhabitants 
would confer. 

I venture to hope that at some early date the status and mode of 
dealing with the Crown Colonies of the Empire may be brought 
before the Institute by someone more able than myself to deal 
with the question in all its bearings, and, consequently, it is not my 



intention in the present paper to deal with the subject further than 
to say that the system, though possibly well devised, has tunny 
defects and drawbacks, which, as far as Mauritius is concerned, are 
prejudicial to the best interests of the Colony, and absolutely at 
variance with the spirit of the age. A form of Govemmeni 
advisable and possibly necessary at the time of the capita 
when an alien race became subject to the Crown of England, might 
be at least considerably modified in the present day, when, after a 
lapse of upwards of seventy years, the inhabitants have proved 
themselves entitled to rank amongst the most loyal of our Soverei 
subjects. I may here mention that only yesterday the mail 
Mauritius brought advices that the news of the recent dastardly 
attempt on our beloved Sovereign's life having reached the I 
by a chauce steamer from Natal, a public meeting was at om 
convened by the Mayor of Port Louis in the theatre, at which a 
resolution was with acclamation passed that the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor be requested to transmit by cable via Aden to the Secretary of 
State, the respectful but hearty congratulations of the Mauritians 
Her Majesty on her Providential escape. It will hardly be i 
in England that even for a meeting with this loyal and lauda 
purpose in view, it was necessary for the Mayor first to obtain the 
permission for its being held, 

I do not for one moment fail to admit that, owing to the hetero- 
geneous character of the population, there are difficulties in the way 
of adopting a form of representative or responsible government ; 
but these are not insurmountable, and, at any rate, the presi 
system might be considerably relaxed without detriment to 
Crown but with advantage to the Colony. 

To appreciate the present system it must be understood that t 
unofficial members of the Council of Government have but liti 
initiatory power ; they may, it is true, ask questions and even p 
pose ordinances, provided always that no proposition be made 
an unofficial member of the Council which shall in any way 
the finances of the Colony. In this manner discussion may 
place on a measure proposed by the Governor of his own initmti 
or under orders from Downing-street, but discussion ofttitnes, as 
as the views entertained by the quasi representatives of the uiha' 
tants are concerned, leads to no practical result. The casting 
of the Governor, supported by the compulsory votes of the offi 
members can, on any point arising, neutralise the votes of 
whole body of unofficial members ; and thus, as I have myself 
ordinances may be passed by an amiable fiction " by and with 
consent of the Council of Government," which would be utter 








condemned if left to the free appreciation of the whole Council. 
With such a system as we are now considering mnch, indeed every- 
thing, depends on the ability and goodwill of the Governor for the 
time being. In this respect Mauritians have, in almost every 
instance, had reason to congratulate themselves on the happy 
•election of the gentlemen who have been entrusted with the admin- 
istration of the government of the Colony — gentlemen who had 
already in other distinguished positions given proof of ability, dis- 
interestedness, and an earnest desire for the welfare of those over 
whom they were called upon to rule. In the distant past we 
have such men as Sir Lowry Cole, Sir Charles Colville, 
James Higginson, and Sir William Stevenson, and in 
years Sir Henry Barkly, whose administration will 
be gratefully remembered in Mauritius. It was during 
the period of his government that the direst calamity befell the 
Colony, of which we shall speak later; of him it may be truly said 
that he had the welfare of the colonists at heart. His Excellency 
ilenry Barkly's stay in the Colony extended without intermis- 
i from 1868 to 1870, and throughout the fearful epidemic of 
1806-7 be strove energetically for the alleviation of distress and 
the furtherance of remedial measures for the future welfare of the 
Colony. Recognising the hearty goodwill as well as sound sense 
and loyalty of the inhabitants, His Excellency Sir Henry Barkly 
did not hesitate during his administration to increase to twelve the 
number of unofficial members of Council, thus placing the officials 
in a numerical minority ; permit me to say no danger ensued, but 
the number has since been again reduced to eight. It was during 
the laat few weeks of Sir Henry Barkly's administration that 
Mauritius was honoured by a visit from His Royal Highness the 
Puke of Edinburgh, who received a most loyal and hearty 
—loam a 
The Colony has now the privilege to have as Governor His 
Sir George Bowen, who is bo well known that yon will 
be surprised to learn that he enjoys the hearty esteem and 
regard of the colonists. 

Beeerving for some future occasion further consideration of the 
political aspect of the Colony, I pass on to give some few details as 
mate, population, and commerce. 
Before doing so, however, one word should be said with regard 
to the importance, in a military point of view, of Mam 
Situate midway between the British possessions in India and South 
Africa, the position of Mauritius with its harbour has always 
rendered it of great importance to its possessors, giving them to a 



certain extent command oyer the Indian Ocean. With it France 
for a considerable time maintained her footing in these parts, and 
was enabled to do infinite mischief to the commerce with India of 
other nations. Three fine dry docks, varying in length from 800 feet 
to 968 feet, in which vessels can be promptly and well repaired, have 
in later years further increased the advantages which the island 
offers as a naval station. The garrison of Mauritius has in past 
years proved of great service, far beyond the limits of the little 
Island. At the outbreak of the first Kaffir war troops sent down 
from Mauritius were the first reinforcements to reach the country. 
Again, when the Mutiny broke out in India, it was from 
Mauritius that assistance first arrived, the Governor having, with 
praiseworthy alacrity, despatched that regiment which so shortly 
afterwards distinguished itself at Delhi — the 5th Northumberland 

In former years the garrison amounted to nearly 8,000 men, but 
in 1868 the Imperial Government determined that the Colony 
should pay a fixed rate per head for the troops stationed in the 
Island, instead of the lump sum of £45,000, which it formerly con- 
tributed ; and the Council did not consider the finances of the 
Colony warranted a higher vote than £25,000, which amount would 
suffice for the number of men the Colony actually required, 
provided as it is with a well-organised police force, until 
recently under the able command of Colonel O'Brien, C.M.G , 
the present Governor of Heligoland. Hence a large re- 
duction in the garrison was effected, and of late years it 
hardly numbers 400 men of all arms, sufficient it may be for 
Colonial interests, but it iB a question whether it would not be of 
advantage to Imperial interests to avail of the excellent position of 
the Island and utilise it as a depot, where, in case of need, troops 
would be near at hand for service either in India or Soath Africa. 
It will be remembered that when disaster befell our forces in Zulu- 
land, an urgent appeal was sent to the Governor of Mauritius for 
troops, but only 100 men could be spared. Had the garrison been 
maintained at its former strength, 2,500 men might have been sent 
at considerably less expense, and, what is still more important in 
times of war, with considerably less delay than was incurred in 
sending troops from England. 

One of the greatest of French statesmen has written of Mauritius 
as the Malta of the Indian Ocean ; and there can be no doubt that 
its position renders it a very valuable Btation both as a naval and 
military dep6t ; in fact, as the Colonial motto implies, not only the 
star but the key of the Indian Ocean. 


itiufl, though within the tropics, enjoys on the whole a very 
late. There are in reality but two seasons, the cool season 
from May to November, and the summer or hot season, November 
to May. The hot season is likewise the wet season, and although 
rain falls occasionally throughout the year, it is in January, 
February, and March that the heaviest downpours are looked for. 

Tho temperature varies considerably, according to whether the 
readings of the thermometer be taken in the town or in higher dis- 
trict*. In Port Louis the annual mean temperature for a series of 
year* varies from a maximum mean of 84 to a minimum mean of 
70 degree* in the shade, with a maximum reading of 91 and a 
urn of 61, whilst in the higher districts, where the principal 
private residences are situate, the temperature is lower, varying, 
according to altitude, to the extent of 8 to 10 degrees below that of 
the town. 

The hurricane season extends from about the middle of December 
to the middle of April. When the cyolones do not approach too 
near the Island their passage is beneficial, owing to the copious 
rains by which they are accompanied ; when, on the other hand, the 
centre of the storm approaches closely, or, as is sometimes the case, 
over the Island, the consequences are disastrous. The 
serious in recent years was that which visited the Island in 
h, 1868, the effect of which was to reduce to 90,000 tons 
crop which a few days previously waa fairly estimated at 
.<mn> tons. 

The damage to the railway and government buildings alone 
MOetsitated the raising of a loan of £100,000. Somo idea of the 
violence of the storm may be gathered from the mention of the 
fact that of the iron railway bridge across Grand River, a portion, 
measuring 252 feet and weighing no less than 220 tons, was uplifted 
by the wind, and fell to the bottom of the ravine. 

Mauritius has from time to time suffered from epidemic diseases 
to an alarming extent ; thus in 1819, 1854, and 1862 the cholera 
caused great ravages, but even these were as nothing compared 
with the fearful mortality in 1866-1867 from fever of a paludal or 
malaria] type. I have not time nor space here to refer to the origin 
or character of the fever, but must content myself with a record of 
Ha affects, which, as an eye-witness of the sad havoc I do with 
mournful recollections. 

The mortality in 1867 amounted to 40,464 out of a population 
numbering about 860,000, or. Bay, 111 per 1.U00; but even these 
figures give but an imperfect idea of the sad state of things, for it 
must be remembered that some districts of the Island in part 



escaped. In the town of Port Louis, with 80,000 inhabitants, the 
is in 18(i7 amounted to 21,297, being more than one-fourth of 
the population. 

The sanitary authorities and relief societies, surprised by the 
immensity of this public calamity, against which from the fit - 
had not the necessary means to struggle, were quite unable to 
succonr all the distressed. To make matters worse the Bupply of 
quinine in the Colony was quickly exhausted ; at one period the 
small quantities remaining fetched the enormous price of four 
shillings per grain, being thus obtainable only by the favoured few, 
who eagerly competed with each other for its purchase. Were it 
not that I was an honorary member of the Board, I might here in 
justice refer at length to the untiring devotion with which th* 
members, both official and unofficial, of the General Board of 
He !il th struggled to perform with advantage to the Colony the 
onerouB duties which this sad calamity imposed upon them. 

For several years fever continued to carry off its victims by 
thousand, but may now be said to have died out ; and during 
past ten years the average annual mortality in the Island has n 
exceeded 28'fiO per thousand. 

The population, notwithstanding the heavy mortality above 
alluded to, has gone on increasing, which fact, however, is shown, 
on reference to the statistics, to be mainly due to the large increase 
in the female Indiana wisely introduced. 




( :. tural Population 104,844 

Indian 66,245 









161,089 183,506 313,462 317,069 369.S74 

It is, however, worthy of remark that the number shown by the 
census return of last year, though considerably in excess of tbe 
previous return, does not exceed the estimated population at the 
outbreak of the fever epidemic, which was 860,878. As above 
stated, a distinctive feature to be noticed is the large increase 
has been effected in the female portion of the Indian population, 
the returns showing — 


Male 141,i;i5 

Female 51,019 


Ml ,R54 


1!)'2,634 216,306 248,993 

I have been xmable, from the census returns of 1881, to distil) 



gniah between Indians and Indo- Mauritians (born in the Colony), 
but tin- return for 1871 was — 

Indian* 166,416 

Creole Indiana 00,891 

Total 2 16,300 

Here let me remark tbat tbe term " Creole " as applied to a 
ritiau simply indicates a person born in tbo Colony, and in no 
way implies, as would appear to be pretty generally supposed, a 
person belonging to tbe coloured races. Tbus we find English 
Creoles, French Creoles, the children of European parents, the 
term " Creole," as I have said, implying simply " born in the 
Colony." Amongst the French Creoles are found direct descend- 
ants from some of the oldest and noblest families of France, whilst 
among the more modern or coloured rucos are to be found men 
who, by their ability and industry, have rendered themselves 
eminent and taken conspicuous places in the annals of the Colony, 
tbe memory of whom will long outlive the present possessors of 
their name. As mentioned in the previous part of this paper tbe 
population is of a very heterogeneous character, comprising, in fact, 
representatives of nearly every people under the sun. The number 
of the French inhabitants is returned as 2,870. The Chinese 
number 8,558. 

juestion of Coolie immigration to Mauritius bas given rise 
to so much heartburning and angry discussion, both in and out of 
the Colony, that I do not on the present occasion purpose going at 
any length into the merits of the case, but will content myself 
with a few data which will, I believe, servo to prove tbat tlio 
Indian Coolie labourer is not, in Mauritius, tbe neglected M 
that some would fain try and prove him to be. From a Government 
Return in my possession, I find tbat in tbe year 1874 a sum of 
£119,892 19s. 7d., exclusive of interest, was on deposit at the 
Gorernment Savings Bank in the names of tbe Indian population. 
Tbe amount actually paid into the Dank tbat year amounted to 
£51,646 9s. 8d., whilst the sum of money declared as taken out of 
the Colony by return-immigrants, in that year alone, amounted to 
£65,495 Cs. 

To meet another erroneous idea, which I find prevalent, to tbe 
•fleet tbat the Indian Coolie labourer is bound down for a long 
term of servitude, I would mention tbat of tbe G3,187 Indians 
who entered into contracts of service in tbe year 1874, 58,092 wcro 
angagL'd for a term of not more than one year, whilst another 
notable fact is, tbat of these 68,137, no less than 40,214 re-engaged 




themselves to the same employers, -which they would hardly have 
done had their previous treatment not been satisfactory. A great 
deal has been said and written on the subject of the treatment in 
Mauritius of the labourer ; but facts arc far more forcible than 
opinions, which are but ofttimes the ebullition of theoretical rather 
than practical philanthropy. It is officially recorded that whereas 
the mortality during the lever epidemic of 18G7 amongst the 
Indians not employed on sugar estates amounted to 129 per 1,000, 
that amongst the engaged labourers was but little more than half, 
67 pet 1,000, 

As already mentioned, a large Indo-Mauritiau population is now 
arising, and the Colony may, I believe, be said to be virtually inde- 
pendent of fresh introductions from India's surplus population. A 
Governmental return for 1880 shows tliut on the 80th June of that 
year the Indian labourers on estates comprised 1 1, iMS Maui n 
born, allowing an increase of 1,210 on the previous half-yearly 

The arrivals of immigrants during the five years 187G-1890 is 
exceeded by the departures, arrivals amounting to 11, lit 
departures to 12,940. In 1880 but 871 men and 213 women were 
introduced, whilst 1,781 men and fill women left the colony. 

French may still be said to be the prevailing Language in even- 
day life, but English is far more extensively spoken and understood 
than was the case twenty years ago. The lower orders generally 
speak B natois of which French is the basis, a knowledge of which 
is very quickly acquired by the Indian population. In b 
patois, or " Creole language," as it is called, fonns almost exclusively 
the means of communication between the upper and lower classes. 

Besides many private educational institutions, both male and 
female, there existed, in IhnO, 89 Government schools and 59 

led schools, giving together an average attendance of 6,57'J. 

The chief educational establishment is the Royal College, with i 
adjuncts, the Royal College Schools in Port Louis and at Ciuejiiix- 
The pupils in attendance in 1880 numbered 440. In addition w 
bursarships, entitling the holder to gratuitous education at the. 
College, the two senior pupils are annually sent to England with 19 
allowance of £200 a year for three years to complete their educ* 
tion ; they further receive free passages to and from England, 
wisdom of tliis system is exemplified by the many youths who ret 
to the Colony, and occupy distinguished positions in the Ic; 
medical, and other professions. 

Mauritius possesses very many other public institutions of 
merit and value. Of these I may mention the Royal Alfre<i 







under tho skilful direction of Dr. Me Id nun, whose ablo 
jure on behalf of Meteorological Science are known and appro- 
far beyond tho little Island. It was established originally in 
in the town of Port Louis, but the position was recognised to 
be unsuitable, and in 1870 U.K. II. the Duke of Edinburgh honoured 
Meteorological Society of Mauritius by consenting to become its 
and laid the foundation-stone of the present building, known 
the Royal Alfred Observatory. 

uer learned and useful societies are the Royal Society of kttt 

-, Acclimatisation Society, Society d'Emulatiou Intel- 

, to which might be added a long list of charitablo and 

< r institutions, such as the Stevenson Asylum, being a reforma- 

for boys ; the Barkly Asylum, for the aged poor ; the Sailors' 

It, the Protestant Benevolent Institution and Orphan Home for 

and girls, and also many conventual and otln -r charitable 

>n* well supported and ably conducted by the Roman 

alio community. 

need as in this respect the Colony may be said to be, it is 
ly behind the ago in its means of communication with other 
1 tries, having no cable connection, and a mail but once a 
ith. I believe I am correct in stating that Mauritius, though a 
• n Colony, is almost the only ono of the Colonies of Great 
iin which has never received any Imperial assistance whatever 

itself with postal communication, 
"ntil 1852 Mauritius was entirely dependent on sailing vessels 
ice steamers for the conveyance of postal matter to and 

In that year the question of steam communication 
villi Europe attracted public attention. The sum of £12.000 per 
annum for five years having been voted by the Council of Govern 
meul towards this object, an arrangement was entered into with the 
General 8crew Steam Shipping Company for their st earners to call 
ai Mauritius on their way to and from India. This arrangement, 
however, came to an end in 1854. Tho next attempt to iMttt 
regular steam communication with Europe was in 1856, when the. 
nuti llui<iin*tm steamer, built expressly for the purpose, was on 
i December despatched to Aden with the mails for Europe. 
some years subsequently the service was carried on under the 
of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, by special 
lere to and from Aden in conjunction with their main lino, when 
1869 an improvement was effected, Mauritius hting includ. 
contract for a postal service by steamers of the above-mentioned 
company between England and Australia, rie* Mauritius. 

Thie line was, however, abandoned in the following year, and tho 



service between Mauritius and Aden resumed by special steamers, at 
a cost to the Colony of £36.000 per annum. 

In 1864, the Messageries Maritinies of France established 
mail service from Suez to Reunion ami Mauritius, giving the 
Colony gratuitously a bi-monthly communication with Europe. The 
Peninsular and Oriental Company made application to the effect 
that in view of the loss to their company of the subsidy hitherto 
received from the French colony of Reunion, the subsidy payab 
by Mauritius should be by so much increased and fixed at 1'4'J.u 
per unnum. This was steadily refused by the Colony, and anotli 
appeal was made to the Imperial Government to assist the Colon 
by a grant towards its mail services. As before, the appeal was not 
complied with, but a continuation of the service by the Peninsular a; 
Oriental Company was arranged for on the old terms. In 1SH 
Union Steamship Company opened a line from Natal to Mauritius, 
to which a subsidy was voted of £3,000 per annum. 

In this year the Peuinsular and Oriental Company availed them 
selves of the clause in their contract with theColonyto give not 
their service would cease in June, 1866, hlUiing their decision to tl 
effect on the 109s entailed on them by the competition of the French 
lino of steamers. 

The Council of Government then decided to invite tenders for a 
postal servcie via Ceylon, which would expedite communication with 
India and Australia, whilst rapid and regular communication wi 
Europe was assured km Aden by the " Mossageries Maritim 

A contract for the service to and from Galle was made with the 
Union Company for the siun of £24,000 per annum ; and an amount 
of £4,000 per annum was voted to the French company for their 
line to Aden. For a time these services were both worked 
regularity, but in the early part of 1868 the Colony, owi; 
enormous falling off in revenue consequent on the fever epide 
iind the simultaneous increase of expenditure for sanitary and oth 
works, was compelled to offer to the Union Company a sum 
£7,500 to put an end to the contract, and to discontinue the servi 
to the Cape Colonies. 

Thus the Colony became in 1868 solely dependent on r 
vices of the Messageries Maritimes for its regular communicatio: 
with Europe, and it is but justice to state that the mail service 
and from Aden has, from that date to the present time-, b e en 
formed by that company with exemplary regularity and pun 
at an expense to the Colony of but £4,000, recently reduced 
Rs. 40,000 per annum. It is said that before the end of the preseu 
year the postal service performed by the steamers of this compoir 


















mil be prolonged to Australia, wliich will bo a great boon to 
Mauritius, the sole communication with the Australian markets 
being by chance sailing vessels or the roundabout route ciu Aden. 

Mauritius is at tbe present day the only important Colony of the 
British Empire deprived of the advantage of telegraphic communi- 
cation with other countries. 

The nearest telegraph stations are Durban (Natal) and Aden. 
Efforts have from time to time been made to assist in the establish- 
ment of cable connection with these points. In 1878, deluded by 
the low terms proposed, the Colony entered into a contract to this 
effect with Hooper's Company, which was, however, never carried 
oat The sum of Rs. 100,000 per annum was voted by tbe Colony 
as a subsidy to any company willing to undertake the work, but 
this amount does not suffice ; meanwhile the Colony cannot afford 
to pay more, and the Home authorities, as in the case of the postal 
services, turn a deaf ear to every appeal for Imperial assistance in 
the matter. The original scheme submitted by the Telegraph Con- 
struction and Maintenance Company comprised a connection with 
Mauritius, but tbe Imperial Government, whilst assisting with a 
subsidy for the Aden and Natal cable, declined to give any assist- 
ance whatever to establishing communication with Mauritius. 

So much for communication with the exterior ; I will now say 
one word on tbe means of mtaratl communication. 

Inland is remarkable for tbe excellence of its main and 
branch roads, which traverse tbe Island in every sense. Nearly all 
are macadamised, and kept in order under Governmental super- 
vision. There is an abundant supply of suitable stone in the land 
bordering almost every road, and, by law, proprietors are obliged to 
permit the removal from their properties of such stone as may be 
required for the necessary repairs. The establishment of railways 
las considerably changed the character of the inland traffic of thu 
Island. In 1855, owing to the increase in the population, and in the 
produce of the Island, the subject of the construction of a railway 
engaged attention, and the consideration by the Secretary of State 
of the subject was invited by a distinguished colonist, Dr. Ulcoq, 
then in England. In 1858, competent engineers, under Mr. Long- 
ridge, were sent out to the Colony, and on their favourable report 
the undertaking was determined upon as a Government measure, 
•nd the contract for its construction given to Messrs. Brassey and 
In 1804 the North line was opened, and in the following year 
the main or Midland line. 

The North line is 81 miles in length, comprising 8} miles of 
catting end 26 miles of embankment, with 14 bridges, varying from 



25 to 80 feet in span. The highest level attained is 829 feet abovi 
the sea, and the maximum gradient is 1 in 80 feet. 

The Midland lino traverses the centre of the Island, and attains 
at the highest point an elevation of 1,882 feet above the sea. The 
total length is 85 miles. The gradients on this line are of p 
BteepneBS, 1 in 27 occurring repeatedly. The total cost of the 
two lines was £21,876 per mile. 

In recent years two branch lines have been added ; thus all the 
principal districts are brought into direct communication by rail 
with the harbour of Port Louis. The benefit the railway has con- 
ferred on the Colony will be more fully understood when it is borne 
in mind that everything exported must be brought to Port Louis, 
and in like manner all imported goods arrive there. 

Whilst the railway was in course of construction some few vesse 
laden with rails, sleepers, and other materials were discharged at 
the old Port of Grand Port on the South-east coast to economise 
expense of land transit, but for all commercial operations the 
harbour of Port Louis is alone available. 

With the exception of sugar, a very small quantity of rice 
vegetables, and fruits, the Colony raises scarcely anything requin 
for its own consumption, but exports its whole production, wliiL 
food and all the necessaries of life are imported. The import trade 
is carried on with almost all the countries in the world. From tin 
United Kingdom is received the bulk of the cotton manufactures 
imported together with machinery, agricultural implements, am 
necessaries of every description. 

India supplies rice (the consumption of which is estimated at 
about 75,000 bags per mouth) and gram of all descriptions. The 
Australasian Colonies furnish breadstuffs and, at times, large quan- 
tities of coal, employed for the most part by Government for railway 
purposes. Horses aro imported from New South Wal 
Western Australia, as also from the South African Colonies, which 
likewise send their contingent towards the food of the Colony in tin 
shape of dried fish, which is largely consumed by the Indian pop 
lation. From Fiance, large quantities of wine, brandy, and sue 
like are received, as also " comestibles " of every description 
large trade is done in tho importation of mides from South Anxri- 
and guano from Pern, this manure being very extensively used 
the sugar-cane plantations. Oxen are imported from Madagascar, 
and sheep from South Africa and Australia. The scarcity of pasturage 
ground for sheep or oxen renders the regularity of the cattle trade 
with Madagascar of the utmost importance to the Colony. From n 
tabular statement herewith it will be seen that during the year* 





1867 to 1880, both inclusive, tho total value of imports has 
■rora^ivi ii'1,'1 12.500 per annum. As those fignres Bamprioe imports 
at specie and guano, both of which have varied considerably, I 
hav. it it well, in the table herewith, to distinguish them 

from the general imports — 
























t,M 1,709 






'.80 1 






143, 70S 









































Tho average declared value of exports during tho same period, 
1867 to 1880. both inclusive, was £8.085,000 per annum, ha\ 
ranged from £'2.000,000 in 18(57 to £4,200.000, which maximum 
attained in 1877 : — 







Total Export* 





































i m 





























1 (.822 


■ ',874 


























It most be borne in mind that the amount of total exports, com- 
prising as it does, not only specie hut goods received in transit 



from and for Madagascar, and other articles, such as cocoa-nut 
from the Dependencies, whilst it represents the commercial niov 
ment, does not give an accurate idea of the value of the produce 
Mauritius, and I have accordingly added to the list of total expo 
columns to show the declared value of such articles as are produced 
in the Island, and a column showing the specie exported. 

The chief staple is sugar, and, in fact, writing ten years ago one 
would havo been justified in saying the Colony produced nothing 
but sugar and rum ; in more recent years, however, the culture of 
vunilla and extraction of fibre from the leaves of the aloe have 
occupied much attention and become prosperous and lucrative 
industries. The export of Yanilla has tripled in value during 0M 
past ten years, and may now be estimated at £30,000, whilst fibre, 
the export of which in 1871 was valued at £132, may now be 
calculated at £16,000, and is considerably on the increase. 

In no part of the world has the manufacture of raw sugar been 
brought to a higher state of perfection than in Mauritius. Evei 
improvement alike in the process as in the necessary machim 
which modern science has brought to light, has been eagerly taken 
advantage of. The process of the manufacture of sugar is now so 
generally known, that it is unnecessary to refer to it in detail ; suf- 
fice it to say, that on almost every estate throughout the Island the 
vacuum- pan system, by which an immense saving of time is effected, 
is now adopted. 

The culture of the sugar-cane, hazardous as it is, and always 
must be, owing to droughts and hurricanes, which at times occnr 
and mar the brightest prospects, would appear to have some peculiar 
fascination for those who have once entered upon it, or been in any 
way connected with it ; for no sooner does one estate proprietor suc- 
cumb under the burdens which the elements or other vicissitude 
have entailed upon him, than someone else is at hand to take c 
the estate and try his luck. The system of working estates as joini 
stock company concerns would appear to have gained favour of late, 
and may, under proper direction and management, prove of great 
advantage to the colonists. 

The finest qualities of sugar produced in Mauritius are novi 
in Europe, unless indeed it be a few samples Bent for exhibition; 
fact, of late years Mauritius may bo said to be independent of an, 
direct influence of the value of its produce in European markets. 
Australia and Bombay are now the principal markets to which 
Mauritius sugars are exported, and the demand from those parts iu 
recent years has tended to keep prices in the Mauritius market up 
to a point at which shipments to Europe would entail loss. 



ts to India commenced by the export to Bombay, from 
if about 8,000 tons. The average shipment- from 
the past three crops have been — 

To United Kingdom 15,000 tons 

-»noe 1,600 ,, 

„ South A fric«n Colonies 0,350 ,, 

„ Bombay , 35,000 ,, 

> ninluun Colonie* M,6M „ 

t-rop ever made in Mauritius was in I860) which 
produced nbont 150,000 tons. The average annual production for 
I has been about 115,000 tons, but varies consider- 
ably, tho maximum dnring those ten years being the crop 1877-8, 
with a production of upwards of 1 10,000 tons, against a minimum 
of barely N7.000 tons for the crop 1879-80. Latest advices from the 
j are most encouraging and lead to the well-founded bopo 
tho crop of 1882-3 may equal if not surpass that of 18G3. 
time permit, I should have been glad to have given further 
of tho trade of Mauritius, referring also to the finances of 
Colony as regards revenue, expenditure, taxes, public loans, 
:id other matters of interest ; but I fear I have already 
. paper too prolix for one evening, and must, though reluc- 
tantly, bring it to a close without giving, as I had intended, MOM 
time to the Seychelles Islands, Rodrigucs, Diego Garcia, and other 
dependencies of Mauritius. I should also have wished to refer more 
in detail to tli< • importance of the trade between Mauritius and 
Madagascar. Those dependencies, and the trade with Madagascar, 
are of sufficient importance for a special pnper on some future 

I would refer anyone desirous of reading an amusing and at thw 
name time interesting account of Mauritius, to a book called " Sub- 
Tropical Rambles," by Colonel Nicolas Pike, formerly United States 
Consul in the colony; whilst valuable statistical and general infor- 
mation U to be found in the " Mauritius Almanac and Colonial 
Register, ' published annually by Mr. J. B. Kyshe, F.S.S., Registrar- 
General of tho Colony, to both of whom I am indebted for some of 
the facts set forth in this paper. 

; Jy remains for me to ask your indulgence for the impcrfee- 
this brief sketch of a colony whore tho happiest days of 
were spent, and which will ever be vt-ry di-nr to me, not 
only on account of past associations, but also of the true and last- 
ing sympathy which 1 cun never fail to entertain for the Creoles of 









Sir Geobge F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., the Governor of Mauritius : Mr. 
Chairman and Gentlemen, — I am sure that you, like myself, have 
all listened with great pleasure and satisfaction to the ahle and 
interesting address of my friend Mr. Jourdain, respecting that 
famous and beautiful island of Mauritius, over which I have now 
the honour to preside as the representative of the Queen. (Cheers. 
I gladly rise to offer some remarks on the same important and I mi 
say fascinating subject. The Honorary Secretary expressed reg: 
just now that we are not to-night favoured by the presence of our 
ordinary chairman, his Grace the Duke of Manchester, to whom 
this Institute owes so much — (hear, hear) — but I am sure you will 
all agree with me that it is peculiarly appropriate that the first 
cussion at the Royal Colonial Institute respecting Mauritius shou 
be presided over by one of the most able and distinguished states- 
men who have ever ruled that Colony. (Hear, hear. ) But you will, 
I am sure, recollect that as for myself I have the advantage (or 
disadvantage) of being an actual — a Hve — Governor, on leave of 
absence, after some thirty years' service in the Colonies, during 
which long period I have only once before been absent from my pod 
as Governor. Consequently, it will be easily understood that there 
may be some points on which it is my duty to observe a certain 
official reticence — (laughter) — and concerning which you will not 
expect me to speak with the same fulness and freedom as can he 
pioperly used by my distinguished friend Sir Henry Barkly, my 
vc ry able and successful predecessor in the same Government, 
am sure that Sir Henry Barkly will sum up the discussion in 
lucid, able, and judicial manner. (Hear, hear.) Talking of jn 
cial summings-up, I may add that we aro favoured with 
presence to-night of the Chief Justice of Mauritius, who, among 
his other qualifications, adds one- which is not without importance 
in a somewhat tropical and enervating climate — I mean the quali- 
fication that he is the youngest Chief Justice in the British Empire 
(Heat, and laughter.) Now, with theBe few words of preface, I w 
at once proceed to deal with the whole subject. In the first pla 
I should observe that Mauritius, like all other Colonies and Depei 
doncies of the Empire, should be regarded both in an Imperial 
also in a Colonial point of view. In an Imperial point of 
Mauritius is, in the phrase of the illustrious French &tatesm»a 
Thiers, in his "History of the Consulate and Empire,'' the fi 
Malta of the Indian Ocean (cette belli Malt* <!■ tOcttm Indi 





(Cheer*.) In other voids, tin- possession of Mauritius is as im- 
portant for the command of tho Indian Ocean as is the possession 
of Malta fur tlic command of the Mediterranean. I <i nuily, tin- 
whole commerce of Europe to India, China, and Australia passed 
round the Capo of Good Hope and almost in sight of the 

ountain iritius. During the early years of the present 

centun. while tin- Wand was in tho possession of France, the- 
trench cruisers and privateers issuing from it inflicted on our 
Indian trade alone a loss estimated at little less than four millions 
sterling. If it he argued in any quarter that the opening of tho 
Suez Canal has diminished the importance of Mauritius as a naval 
and military station, it should be replied 1 1 1 that in time of war wo 

ust always look forward to tho at least temporary seizure or 
Miction of the Suez Canal by an enemy; and <2i that I 
modern eouditions of naval warfare render indispensable to a great 
maritime power like England the possession of fortified coaling 
stations in commanding positions nil round the world. In truth, 
modern ironclads cannot carry coals enough to enable them to keep- 
the sea for more than a few successive days. Indeed, the vital im- 
portance of Mauritius in this respect was amply proved during tho 
it war in South Africa, when the transports bringing troops to 
and from India all stopped to take in coals in the excellent and 
spacious harbour of Port Louis, which is, perhaps, the finest 
harbour in the Eastern seas, and is provided with graving-dc 
and all other equipments of first-class ports, ilLar. I And it 
should be recollected that tho possession of Mauritius involves 
hardly any cost to tho Imperial Exchequer, for all the expenses ot 
rnment ore defrayed from the Colonial Exchequer. 
which also pays a military subsidy of £40 for every officer and 
soldier of the Line, and of £70 for every officer and soldier of tho 
Artillery and Engineers. The present garrison of about fl 

red men of all arms is sufficient in time of peace ; and when 
we consider the large military contribution paid by t In Colony, it 
is manifestly cheaper for the British taxpayer to keep that number 
of soldier* at Tort Louis than at Aldcrshot or the Curragh. (Hear.) 
So much for the Imperial importance of Mauritius. With regard, 
in tin .second place, to its Colonial importance, I need only remark 
that the public revenue of this little island, which is not larger 
a singlo average-sized English county, amounts to above 
50.0IM1— that is. it is equal to what was the public revenue of tho 
tire kingdom of England in the reign of Charles IL Moreover. 

« trade of Mauritius, including exports and imports, amounts in 
vnluo to A'fi.OOO.lHX* sterling yearly — that is, it is eqmUtAV\v&«Q&s& 



trade of Great Britain in the reign of Queen Anne, and to the 
trade of all the American Colonies in 1775, at the commencement 
of the War of Independence. (Cheers.) Many of you will recol- 
lect that Edmund Burke, in one of his most famous orations, 
pointed out that the trade of America in 1775 equalled in value the 
entire trade of the Mother- Country seventy years previously. I 
think that all will agree that the facts which I have mentioned 
amply prove the importance of Mauritius, first in an Imperial point 
of view, as a naval and military station of the first class ; and, 
secondly, in a Colonial and financial point of view, as, for its size, 
the richest Colony of the Empire — perhaps the richest country in 
t.lin world of similar extent. (Cheers.) It is with very great 
pleasure that I endorse all that Mr. Jourdain has said with rej 
to the loyal and patriotic conduct of the Council of Govern) 
Mauritius. I do not behove that there is any Legislature in the 
Empire more devoted to the interests of the country which it rep: 
sents. Personally, I feel most grateful for the constant respi 
and support which I have received from all its members, an 
indeed, from the island community at large of all races, creeds, 
■classes. (Cheers, j Nor is the loyalty and courtesy of thn 
Mauritians confined to their own island. When I arrived in Paris 
last year I was entertained at a very brilliant public banquet by 
the Mauritians resident in France. The toasts and speeches were 
all in French; but when the health of the Queen was proposed, 11 
Majesty's loyal Mauritian subjects made the gilded and vaunt 
roof of the Great tlall of the Hotel du Louvre (where the banqui 
was held) ring with cheers as enthusiastic as could be heard in 
Canada or in Australia. (Cheers.) This demonstration made a 
deep impression in Paris, and especially on the leading Fren 
statesmen. One of them remarked to me that "we in France 
that England is indeed a great colonising power when it can 
the French in Mauritius so loyal to its Crown and Government 
He added : " We in Paris are glad that the Mauritians resident hi 
should teach us your good old English custom of doing no 
without diniug. You English always lay a solid foundation (m 
mtttea tovgottra tow ban tolidt). (Laughter.) Now, it is not so long 
ago that public dinners in France were regarded as dangerous and 
revolutionary. In fact, the Revolution of 1848 arose oat of a publ 
dinner. We might almost call it une Revolution a l« futiri 
His exact words were : " On pourrait qualifier la Revolution 
1848comme Rieolution << la fourehttU." (Cheers and laughter.) 
speaker was Gambetta ; but is not the mot worthy of Talleyran 
I have, further, great pleasure in endorsing what Mr. Jourdain 

-, the 







•aid as to the satisfactory settlement in Mauritius of the important 
question of Indian labour and emigration. A Governor who touohes 
this burning subject may be said, according to the fine image 
the Roman poet, " to step on fire placed under treacherous 

" Inoedis per ignes 
Suppoaitos oineri doloso." 

(Cheers.) But Sir Henry Barkly and other Governors did much, 
daring their administration, to place the claims of capital and 
labour on an equitable footing ; and the good work has been com- 
pleted by the comprehensive Labour Code proposed and carried by 
my immediate predecessor, Sir Arthur Phayre, and brought into 
fall operation under my auspices. As President of the Council of 
Government, I went over carefully in the Legislature every section, 
•vary clause, almost every line, of the regulations necessary to bring 
tho new law into working order ; and I wish to bear my testimony 
publicly, not only to the loyal co-operation of the entire body, 
bat to the sincere desire shown by the planters generally 
to go even beyond the proposals of the Government in securing tho 
welfare and comfort of the Indian labourers, especially in the im- 
portant department of the hospitals on the sugar estates. (Cheers.) 
I may here mention that I have received a letter from Sir Arthur 

vre, in which ho expresses his deep regret that he is unable, 
owing to absence from England, to bo present here this evening, 
and desiring to add his testimony to mine in favour of the loyal co- 
operation which he also received from tho Council of Government, 
and from the planting body generally. (Hear.) I desire to take 
this opportunity of expressing my sense of the valuable aid 
received at all times from the chief officers of Government in 
Mauritius, and in particular from the able and active Colonial 
Secretary. Mr. Napier Broome, who is now, as Lieuten. 
Governor, successfully administering the Government during my 
abaanoe. Mr. Jourdain advised you to read an excellent book on 

Mauritius by Colonel Pike, and I endorse that recommendation : 
bat la! you to read some admirable papers on the Colony 

which have been published by Lady Barker, the wife of Lieutenant- 
Governor Napier Broome, in (Toed Worth, (Hear.) There is, Mr. 
Chairman and gentlemen, a large number of other points on which 
I should be anxious to touch, did time permit ; but I feel that I 
bavo already detained you too long. (" No," and cheers. I I would 
gladly expatiate on the extreme beauty of the picturesque seen* 
and of tho luxuriant vegetation of Mauritius. I assure you that 

striking descriptions in the famous tale of " Paul and Virginia '' 

"286 Maurititig. 

are by no means exaggerated. That celebrated idyl was written 
I'.ernardin de St. Pierre, a French officer of Engineers 
-quartered in the island, and his descriptions are literally pi 
in wordB. (Hear.) Finally, I would there were time to refer in 
some detail to the very interesting history of Mauritius — succes- 
sively under Dutch, French, and English rule — and to the present 
condition of its many dependencies in the Indian Ocean, especially 
■of the lovely Seychelles group — 

.ten by 
3 long 





" Summer isles of Eden lying in dark purple spheres of sea, 1 ' 

ns our Poet-Laureate sings. (Cheers.) I would ako be glad to give 
some account of my visit last year to the Governor of the neigh- 
bouring French island of Bourbon or Reunion, which, with its lofty 
mountains, upland valleys, glittering waterfalls, and gushing 
springs of mineral waters, may be described as a slice of the 
Pyrenees thrown into the Indian Ocean. (Hear.) Above all, I 
regret that I cannot now refer to the great future which, in all 
human probability, awaits the neighbouring island of Madagascar 
— with its manifold and as yet undeveloped resources, and i 
mysterious forests and mountains. (Hear.) But I must ask 
mission to trespass on your further indulgence so far as to allow 
to glance at two striking incidents in the annals of Mauritius. I 
find that it is not generally recollected in England that events con 
nected with this little island have powerfully affected the history 
both the Eastern and the Western world, for it was in Mauriti 
(then known as the Isle of France) that the famous Fren 
Governor Labourdonnais, " a man *' (as Lord Macaulay wr 
his essay on Clive), " a man of eminent talents and virtues," and 
who first formed the grand idea of founding a European Empire 
in India; it was in Mauritius, I repeat, that Labourdonnais 
organised the expedition which in 1740 took Madras ti 
English. Had it not been for the jealousy and intrigues of 
Dupleix, the French Governor of Pondicherry, and for the 
genius of our own Clive, Labourdonnais would probably have 
succeeded in driving the English from India and in estabhV 
French Empire there, and would thus have changed the entire 
destiny of the Eastern world. (Hear.) Again, at the be 
of the present century, when the heavy losses inflicted on 
trade by the French cruisers from Mauritius had convinced 
Governor-General of India, then Lord Wellealoy, of the absolu 
necessity of wresting that island from France, whom did tint 
eminent Viceroy and statesman appoint as the chief of the expedi- 
tion to be sent forth for that purpose ? He appointed his brother, 

a. our 




Sir Arthur Wellcsley, afterwards the Duke of Wellington, to com- 

mjuitl tiio expedition, and, after the conquest, to be the first 

vcrnor of Mauritius. It is Btated that Sir Arthur 

ilealey had actually arrived at Bombay to embark with the 
troops when— fortunately for himself, fortunately for England— ho 
wae seized with fever, and ordered home by his medical advi 
when the expedition subsequently sailed under the command of 
another general. Juvenal has spoken of the consequences of the 

r which once seized the great Roman captain, Pompey — 

"Providn Poinpeio dederat Campania f ebres ; " 

but, humanly speaking, those consequences were of slight impor- 
tance to the fortunes of the world in comparison with the 
consequences of the fever which attacked Sir Arthur Wellesley when 
on hia way to Mauritius. Had he sailed for that island tho future 
conqueror of Napoleon would have been condemned to the com- 
paratively obscure, however difficult and useful, career of a Colonial 

• ernor. (Hear.) One word more, and I have done. I beg to 
«wure the Mauritians present hero this evening, and through them 
their > ountrjinen in general, that, whether I am in England or in 
their fair island. I shall always continue to identify myself with 

.r welfare and progress. So it has ever been with the great 
Colonies over which I have successively presided — Queensland, 

v Zealand, and Victoria. Their interests have been my interests. 
their honour has been my honour, their fame has made my 
reputation. (Loud cheers.) 

Mr. C. J. A. 1'i.coq: After tho eloquent words which have 
just bttin pronounced by Sir George Bowen, little remains tat 
me to add in praise of the very able paper on Mauritius read 
by Mr. Jourdain. I can only say that I listened to it with 
the greatest interest and pleasure. It contains most valuable 
information on the island and its resources, and shows 
throughout what kindly feelings its author entertains towards 
the inhabitants of our dear little island. I left Mauritius 
twenty-one years ago, and although I have followed with great 
attention the events which have since taken place there, it was no 
small gratification for me to hear many of them so graphically 
put and so well described by one who had been on the spot after 1 
had left. (Hear, hear.) Belonging to a past generation, I naturally 
take an interest in old things, even in those which have taken pi 
long before my time ; this will be my excuse for alluding to that 
part of Mr. Jourdain 's paper which refers to the discovery of the 
island. Mr. Jourdain tells us that " all authorities agree that the 




first discoverer was Don Pedro Mascarenhas, when exploring 
Indian Ocean, under orders of Almeida, then Governor-General of 
Portuguese Settlements in India, and that the exactitude of t 
statement is supported by the fact that in early history Mauriti 
with the neighbouring islands, forms the group known as 
Mascareignes,' of which Mauritius waB designated Cerne." 
popular notion about the discovery of Mauritius is not, 1 1 
historically proved, and ought to be considered as extreme! 
problematical — thanks to the learned researches made some twenty 
two years ago by Mr. James Morris, which he then communicai 
to the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, and whi 
appear in the printed transactions of that learned Society. On 
March IS, 1*<>2, Mr. James Morris read at a meeting of the E 
of Arts a most interesting paper on Mauritius, which appears iu 
the Journal of that Society, and for which he was awarded in 
silver medal. There again he refers to the works of Portugu 
historians from 1552 downwards, and among others to the wo: 
of De Barros and Faria y Souza (Asia Portnguesa), remarking 
in none of them was any allusion made to the supposed disoovi 
of Mauritius by Don Pedro Mascarenhas. He came, therefore, 
the conclusion that Baron Grant, in his history of Mauritius, £ 
asserted it as a fact, without quoting any authority, and that sub- 
sequent writers had repeated the assertion without ascertaining 
whether it was or was not supported by evidence. Twenty year* 
ago such a useful institution as the Royal Colonial Institute w»» 
not even thought of, and it was very liberal indeed on the part of 
the Society of Arts to have opened its doors to one who had 
draw attention to one of the Colonies of Great Britain. (Hi 
hear.) I may add that I found the paper read by Mr. Morris 
very interesting that I translated it into French in 1862, and 
presented last year two copies of the translation to the Royal 
Colonial Institute. Mr. James Morris, ono of the best-informed 
men about Mauritius I ever knew, died in 1869. I shall now 
briefly refer to another passage in Mr. Jourdain's paper, t\ 
he says that " Mauritius possesses a code of laws of its o 
difficult to administer, and still more difficult to understand by 
uninitiated world at large." The latter part of this remark migi 
I think, equally apply to any system of laws ; but I do not consi 
that the laws of Mauritius are difficult to administer. I am gl 
the Chief Justice of Mauritius is here to-night ; he belou 
myself, to the Scotch Bar, and he will, I think, bear me out 
I say that the laws of the island can, for instance, be more eai 
iderstood and administered than those of either England 

t or 

s so 



(Hear, bear.) Laws, as a rule, cannot be properly 
by the public at largo, but have to be explained to them 
may require ; ami that is the reason why there are 
counsel learned in the law. I was in Mauritius legal adviser to 
the firm which Mr. Jourdaiu joined after my departure from the 
island ; and I do not think that any of its members ever found it 
hard to understand the laws of the place, provided, of course, they 
applied to me for information and advice, which was a process 
equally advantageous to both parties. (Laughter.) Very much 
same thing has to be done every day in England. The common 
of Mauritius is embodied in codes ; this alone is a great 
advantage && far as the understanding and administering of the 
law in couecrned. We have also our statute law in the shape of 
local ordinances. These, I confess, are not always very clearly 
worded, but they resemble very much in that respect many of our 
Acts of 1'arliament, which the highest judges of England are at 
time* at a loss to understand. It must not be inferred that I am 
a blind admirer of all the provisions of the " Code Civil." There 
is room, in my opinion, for many improvements; although I 
readily admit that of lute years many have been effected, especially 
daring the able administrations of Sir Arthur Phayre and Sir 
Henry Barkly. (Hear, hear.) Whilst on this subject 1 may be 
permitted to allude to that provision (which many people connected 
with th« island resent very much) by wliich, under certain circum- 
Manros, a man is not allowed to dispose by will of the whole of his 
property. The French nation may be said to cherish often an 
inordinate love of equality at the expense of liberty, and French 
laws contain often restrictions which, naturally enough, are dis- 
tasteful to Englishmen. (Hear, bear.) The restrictions in the 
matter of wills is one of them ; and although specially meant to- 
protect children, it is often injurious to them, and in most cases it 
it fatal to the interests of grandchildren. Why should a parent. 
whose eon is a spendthrift and has issue, or whose daughter is 
married to a spendthrift, and has issue also, not be allowed, 
far instance, to pass over such son or daughter in favour 
their issue, settling only on such son or daughter such 
i for life as he may think fit ? Is it not a crying injustice 
part of the earnings of a lifetime should of necessity, as I have 
seen in Mauritius, go to the creditors of such son or daughter, and 
grandchildren be often doomed to comparative beggary ? I am 
awaro that a departure from existing restrictions as to wills and 
donations, and the reinstating of trusts within certain limits, 
would arouse certain susceptibilities, and that the question would 




M tin ri It its. 

require, besides, very careful handling ; but wc have in the Council 
of Mauritius two men, Mr. Antelme and Biz V. Naz, who are pre- 
eminent for their leg*] learning and general abilith rs>— and 
were they to take up the subject, they would. I am eerum. be equal 
to tbe task ; and some scheme might be devised (without nltu 
existing laws in cases of inteBtacy) whereby a grievance, which 
English people connected with Mauritius resent very keenly, might 
be removed. This question would certainly deserve the attention 
of Sir George- Ho wen when he returns to Mauritius. (Hear, hear.) 
My ptnonl i ■• collections of Mauritius extend over a period of 
fifteen years — from lHlti to 1B01 — during the successive adrn 
trations of Sir William Gomrn, Sir George Anderson, Sir Jh; 
Higginson, and Sir William Stevenson. Of the administration of 
Six William Gomm the least said the better ; but too great praise 
cannot be bestowed on his three successors. Sir George Anderson 
may be called the great law reformer of Mauritius ; and although 
he remained hardly a year in the island, he has left his la> 
mnrk there, i Hear, hear.) It is to him that we owe the creation 
and organisation of our Supremo Court of Civil and Criminal Judi- 
cature, nnd of our district courts with their civil and criminal jni 
diction — trial by jury in criminal cases, and also in civil cases at 
the option of parties; and it was he who granted a municipal!' 
the town of Port Louis. The day is not far distant when the com- 
pulsory trial by jury in civil cases will cease to exist in England 
except in a few exceptional cases ; and in other cases it will, v< 
likely, be left optional, as has been the ease in Mauritius for 
last thirty-two years. This is a striking proof of Sir Geor 
Anderson's statesmanship. 1 may mention here that trial by jt 
in civil cases has only been resorted to in Mauritius on one single 
occasion, when damages were claimed and obtained against » 
medical practitioner for some alleged unskilful operation, but on » 
new trial being moved for, people realised at once what trial by 
j ury in civil cases meant, and what heavy costs successive trials 
entail ; and 1 am not aware that any other application for trial by 
jury in civil eases has been made ever since. In matters of criminal 
procedure especially, instances might he quoted where the law i 
Mauritius is far ahead of that of England. The clumsy machiuery I 
coroner's inquest* seems to be doomed in this country ; and thf 
is no doubt that we shall have one day in England a pubh 
■cutor appointed, with muny of the attributions of the "1W 
puhlique," as it exists in Mauritius. When that day come- 
of the ordinances passed by Sir Goorge Anderson, and amend 
iiuder Sir James Higginson and his successors, might well deser 



:ho attention of the law reformers of England, (lioar, bear. | Of 

William Stevenson I will only say that he was one of the ablest 

r ernors Mauritius ever had. Time presses ; and I shall conclude 

again thanking Mr. Jourdain for the very able paper he bus rad 

to-night, and for the kind allusion he bus made to my fatlui in 

connection with the Mauritius railways, i Cheers. ) 

. i.-. ifbii-f Justice of Mauritius) : I came here Ibis 
owning without any intention of playing any other than a passu. 
part, bat I cannot refrain from taking advantage of the opportunity 
offrrcd me in order to express the great pleasure and interest with 
which I have listened to Mr. Jourdain's admirable paper. Soon 
after I went out to Mauritius — about eleven years ago — I was 
brought a good deal into contact with Mr. Jourdain, who was then 
one of Ifai members of the Legislative Council. It was sometimes 
my good fortune upon public questions to have him as my aider 
and abettor, and at others to have him us my opponent. But 
whether as a friend or an adversary 1 always recognised in him one 
who had the interest and welfare of the Colony most cordially at 
heart — (bear, hear) — one who never spared pains or trouM. 
promote its interest. (Hear, hear.) "When, therefore, I heard 
the learned author of the essay advert to those aspirations which he 
cherished for the extension of representative institutions in Mau- 

at, the thought dashed across my mind, whether, supposing such 
constitutional changes were introduced, even popular election could 
secure fur Mauritius representatives abler or actuated by a more 
earnest desire to discharge their duty faithfully, and to promote Hi 
mxvry way the iuterests and welfare of the Colony. (Hear, hear.) 
Without going into the difficult question whether some change in 
the formation of the Legislative Council of the Colony would con- 
duce to its pi there is one thing with which 1 am strongly 
impressed, ami that is that by the paper which he has read this 
evening Mr. Jourdain has worthily continued his efforts to advn 
the interests of the Colony — (hear, hear) — for I conceive that there 
can bo no doubt that the paper just read, received as it has been 
with so much interest and attention by this influential meeting. 
mast contribute to promote the prosperity of the island — (hear, 

1 1 ann by disseminating information with regard to the Colony . 
and by bringing prominently forward its wants and requircment. 
otrangthen the hands of its well-wishers, both here and elsewhere. 

ar, hear.) 1 have been referred to with regard to some di! 
eucc of opinion which exists between the reader of the paper and 
Mr. Ulcoq, who has just spoken. Mr. I'lcoq demurs to a statement 
whiei I rstood Mr. Jourdain to make with regard to the i 


of laws which exists in Mauritius, viz., that the Bystem of law 
prevailing there is more difficult and complicated than that which 
prevails in England I do not think, however, that Mr. Jourdain 
intended to institute a comparison hetween the laws of the Colony 
and of the Mother-Country. I understand him merely to assert 
that Mauritius had a code of laws of its own, difficult to admin; 
and complicated to the uninitiated — a statement which I conceive to 
-yond dispute. Law ia proverbially a moat intricate science 
all the world over ; and wore it otherwise in Maunti;; .1 of 

it having been found necessary recently to increase the number of 
judges, there would be causo to fear lest our occupation should 
cease I But even if the question be that of the comparative diffi- 
culty and complexity of the systems of law prevailing in England 
and in Mauritius, I can hardly imagine that a difference of opinion 
should not exist between Mr. Ulcoq and Mi*. Jourdain, looking at 
the matter, as they must, from different standpoints. To the 
former, an eminent Colonial lawyer, the laws of Mauritius, with 
which he is intimately acquainted, naturally appear simple and 
. to bo understood ; while to the latter, who has had no neces- 
sity or opportunity of minutely studying it, the same system can 
hardly fail to appear more intricate and complicated than i 
provident En England, with which he has at least some slight gi 
ral acquaintance. For my own part, while I should ! iling 

to offer an opinion as to the comparative intricacy of the two sja- 
terns, I cannot but express my sense of the great advantage which 
we in Mauritius possess, in having as the basis of our law those 
wonderful oompendiums of legal principle — the French codes. These 
have from time to time been modified by local ordinances, which 
certainly are not all legislative masterpieces, and which not ini 
queutly — like Imperial statutes — give rise to delicate and 
questions of constructions. On the other hand, as Mr. Uleoq < 
most justly observed, many of these Colonial enactments are 
carefully framed and work well. Two of them have been more 

ially referred to — the ordinance regulating the district Gov 
and that dealing with criminal procedure. In what has been said 
with reference to these measures I concur generally, though I 
confess that both of them seem to be susceptible of and to require 
amendment. I have only, in conclusion, to express my appreciate 
of the able manner in which Mr. Jourdain lias discharged the dif- 
ficult task which he set himself — that of giving a bird .v of 
the history of Mauritius, and of the present state and prospects of 
tlii- Colony — and again to acknowledge the interest mid pleasure 
with winch I have listened to \ns most vastru.- • r. (Cheers.) 


Mr. F kroa k Ym n : It ia well known that the object of tin 
Royal Colonial Institute is to give, as far as possible, some oppor- 
tunity for ventilating questions connected with ever}* portion of 
the British Colonial Empire, in the course of every session. After 
two years of incessant effort on my part to endeavour to get 
the subject of the Colony of Mauritius brought before um, I 
feel extremely gratified that 1 have succeeded in persuading my 
friend Mr. Jourdain to contribute the very valuable paper wo have 
beard to-night on that important island, and that it has 1 
followed, also, by an extremely interesting address from his Ex- 
cellency Sir George Bowen. (Hear, hear.) With regard to E 
George Bowen's address, to which I listened with great interest as 
well as some amusement, I confess I think we are much indebted 
to him ; because, although in consequence of tho naturally reticent 
: .<>n in which he reminds us he is at present placed, he has 
not been able to lift the veil quite as far as he has felt disposed to 
do, still, he has given us his opinion on some of the weightier 
matters which are connected with the administration of the impor- 
tant Colony he governs, as well as introduced some lighter matters 
into his address which have evidently considerably amused and 
gratified the audience this evening. I am myself bound by no such 
official reserve, however, in alluding to one or two of the points 
which Mr. Jourdain has noticed in his paper, and, among them, 
one of the most important appears to be his reference to the present 
constitution of the Government under its administration as a Crown 
Colony ; and I think ho has hinted to us that some change may 
very possibly be made with great advantage in the present cot: 

tion, and the administration of the Government of the Colony, 
with regard to the mode of nomination to the Executive Council. 
instead of a wider and more direct representative VjatMl of 
responsible Government being adopted. I trust the day may not 
be far distant when some change of this kind may be effect 
Another question Mr. Jourdain has referred to is the fact 
that Mauritius is tho only important Colony which does not 
posses* tho advantage of telegraphic communication with oth> c 
countries. This is a serious matter, which ought surely to be taken 
up Without loss of time by the Government, and steps adopted |0 
remedy so great a defect. I .ce to what has been said about 

the climate of Mauritius, I have only thin morning received a letter 
from a fraud of mine who has recently gone out to Mauritius, and 

ho holds an official appointment there, which is so germane to 

hat Mr. Jourdain has told us in his paper, that I will venture to 
an extract from it. He says : " The beauty of the island — 


of laws which exists in Mauritius, viz., that the system of law 
prevailing there is more difficult ami complicated than that which 
prevails in England I do not think, however, that Mr. Jourdain 
intended to institute a comparison between the laws of the Colony 
and of the Mother-Country. I understand him merely to a- 
that Mauritius had a code of laws of its own, difficult to administer 
and complicated to the uninitiated — a statement which I couceiv 
bo beyond dispute. Law id proverbially a most intricate science' 
all the world over ; and were it otherwise in Mauritius, instead of 
it having hoon found necessary recently to increase the number of 
judges, thcro would be causo to fear lost our occupation should 
Uut even if the question be that of the comparative diffi- 
culty an 1 rnmnlouty of the systems of law prevailing in England 
;iud in Mauritius, I can hardly imagine that a difference of opinion 
should not exist between Mr. Ulcoq and Mr. Jourdain, looking nt 
the matter, as they must, from different standpoints. To the 
former, an eminent Colonial lawyer, the laws of Mauritius, with 
which he is intimately acqnaintcd, naturally appear aiinplo and 

. to be understood ; while to the latter, who has had no net 
Mty or opportunity of minutely studying it, the same system can 
hardly fail to appear more intricate and complicated than t 
prevalent in England, with which he has at least some slight g. 
ral acquaintance. For my own part, while I shonld be unwilling 
to offer an opinion aB to the comparative intricacy of the two sys- 
tems. I cannot but express my sense of the great advantage which 
we in Mauritius possess, in having as the basis of our law Uioco 
wonderful compendium^ of legal principle — the French codes. These 
hive from time to time been modified by local ordinances, which 
certainly are not all legislative masterpieces, and which not infre- 
quently— like Imperial statutes — give rise to delicate and difficult 
questions of constructions. On the other hand, as Mr I'lenq has 
most justly observed, many of these Colonial enactments | 
carefully framod and work well. Two of them have been more 
specially referred to — the ordinance regulating the district Court* 
and that dealing with criminal procedure. In what has been .- 
with roferenco to these measures I concur generally, though I 
confess that both of them seem to be susceptible of and to require 
I have only, in conclusion, to express ray appreciation 
of th mner in which Mr. Jourdain has discharged I 

licult task which he sot himself — that of giving a bird's-eye view of 
the history of Mauritius, and of the present state and prospects of 
the Colony — and again to acknowledge the interest and pleasure 
with which I have listened va\nsmw\.vasVcu<i\axfc^».\)er. I Cheer*.) 


Mr. Frederick Young : It is wall known that tho object of tho 
Koyal Colonial Institute ia to give, as far as possible, some oppor- 
tunity for ventilating questions connected with every portion of 
the British Colonial Empire, in the course of every session. Afl 
two years of incessant effort on my part lo endeavour to gel 
the subject of the Colony of Mauritius brought before us, I 
fci 1 extremely gratified tbat I have succeeded in persuading my 
friend Mr. Jourdain to contribute the very valuable paper we have 
heard to-night on that important island, and that it has been 
followed, nlso, by a extremely interesting address from Ins Ex- 
cellency Sir George Bowen. (Hear, bear.) With regard to Sir 
George Bowen's address, to which I listened with great interest as 
well as some amusement, I confess I think we are much indebted 
to him ; because, although in consequence of the naturally retioent 
po-iition in which he reminds us he is at present placed, he ban 
not been able to lift the veil quite as far as he has felt disposed to 
do, still, he has given us Ins opinion on some of the weightier 
matters which are connected with the administration of the impor- 
tant Colony he governs, as well as introduced some lighter matters 
into his address which have evidently considerably amused and 
gratified the audience this evening. I am myself bound by no such 
official reserve, however, in alluding to one or two of the points 
which Mr. Jourdain has noticed in his paper, and, among them, 
one of the most important appears to be his reference to the present 
constitution of the Government under its administration as a Crown 
Colony ; and I think he has hinted to us that some change may 
very possibly be made with great advantage in the present consti- 
tution, and the administration of the Government of the Colony, 
with regard to the mode of nomination to the Executive Council. 
instead of a wider and more direct representative sv stein of 
msible Government being adopted. I trust tho day may not 
bo far distant when some change of this kind may be effected. 
Another question Mr. Jourdain has referred to is the fact 
that Mauritius is the only important Colony which does not 
possess the advantage of telegraphic communication with other 
countries. This is a serious matter, which ought surely to be taken 
up without loss of time by the Government, and steps adopted to 
remedy so great a defect. In reference to what has been said about 
tho chmate of Mauritius. I have only this morning received ft letter 
from a friend of mine who has recently gone out to Mauritius, and 
who hold* an official appointment there, which i* so gemum 
what Mr. Jourdain has told us in his paper, that I will venture to 
read an extract from it. He says : •* The beauty of the vdaxA— • 


of laws which exists in Mauritius, viz., that the system of law 
prevailing there is more difficult and complicated thou that which 
prevails Lu England I do not think, however, that Mr. Jour 
intended to institute a comparison between the laws of the Colony 
and of the Mother-Country. I understand him merely to assert 
that Mauritius had a code of laws of its own, difficult to administer 
and complicated to the uninitiated — a statement which I conceive to- 
be beyond dispute. Law is proverbially a most intricate science ' 
all the world over ; and were it otherwise in Mauritius, instead of 
it having been found necessary recently to increase the number of 
judges, there would be causo to fear lest our occupation should 
cease ! But even if the question be that of the comparative diffi- 
culty and complexity of the systems of law prevailing in England 
ind in Mauritius, I can hardly imagino that a difference of opinion 
should n<-t exist between Mr. TJlcoq and Mr. Jourdaiu, looking at 
tlic matter, as thoy must, from different standpoints. To the 
former, an eminent Colonial lawyer, the laws of Mauritius, •• 
which ho is intimately acquainted, naturally appear simple and 
easy to be understood ; while to the latter, who has had no nee 
aity or opportunity of minutely studying it, the same system can 
hardly fail to appear more intricate and complicated than that 
prevalent in England, witli which ho has at least some slight g> 
ral acquaintance. For my own part, while I should be unwilling 
to offer an opinion as to the comparative intricacy of the two sys- 
tems, I cannot but express my sense of the great advantage wh 
wo in Mauritius possess, in having as the basis of our law those 
wonderful compendium;* of legal principle — the French codes. These 
have from time to time been modified by local ordinances, which 
certainly are not all legislative masterpieces, and which not infre- 
quently — like Imperial statutes — give rise to delicate and difficult 
questions of constructions. On the other hand, as Mr. Ulcoq has 
most justly observed, many of these Colonial enactments are 
carefally framed and work well. Two of them have been more 
specially referred to — the ordinance regulating the district Courts 
and that dealing with criminal procedure. In what has been said 
with refcreuco to these measures I concur generally, though I 
confess that both of them seem to be susceptible of and to 
aiueudineut. I have only, in conclusion, to express my appr 
of the able manner in which Mr. Jourdaiu has discharged the dif- 
ficult task which he sot himself — that of Riving a birds-eye view of 
the history of Mauritius, and of the present state aud prospects of 
the Colony — and again to acknowledge the interest and plea- 1 
with which I have listened V,oYnaTaosXua^wit\vift^auer. i Cheers.) 



Mr. Frederick Youso : It is well known that tlio object of tin 
Royal Colonial Institute is to give, as far as possible, some oppor- 
tunity for ventilating questions connected with every portion of 
the British ColoniaJ Empire, in the course of every session. A: 
two years of incessant effort on my part to endeavour to get 
the subject of the Colony of Mauritius brought before us, 1 
feel extremely gratified that I have succeeded in persuading my 
friend Mr. Jourdain to contribute the very valuable paper we have 
heard tonight on that important island, and that it has been 
followed, also, by i\n extremely interesting address from his Ex- 
cellency Sir George Dowen. (Hear, hear.) With regard to Sir 
George Bowen's address, to which I listened with great ioterest as 
well as some amusement, I confess I think we are much indebted 
to him ; because, although in consequence of the naturally reticent 
position in which he reminds us he is at present placed, he has 
not been able to lift the veil quite as far as he has felt disposed to 
still, li<-' has given us his opinion on some of the weightier 
matters which are connected with the administration of the impor- 
tant Colony he governs, as well as introduced some lighter matters 
into his address which have evidently considerably amused and 
gratified the audience this evening. I am myself bound by no such 
official reserve, however, in alluding to one or two of the points 
which Mr. Jourdain has noticed in his paper, and, among them, 
one of the most important appears to be his reference to the present 
constitution of the Ciovcrameut under its administration as a Crown 
Colony ; and I think ho has hinted to us that some change may 
very possibly be made with great advantage in the present ooa 
tutiou, and the administration of the Government of the Colony, 
with regard to the mode of nomination to the Executive Council, 
instead of a wider and more direct representative syst.iu 

overnment being adopted. I trust the day may not 
bo far distant when some change of this kind may be effected, 
Mr. Jourdain has referred to is the fiict 
that Mauritius is the only important Colony which does not 
possess the advantage of telegraphic communication with other 
countries. This is a serious matter, winch ought surely to be taken 
up without loss of timo by the Government, and steps adopted to 
remedy so great a defect. In reference to what has been said about 
the climate of Mauritius. I have only this morning received a letter 
from a friend of mine who has recently gone out to Mauritius, and 
who bold* an official appointment there, which is bo germane to 
what Mr. Jourdain has told ns in his paper, that I will venture to 
read an extract from it. Ho says : " The beauty of the wlaxiA. — ww 



re to 


of laws which exists in Mauritius, viz., that the system of law 
prevailiug there is more difficult and complicated than that which 
prevails in England I do not think, however, that Mr. Jonrdain 
intended to institute a comparison between the lawe of the Colonj 
and of the Mother-Country. I understand him merely to ass 
that Mauritius had a code of laws of its own, difficult to adminis 
and complicated to the uninitiated — a statement which I coi; 
be beyond dispute. Law is proverbially a moat intricate Bcience 
all the world over ; and were it otherwise in Mauritius, instead of 
it having been found necessary recently to increase the number of 
judges, there would be cause to fear lest our occupation should 
cease t Bat even if the question be that of the comparative diffi- 
culty and complexity of the systems of law prevailing in England 
aud in Mauritius, I can hardly imagine that a difference of opinion 
should not exist between Mr. TJlcoq and Mr. Jonrdain, looking at 
tho matter, as they must, from different standpoints. To the 
former, an eminent Colonial lawyer, the laws of Mauritius, with 
which he is intimately acquainted, naturally appear simple and 
easy to be understood ; while to the latter, who has had no necc 
aity or opportunity of minutely studying it, the same system 
hardly fail to appear more intricate and complicated than tha 
prevalent in England, with which he has at least some slight gene 
rul acquaintance. For my own part, while I should be nni 
to offer an opinion as to the comparative intricacy of the t 
terns, I cannot but express my sense of the great advantage wliic 
we in Mauritius possess, in having as the basis of our law thoa 
wonderful compendimnts of legal principle — tho French codes. The 
have from time to time been modified by local ordinances, whicL 
certainly are not all legislative masterpioces, and which not infre- 
quently — like Imperial statutes — give rise to delicate and difficult 
questions of constructions. On the other hand, as Mr. Ulc< 
most justly observed, many of these Colonial enactment! 
carefully framed and work well. Two of them have been mo 
nuecially referred to — tho ordinance regulating the district Cour 
and that dealing with criminal procedure. In what has been aaic 
with reference to these measures I concur generally, though 1 
confess that both of them seem to be susceptible of and to require 
amendment. I have only, in conclusion, to express my appreciate 
«>f the able manner in which Mr. Jourdain has discharged tl>>' 
ficult task which he set himself — that of giving a bird's-ejv 
the history of Mauritius, and of the present state aud prospecta i 
the Colony — and again to acknowledge the interest aud pleasure 
with which I have listened to his most instructive paper. (Chccra) 






Mr. Frederick Youno : It is well known that the object of the 
Royal Colonial Institute is to give, as far as possible, some oppor- 
tunity for ventilating questions connected with every portion of 
the British Colonial Empire, in the course of every session. After 
two years of incessant effort on my part to endeavour to get 
the subject of the Colony of Mauritius brought before us, I 
feel extremely gratified that I have succeeded in persuading my 
friend Mr. .Tourdain to contribute the very valuable paper we have 
heard to-night on that important island, and that it has 1 
followed, also, by an extremely interesting address from his Ex- 
cellency Sir George Bowen. (Hear, hear.) With regard to Sir 
George Bowen'a address, to which I listened with great interest as 
well as some amusement, I confess I think wo are much indebted 
to him ; because, although in consequence of the naturally reticent 
position in which he reminds us he is at present placed, he has 
not been able to lift the veil quite as far as he has felt disposed to 
do, still, he has given us his opinion on some of tho weightier 
matters which are connected with the administration of the impor- 
tant Colony he governs, as well as introduced some lighter mat 
into his address which have evidently considerably amused and 
gratified the audience tins evening. I am myself bound by no such 
official reserve, however, in alluding to one or two of the points 
which Mr. Jourdain has noticed in his paper, and, among them, 
one of the most important appears to be his reference to the present 
constitution of the Government under its administration as a Crown 
Colony ; and I think he has hinted to us that some change may 
Tery possibly be made with great advantage in the present consti- 
tution, and the administration of the Government of the Colony, 
i regard to the mode of nomination to the Executive Council. 
instead of a wider and more direct representative system of 
responsible Government being adopted. I trust the day may not 
lie far distant when some change of this kind may be effected. 
r question Mr. Jourdain has referred to is the fact 
that Mauritius is the only important Colony which does not 
possess the advantage of telegraphic communication with oth< ■;■ 
countries. This is a serious matter, which ought surely to be ta 
np without loss of time by the Government, and steps adopted to 
remedy so great a defect. In reference to what has been said abou i 
the climate of Mauritius, I have only this morning received a lot it r 
from a friend of mine who has recently gone out to Mauritius, ami 
who holds an official appointment there, which is so germane to 
what Mr Jourdain has told us in his paper, that I will venture to 
read on extract from it. He says : " Tho beauty of the island—- 




what 1 have seen of it — passes u iption my poor pen would 

ho able to give of it ; but when I tell you that the choicest plant 
and flowers (to be seen only in our conservatories at home) groi 
out of doors in the gardens here, this may enable you to form 
some opinion of the variety of colour that meets the eye. Mann ' 
it truly called the ' gem of the ocean.' " I think I may ventui 
congratulate the Royal Colonial Institute on the very instru. 
paper we have had. which will form a most important additiu- 
our volume of Proceedings of this session. Let me suggest, as I 
see in this large assembly a great number of representative gen 
tleinen from the Colony of Mauritius, that they will not allow 
discussion to close at this moment, but will be good enough, m 
conformity with the notice before me, to send up their cards to the 
chairman, in order that we may have the advantage of hearing 
some additional remarks from those who have practical knowledge 
of the various questions which have been bo ably touched upon in 
the paper this evening, i Hear, hear, i 

Captain Ciias. Mills, C.M.G. : The subject of Chinese emigt 
is just now attracting a great deal of attention in Australia i 
other parts of the world, and Mr. Jourdain in his able paper men- 
tioned that there are several thousands of Chinese at Mauritius, 
but we did not hear how they are progressing. Will he say whet 
they are Government emi«,Tants, what they are doing, and what 
is the effect of their presence on tho prosperity of the islu: 
(Hear, hear.) 

Mr. \V. Mabtin Wood: Referring to tho paper read, I should 1>»- 
»lad to know somthing about the destruction of the forests in 
Mauritius. It has been said that this has !>een carried to such tin 
«xtent that, owing to tho extent v denudations in the hills of 
Mauritius, tin wnUr supply has become very deficient. Perhaps 
Mr. Jourdain will say whether that has been extended to any 
injurious extent, md also if a, Static measures have ! 

introduced to repair the serious damage. 

Sir BnauoD Tmms, Bart, G.O.B.L, OXB.: 1 nail] 

much in tho same position as some of the preceding Bf 
for I came here not to talk or prepai' Bet observa- 

tions. I really have BO practical acquaintance with Mauritius 
eveept from the fact that, in common with many other Indian 
Governors. I have hod to send emigrants then ttota Bengal. 
In fact, Sir George Bowen advises me to say that India I 
created the Mauritius. (Hear, hear.) Perhaps that may r\p; 
a vain-glorious remark, which I should not hove watered to moke 
bat upon the authority of Sir George Bowcn. But I must say 


that all the Indian emigrants who resort to the Mauritius — I 
am saying "the Mauritius,'' though I loam now I must not say 
'• the Mauritius," but Mauritius — (laughter) — all the Indian emi- 
grant* who went to Mauritius appeared to have benefited greatly by 
ao doin^ That happy island, which il called the 

gem of the main, certainly has enjoyed a most enviable reputation 
ui Bengal and Bombay, those over-populated provinces of India 
which are capable of sending forth emigrants by tens and hundreds 
of thousands to populate tropical and sub-tropical dominions of 
Majesty. (Hear, hear.) After the famine of 1h?4 we weroablo 
to despatch an unusual number of emigrants to Mauritius, mid it 
was with great regret we learned afterwards that the island would 
take no morn emigrants from us, as the emigrants that hod gone 
there hod stayed in the Colony, and had not returned, as so 
many do, to India, and had increased and multiplied iu the Colony. 
I now leurri from Sir George Bowen that there ore a quarter of a 
milli"u of Indian coolies naturalised and domiciled in that happ\ 
island. Well, it occurs to me to ask one particular question 
of the I t-tuier ; it is this : Do we understand from I 

valuable paper that Europeans, French or English, can live 
generation to generation iu that Colony? I ask the qi: 
i, because in India it appears to be unfortunately established 
that great Empire docs not admit of colonisation in the 
I sense of the term. It appears to be sliowu by ex- 
perience that a European family cannot exist for more than 
or three generations in India, that is to say, that the children 
I survive for more than two generations, unless then- 
have been an admixture of fresh blood from Europe. That 
r* to be an established fact, and it is of course very un- 
:nut.'. Than i;^ DO doubt that tho children of pure European 
parents in India greatly change their physique, and even their 
mental quality, if they should not have been sent home whib- 
. were young. Now this condition of things appears not to 
exiat in Mauritius, for we have apparently noble French families who 
have lived thero for 200 years — so Sir George Bowen says. Well, 
there is nothing of that kind in India. In India an English boy or 
girl, if he or she be not sent home at five or six years of age, will 
have an entirely altered aspect. The aspect will be, if I may say 
so without disparagement — if there arc none of our Transatlantic 
eoasins present — tho aspect will be somewhat Americauisod ; that 
the figure will become tall, the cheek a little hollow, and the 
somewhat straight aud thin. (Laughter.) And altogether 
there will be a want of that symmetry which is popularly attributed 

to " John Ball.'' (Renewed laughter.) Now, it would be inter- 
esting if the lecturer will explain to us in his summing-up how far 
those conditions are applicable to Mauritius. You 6ee the matter 
is of the greatest practical importance, because the backbone of the 
population of Mauritius, the future constituencies, the future elec- 
tors, will all come, no doubt, from European races domiciled thore, 
and no such condition is applicable to India. Well, my second point 
is this. The term " creole" appears from the paper to include 
those who have been born in or are permanently resident in t 
Colony. Now, I gather from Sir George Bowen that there are 
aborigines except the dodo ; therefore would it not be interesting 
we were to have a littlo more of what is called the ethnography of 
Mauritius ? What are the races ? I presume some will be French, 
some Chineso, some English, nd the greater part will be Indians. 
I presume, too, all these diffeient races preserve their respeetivo 
colours. But is there any mixed race, like half-caste, or quadroons, 
or octoroons, and people of that kind '? If there are, I presume the 
mixture of colour will come from the Indians and not perhaps at 
all from the Chinese. I have thrown out these few desultory sug- 
gestions in order, if possible, to give further interest to the lecturer's 
summing-up, an interest which is wanting in the few remarks 
I am able to offer you on the spur of the moment. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Henry J. Joiedain, in reply, said: I am extremely flatter 
indeed, to find that my paper, judging by the observations made 
the few speakers who have addressed us, has been appreciated in 
so kind a, manner. It is veiy gratifying, at least, to find that there 
has been no very antagonistic discussion, and nobody has felt called 
upon to dispute in nny serious manner auy of the facts that I have 
advanced. With regard to my friend Mr. Ulcoq — who was a little 
hard upon me on the question of the laws, for presuming to call 
them somewhat complicated — I can only answer him by sayi 
that I can only judge of them by experience of their effect, and, 
far as I have known them. I found them very complicated lad 
and I have been very little able to understand them. I admit 
he is a better authority on the laws than I am, and his opinion is 
of course of much greater value thou the casual remarks that I mako 
in my paper. At the same time, I thank his Honour the Chief 
Justico for the kind manner in which he pointed out that the ol 
servation I made was not condemnatory altogether of tlio laws, 
merely said that Mauritius has a code of laws of its own, diffic 
to administer and still more difficult to be satisfactorily under 
stood by the uninitiated. Now Mr. Ulcoq, whilst attarkiup 
this view, set to work to explain what in my opinion is one of 











greatest defects in the Mauritius law. Long after be left 
tli© i»l*nd we English residents there moved in the very matter 
to which he has called attention, that of the power of a man to Am] 
with the distribution of hia own property after death. I cannot 
quite r- member the year now when the petition was got up to 
the Government by the English residents, asking that we should 
have too privilege of leaving our possessions, whatever they might 
be, according to the English law. Able lawyers, who probably took 
isons from Mr. Ulcoq, pointed out at tho time how the 
difficulty was to be met, and said, " Oh, don't make much stir about 
the matter; wo will put you up to a way of avoiding that." 
{Laughter.) And the way of avoiding the difficulty Ml pointed out 
to ua, and we never moved f urtlier in the matter. In reply to Captain 
Mill*. I would remark with regard to the Chinese, I gave the number 
of them as 8,658, which is an increase of about 1 ,200 on the previous 
Ateonnial census. They are not in any way Government emigrants, 
nor arc they coolie labourers in any form whatever. They all come as 
free passengers to the island, and come and go just as they please. 
They have managed to get almost entirely into their own hands 
the small grocery trade, as we should call it ; that is, on every 
■agar estate throughout the island and studded along the high 
roads you will see what every Mauritian would recognise as the 

itique " — that is, the Chinaman gets a small hut, ami 

liases in town a cask of pork, cheese, and other articles, and 
retails them out in small driblets to the labourers on the estates. 
The whole of that small business, which twenty-five years ago was 
• he hands of the crcole and other traders, is now entirely in the 
hands of Chinamen. But they are free to come and go away 
as they please, and do so with at times considerable sums of 
money. One Chinaman has a lot of shops throughout the island ; 
and when they realise their money, away they go, and a fresh 
batch comes down, and there is hardly a steamer leaves for Singa- 
pore or China but what there is a lot of them coming and going. 

conservation of the forests is one of those burning questions 
which I purposely omitted from my paper, not only because it has 
given rise to much discussion and heart-burning in the Colony 
(almost as much as the coolie question), but because the mutter is 
still subjuiiict. (Hear, hear.) In my own mind there is no doubt 
whatever that tho sickness and mortality which took place in I860 — 
<7, and the unhealthy state of certain parts of the island which has 
•ioee continued, are due in a very great measure to the wanton 
destruction of forest lands. (Hear, hear.) The danger is tho 
redaction in the water streams, the pollution of the streams, and 



the sources from which the water is taken. This matter, Mr. W. 
Martin Wood will be glad to hear, has had the serious attention of 
the Government, especially of late years, under the present < i>vernor, 
Sir George Boweu. The Council of the Government has recent! 
voted a considerable sum of money towards the purchase by Govern 
meut of certain lands on which are known to exist the sources 
(he rivers, which are to be secured as Government "' reserves"; and 
a serious movement is on foot not only to preserve what foi ■• 
exist, but also to extend tbe forest lands. (Cheers.) I am reminded 
by Sir George Boweu that he has planted 40,000 trees of t 
EueaiffptUi ghlmhtt of Australia 5 and before I left the inland, nm 
years ago, private individuals who had taken up the matter we 
occupying themselves largely with the question. The next questio 
I have to answer are those of Sir Richard Temple. He somewhat 
misunderstood my remark on Creoles. I thought I had sufficient! 
defined the word. He says he takes it from my paper that a creo 
is a person born in the Colony, or permanently residing there, 
did not say so. I say that tho Creole is a person born in the 
Colony, let the child remain there only one week or a lifetime; 
tho fact of his being born in that Colony makes the cluld 
a Creole ; and that is how we understand it. He has asked 
me about tho different races iu Mauritius. Well, I have not got 
with me now the detailed list of the nationality of the people ther 
Among the old blacks wo have the Mozambiqucs and tho- 
have como over from Madagascar, and they have intermarried 
with Indians and others ; and as to whether we have quadroons or 
octoroons, I can assure Sir Richard that ho will find people ia 
Mauritius of every possible shade of colour, from the Mozambique 
with his thick lips and woolly hair, up to the purest and faira 
races. As to the race being able to continue in the island, I see no 
reason to doubt it. The children of well-to-do parents out ther» 
are sent home for their education, but thoy return to Mauritius. 
I have in my mind's oye an old French family, of which I have seen 
four generations living at the time, all well-to-do, and well and hearty 
intelligent, and everything one could desire. But you must rem 
lur that the European inhabitants of Mauritius are a mere bagatelle 
in numbers. I gave yon the number of the French inhabitants 
2.870. Well, I do not suppose you will find, if you exclude 
military and the police force, more than that number of F 
in fact, tho white population of Mauritius — wc- do not 
the census ask them to declare their particular colour — 1 
do not think will exceed much beyond (J.000 cat 7,000. Sir 
George Bowen thinks '20,000, including children. At auy rate, 










t of the 8G0.O00, which is the total population, the white 

mlation I m.^lv mall. Tho fact is, Mauritius is be- 

ig year by year more and more an Indian population. The 
«tia are settling there, and their families are rising. They an 
wealthy ; and we have Indians there possessors of sugar 
The men who originally came there as engaged labourers 
am now in somo cases wealthy proprietors. One Indian, Sit 
George Bowen tells me, is now practising as a medical man. There 
i* no doubt the Government has met with very great difficulty in 
enforcing the education of* Indian children; at the same time I 
k I mentioned to you that the number of Government school- 
was thirty-nine, and that fifty-two State-aided schools existed in 
the island. They arc open just as much to the children of the 
Indian population as to any other-. I do not think I have any 
forth to make. (Loud cheers.) 

Sir Emi Barkly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. : Ladies and (lentlcmtii, 
—I thought it better to invite Mr. Jourdain to answer at once 
the qui Inch have been put as to his paper, than to 

attempt that final summing-up of the discussion for which Sir 
George Bowen so kindly prepared you, but for which so little time 

I ft. I will, therefore, confine myself to moving a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Jourdain for his wry interesting paper. If there is anything 
in that paper that I could take exception to, it would be to the very 
laudatory reference to my own administration when QoTOSMK of 
Mauritius which I am sure was dictated on his part by a friendly 
towards myself rather than by strict impartiality. I trust. 
rer, he did me no nova than justice whan ha alluded to my 
always Laving the. welfare of the colonists at heart, and to DJJ 
hs\ ; to aid them in coping with the difficulties 

which surrounded them, and the unexampled calamities of the 
terrible fever epidemic, and the violent and destructive hurricane 
which occurred while I was there. Those sad times of depression 
have long since passed away, and I rejoice to think that tho island 
at the present moment is fairly prosperous. But I .-hall ttgfOl 
cease to remember the courage and equanimity with which the 
planters of Mauritius bore up against the almost overwhelming 
misfortunes which seemed at one time to threaten them with ruin ; 
nor shall I ever forget the many kind friends— both of English and 
:ich extraction— with whom I became acquainted during Baj 
aix years' residence on that beautiful aud romantic island. 1 will 
not detain you at this late hour of night, but ask yon to join m 
tlnmling Mr. Jourdain for his very able and compi 
paper. (CheerB.) 



The Seventh Ordinary General Meeting was held at the Grosvenc 
•Gallery Library, on Tuesday, 9th May, 1882, the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Dcnhaven, K.r., Vice-President, in the chair. Amongst 
those present were the following : — 

Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C M.G. (Agent-General, South Australia), Sir John 
Coode and Miss Cootie, Mr. Thomas Archer (Agent-General for Queen: 
Inn. I), Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G. ; Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke, R.E, 
K.i '.M.G., C.B. ; Sir Charles E.F. Stirling, Bart.; Captain J. C. R. Coloiul. 
K.M.A. ; the Rev. Canon Gaul (Griuualand West), Rev. C. F. Sto 
Messrs. A. R. Campbell-Johnston, Alexander MacRosty, Charles E 
borough, George Beveridge, Frederick Elder (South Australiai, Jo 
Rayne (Natal), Gilbert Purvis, S. B. Boulton, Harold E. Boulton, B.A. 
J. B. Montefiore, Charles T. Cox (British Guiana), John Chambers iN 
Zealand), William Taylor (Melbourne), R. J. Jeflray, John S. 
Robert Cochrane, George Lush, Win. Howard Smith (Melbourne), H 
Brooks, Samuel Shnrtridge (Jamaica), Win. J. Harris, F 
Henry R. Russell, M.L.C. (New Zealand). If em. Alfred B. Cob 
Zealand), C. Frichard, Thomas Cornish (Victoria), John Stevenson, H. B. 
O. Stevenson, 0. B. Dieken (Queensland), Maurice Lyons (Sydney), P. H. 
Farrar, F. R. Round, Nicholson, W. A. Blore (South Africa), Dr. A. M 
Brown (Sydney), Mrs. Carey Hobson, Rev. M. H. Begbie, M.A : 
A. H. Rowan, Lionel Smith-Gordon, Mrs. FraBer, Mr. and Mrs. Wi 
Severn, Miss Fergussou, Messrs. Tbos. Brown, A II, Davis, Samai 
Dccring (Assistant Agent-General for South Australia), D. Parkes, E. W. 
Stuart, R. S. Anstcy, Alexander John Colebrooke, J. Snell (South 
Australia), Thomas Thorp, Miss Mead, Messrs. J. A. Longridg' 
Walmsley Stanley, C.E.; Captain Clarke, Messrs, Edward Davis, Geo; 
Davis, E. A. Wallace, H. B. Darby, Charles E. Fryer, Alexander Roger*. 
Frank M, Dntton (South Australia), JameB Bonwick, Arthur Fell, Hoi 
Michael Solomon, M.L.C. (Jamaica), Commander H. G. Simpson, M.L. 
(Queensland), Messrs. John Bate, N. E. Lewis (Tasmania), Fred. Du 
(South Australia), J. It. Boyd (Ceylon), G. R. Godson, W. P. Taylor 
(Cape Colony), James Bruce (Cape Colony), Alexander W. Murpby 
(Victoria), George Freeman (Cape Colony), C. H. H. Mosrlry (West 
Africa), AV. Ewart, Francis Reushaw, Charles Duncklcy (Victoria), 
Revington (West Africa), Major-Gen. R. W. Lowry, C.B., Mr. Geoi 
Tinliue (South Australia), Miss Tinliue (South Australia), Messrs, 
Button (Natal), W. Leedham Crowe (South Australia), H. M. Whitehead. 
John R, Parkington, W. E. Grigsby (Japan), F. S. Peregrine Birch, W. 
W. Pownall, Captain Charles Mills, C.M.G. (Cape Colony), Colonel T. 
Hunter Grant and Mrs. Grant (Canada), Messrs. A. M. Phillips, Tb 
lliillips, Morton Green (Natal), Miss Green (Natal), Messrs. John Le 
(New Zealand). W. L. Shepherd (New Zealand), Claude U. Lone, Mi 

oug, Mr. Francis A. Gwynne (Victoria), Miss Gwynne. Mr. G. Clerihew, 

■ th Ordinary General Meet'nui. 


Mr. and Mrs. James Gilchrist (Now South Wei 
Mim ii. C. J. Cooper, H. Gwynne Owen (Cape Colony), Mrs. J. G. Owen, 
•>xl, C. Pfoundes, S. A. Cockburn (British Honduras), Mr. nnd 
Mr*. W. Westgarth, Lady MeClnre, Mr. R. Scott and Mies Scott, Messrs. 
•I. W« I'. Jauralde, F. P. Labilliore, J. MacPherson, ChorleB Perriug (New 
Zealand). W. S. Wetherell. J. V. Irwin, Mr. and Mm. Henry M. Paul, 

•iod Mrs. Pocking (Cape Colony), Messrs. A. Mackenzie Mackay, E. 
W. Cooper, James Laughland (Victoria), E. H. Gough, Stephen Bourne, 

dm Boulnois, Captain Parfitt, Mra. aud Miss Parfitt, Kan W. N. 

>r, J. Howard Howard, D. D. Daly (Straits Settlements), J. C. 
Killaa, Thomas Cliarlton, Chadwin, Thompson Walker, It. M. Jones W, It. 
MeCree, Mrs. Farrar, Mrs. Robert Russell (New Zealand), Mrs. and U 
Rowel], Miss Tonng, Miss Ada Mary Young, and Mr. Frederick Young 

notary Secretary). 

Th'- Ho.NOR.utT Secretary read the Minutes of the Sixth Ordinary 
General Meeting, which were confirmed, and announced that 
since the last meeting the following gentlemen had been electa! 

Resident Follows : — 

The Bev. Bag! R. Collum, J. \Y. Hollway, Esq., Edward Lucn-, 
Eeq., John HaeFheraon, Esq, 

Non-Resident Fellows : — 

Oliver C. Back, Esq., J. P. iKimberley), Alexander Begg, I | 
obo). 8, M. Bellair.*, Esq. (British Guiana), James A. Brown, Esq. 
ica), W. P. M. Buckley, Esq. (New Zealand), A. E. Burke, Esq. 
»), John Chalmers, Esq. (New Zealand i. W. 1. OoieOMB, 
S Colony i. Charles T. Cox, Esq. (British Guiana), \V. I.. Dod 
l>4| ih Wales), John E. Dyer, Esq., M.D. (Tranxvaal). II. 

FoUtard, Esq. (British Guianrti. D. B. GaJbraith, Esq. (Melbourne). W« H. 
swell. Esq. i Cape Colony), the Hon. Captain A. H. Hall, M.I I 
Mondui.i- MM Ihirry, Em]. (South Australia), W. T. 

Jamieson, Esq. (Jamaica). Ber. J. H. Liley (Cape Colony). W. N. L\\. 

• na), J. R. Maxwell, Esq. (West Africa), John Miuty. 

rial, G. II. Paterson, Esq. (West Africa I, W. S. 

», Esq. (Jamaica), R. H. Stockdale, Esq. (Capo Colony), William 

r, E*q. (Melbournet, W. K. Thomson, Esq. (Victoria), n. G. Turner. 

■rial, Hon. G. M., M.L.C. (New Zealaudi. 

The following donations of hooks, &c, received since the last 
Council Meeting, were also announced : — 

The Government of Canada : 

Parliamentary Debates and Paj 

I Canada, 1880-81. 
Canadian Parliamentary Companion and Annual Register. 


Seventh Ordinary General Meeting. 

The Government of New Zealand : 

Parliamentary Debates, Vols, XVI. to XXXIX. 

LXXIV. to LXXXI. 21 Vols. 
BtatotHh 1841 to 1881. 18 Vols. 

Journal of the Hhum- of l.Vpr '1880. 

Journals of Legislative Council. 1874 to 1880. Vols. 
The Government of South Ausii;: 

Parliamentary Tapers. Vols. I. to IV., 1881. 
The Government of the United St 

Commercial Relations of the United States: Reports from 
Consuls. February, 1HK2. 
The Agent-General for South Australia : 
South Australian Directory, I 
The Medical Board, Melbourne : 

The Medical Register, 1882. 
Tho Director of the Geological Survey, Canada : 

■ rt of Progress, with Maps lor 1S7H-S0. 
Tin' Royal Geographical Society: 

Proceedings of the Society, May, 1882. Vol. IV 
The Statistical Society : 

Journal of the Society. VoL XLV., Port I. March. 
S. 13. Boulton, Esq, : 

The Russian Empire : its Origin and Development. By tb» 
Donor. 1 Vol. 1H82. 
J. G. Bonrinot, Esq. (Canada 1 ! : 

Tho Canadian Monthly, April, 1HH2. 

The Canadian I'urlinuientary Companion and Annual 
Register, 1881. 
Anthony Forster, Esq. : 

South Australia : its Progress and Prospects. 1 Vol. 
IJ. II. Hayter, Esq. (Melbourne I : 

Census of Victoria. 1881. 
Sir Henry Farkes, K.C.M.G. : 

Financial Statement of the Colonial Treasurer of I 

South Wales, 1855 to 1881. 
New South Wales in 1880. 
Photograph of Sydney. 
Thomas Watson, Esq. : 

< ape Town Chamber of Commerce; Animal Address of ui« 
President, 1882. 
l.i>utenant-Colonel Wm. White : 

The Militia List, Canada, 18*2. 
Canadian Blue-Books. 

The Earl of Dcnraven, in introducing the reader of tho paper. 
BBJd : I will only say I am sure we all regret that we are deprived 
of tho pleasure of having His Grace the Duke of Manchester in the 
chair to-night. He would, I am sure, have been extremely glad to 

Tlti 1 Hotiketn Territory •>/ South Awttntkt, 


hero to have takeu part in our proceedings this evening, 
to the very great interest he takes in all questions relating 
Australasia; but, without delaying you further, I will call upon 
Thomas Harry to read his paper. 


mum vl Position axd Area. 

area of the Northern Territory of South Australia is about 

J.000 square miles, or say two and a half times the size of France, 

and between four and five times the size of the United Kingdom of 

Great Britain and Ireland. It extends from latitude 12" SB* S. to 

SB" i Darwin, the principal harbour for shipping, bein^ 

■tod m latitude 12" 28' S. and longitude 180° 52' E. By a curious 

lomer, the title of South Australia applies to the whole of the 

central belt of territory which lies between Adelaide and Port 

rin, and thus some confusion is caused to persons who cannot 

stand how the prefix " South '' is applied to a large portion 

most northerly of the settled districts of Australia. 


niment is carried on by a resident magistrate, with the 
(iovcrnment Resident,'' and acting under the orders of the 
iber of the Cabinet in Adelaide who for the time being is 
responsible for the administration of the affairs of the Territory. 
Owing to the groat distance of Palmer* ton, the capital town of the 
Nurthero Territory, from Adelaide (about 2,000 miles by laud and 
between 8,000 and 4,000 miles by sea), official instructions of any 
urgency arc for the most part transmitted by the overland telegraph, 
which places Palmerston in direct communication witli Adelaide, 
end. "" Java, with Europe. 


Of the history of North Australia there is little to be said, but a 
brief sketch of the circumstances which first led to the settlement of 
the Northirn Territory may not be without interest. In 1857, when 
the new constitution was established in South Australia, Mr. B. 11. 
Babbagc, who represented the district of Encouut' r Pay iu Parliu- 
it, brought forward the question of the exploration of tie 

he result of his representations an expedition was fittofl 

i in Adelaide, and Mr. Babbage, resigning his seat in the Mouse 

cmbly, accepted the command. Babbage's expedition worked 

304 The Northern Territory/ of So nth J, 

its way up north between Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner. Here 
they came npoii the remains of an adventurous squatter named 
Coulthard, who had died from want of water. Whilst Babbage's 
party were out, the firm of Chambers and Finke sent up John 
McDouall Stuart, the explorer, with two other men, to the 
north-west. They discovered the creek which now bears Chambers' 
name, and some fresh-water springs to the north of that point. 
Stuart's provisions running short, he returned homewards by way 
of Lake Gairdner and Fowler's Bay, passing right round Babbage's 
party on his way. Meanwhile, Babbage's party had come to a 
standstill, and Colonel Warburton was sent oat to relieve and bring 
them back, which he successfully accomplished. Various expedi- 
tions followed, with more or less success, and all tending to show 
that there were immense tracts of country in the far north of much 
greater value than had at first been believed, until at last, ou the 
- 1th July, 1862, Mr. Stuart actually succeeded in reaching the sea 
at Van Diemen's Gulf, and thus provod the practicability of crow- 
ing the continent from one side to the other. In his journal 
says : " I did not inform any of tho party except Thring and Auld 
that I was so near the sea, as I wished to give them a surprise on 
reaching it. Thring, who rode in advance of me, called out ' The 
sea ! ' which so took them all by surprise that he had to repeat tb 
call before they understood what was meant ; hearing which, they 
immediately gave three long and hearty cheers." 

On Stuart's return, the then Commissioner of Crown Lands, Mr. 
Strangways, received many applications from squatters desirous 
occupying the land, but at that time the Territory was technically 
a part of New South Wales, though it was doubtful whether N> 
South Wales had any authority over it. At any rate, South A 
tralia had none. Applications were made simultaneously to tin 
Home Government by South Australia and Queensland to deal 
temporarily with tho Territory, and as the result an order in 
Council was issued in 1868, annexing the territory formally to South 
Australia. The first attempt at settlement took place at Escape 
Cliffs, Adam Bay, at the mouth of the Adelaide River, but the site 
was a bad one, and had to bo abandoned. Mr. Goyd> 
Surveyor-General, was then sent to Port Darwin with a large and 
well-equipped party. He fixed upon the point now known as 
Palmer ston, on tho east side of the harbour of Port Darwin, as the 
site for the chief town of the new country, and the result has fully 
justified the selection made by him. From this point the detailed 
surveys of the country have since been prosecuted. 

The Xorthcrn Territory of South Australia. 305 


The climate within 200 miles of the coast is in some respects 
-uuilar to that of Mauritius, though not so distinctly tropical 
in character. The wet and dry seasons are very sharply marked, 
the former setting in about the middle of October with the N.E. 
monsoon, and lasting till April. During the rest of the year there 
bat very little rain. The annual rainfall averages from sixty to 
inches. The following record of the rainfall at Port Darwin 
been supplied by the Postmaster-General for South Australia : — 
I 578 inches; 1871, 80-050; 1872, 55-010; 1878, 72-520; 
is:.". 66-590; 187G, 00-740; 1877, 60-110; 1878, 
»»; 1879, 09010; 1880, 05 400; 1881, 02-291 inchcB. Mr. 
le, the senior officer of the Telegraph Department, whose long 
residence in the country makes him a competent authority on the 
subject, says : " There is an almost entire absence of those 
enervating influences which prostrate the European labourer in 
other tropical countries, such as Iudia, Java, Singapore, or Africa. 
: kmen carry out their various avocations throughout the day 
without taking any precaution to ward off the rays of the sun — the 
eight hours' Bystem being usually adopted, as in oilier parts of Aus- 
tralia. The climate, in fact, may be said to bo more of that type 
which is generally known as Australian rather than tropical ; and 
the same remark will — with very few exceptions — also apply to the 
flora, fauna, and perspective of the country. It is free from cholera 
and other scourges of hot countries, and on the whole may be con- 
sidered healthy. Intermittent fever, commonly known as fever and 
agtte, is prevalent at times, especially in low lying localities, or 
immediately after the wet season ; but this complaint is not 
dangerous in itself, and can often be prevented by a moderate 
and judicious use of medicine and a small amount of bodily 

id what I have myself seen of the country in the months of 
and January last, I should be inclined to think that as 
it gradually increases, and the production and use of fresh 
- and vegetables become more general, the health of the popu- 
lation will improve. Certainly, I have seldom seen children look 
mora healthy anywhere than did the few whom I saw at Palmerston, 
and I was told that the ordinary children's ailments, such as croup, 
diphtheria, measles, scarlatina, whooping-cough and the like, w 
unknown. I met a good many cases of fever and ague amongst 
xninert in the up-country districts, but if the nature of the alluvial 
miner s work be taken into account, his exposure to wet, heat, and 

306 The Northern Territory of South Australia. 

chills, and the difficulty in some cases of procuring a regular supply 
of the most nutritious food, this cannot be considered surprising. 
The Government officials, and others whose duties do not expose 
them to specially disadvantageous conditions, enjoy excellent 

Railway and Other Communication. 

At present Port Darwin is kept in communication with the rest 
of the world by means of various lines of steamers, including the 
Dutch Netherlands, British India, and others, which for the most 
part make Hongkong. Singapore, or one of the Java ports their point 
of departure, and continue the voyage in a south-easterly direction 
from Port Darwin to New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland 
Port Darwin (so named after the famous naturalist of H.M.S. 
IJeai/fe) is described by Captain De Harte, R.N., a gentleman of 
large experience in Netherlands, India, and Australian commerce, 
as being " certainly, after Sydney, the finest harbour of Australia, 
having good room for an immense number of vessels, witb a 
safe entrance nnd good anchorage. There can be no doubt." 
he says, "that after a few years Port Darwin must be the 
depot of Eastern commerce for Australia." Before very long 
it is to be hoped that through railway communication will exist 
between Adelaide in the south and Port Darwin in the north The 
first, and most southerly portion, of about 400 miles, is already 
practically completed, viz., from Adelaide to the Government 
Gums, viA Quorn Junction. A Bill authorising Qm con- 
struction of another 100 miles, in a northerly direction, has 
recently been passed, and the construction of the rest is only a 
question of time. All parties in the Colony are practically agreed 
as to the necessity for the construction of the great transcontinental 
line; the main point upon which any difference exists being whether 
the work should be carried out by means of a loan fund, to be rais 
by the Colony for public works purposes in the ordinary way, i 
whether the proposals of certain English capitalists, to construct Qu 
line in return for grants of land, and a guarantee of A in- 

terest on cost of construction, should be accepted. But into: 
merits of these questions this is not the time or place to enter. 

Whenever the work is carried out, its practicability will be mnch 
facilitated by the existence of that great work of which South Aus- 
tralia is so justly proud — namely the Overland Telegraph. Immense 
as would be the benefits whioh a lino of railway would confer i 
developing the resources of the Australian continent, it is doubfi 
whether they would exceed those which the centres of AustralUn 

The Northern Territory of South Australia. 


trade and commerce enjoy as tbe result of the labours of those far- 
seeing men, Sir James Fergusson, Mr. H. 13. T. Strangways, and 
Others, who, in spite of all opposition, caused the telegraph to be 
taken across 2,000 miles of what were then pathless wilds, and 
brought the producers and factors of our leading Australian staples 
within speaking distance of the European markets. It has further 
served as the basis of all subsequent explorations, prevented the 
abandonment of the central country, and led to its gradual 
occupation for pastoral purposes. 

Tbe mam facts of the history of that enterprise ore known lo 
many of you, and are well set forth in Mr. Harcus's work on South 
Australia. It is five-and-twenty years since the desirability of con- 
necting Australia with Europe by wire was first suggested, but 
the Colony was then too young to carry a scheme of such magnitude 
into practical effect. Five years later, on the return of Stuart, the 
explorer, from his adventurous journey right across the continent, 
the idea was again revived, hut it was not till 1870 that any practical 
ware taken to execute the work. After some further delay, the 
pole was planted at Port Darwin in September, 1870, but 
the whole line was not completed until 22ud August, 1872. 
Extraordinary difficulties presented themselves, but the work was 
successfully carried out, under the able and energetic direction of 
Mr. Charles Todd, the Superintendent of Telegraphs. The length 
tbe wire from Port Darwin to Adelaide is 1,016 miles. The total 
waa about £i GO, 000, the annual interest on which is by no 
recouped by the receipts ; but the indirect benefits to the 
Colony are immense. A member of the Legislature who had opposed 
the Telegraph Bill has since stated that within six months after the 
opening of the line, the Colony netted nearly a quarter of a million 
sterling extra on their wheat harvest, through the telegraph enabling 
sales to be made in foreign markets, and facilitating the chartering 
of ships to convey the produce to Europe. 

At the present time the lion. J. L. Parsons, Minister for the 
them Territory, is engaged in making a tour of the country with a 
party of members of Parliament, and Professor Tate, the well-known 
geologist. From telegraphic advices received from Mr. Parsom 
by the Government, it would appear that he is much impressed 
with its capabilities. lie telegraphed to the Chief Secretary on the 
8rd March from Pine Creek : " We are all greatly impressed with 
the character of the country round here ;" and on the previous day 
he said " that, having seen the Territory for himself, he could aay 
that it greatly exceeded his expectations, and its advancement was 
.undoubted" There can be little doubt that one result of the 


308 The Northern Territory of Scitth Australia. 

Ministerial visit will bo that a Bill will bo brought forward for t 
construction of a line of railway from Port Darwin to Pine Creek, 
about 200 miles. This would then form the most northerly sectl 
of the projected overland railway before referred to. 




The metalliferous portions of the country, which, so far a.s they 
are at present known, he chiefly within 50 miles on either side of 
the telegraphic line, and within 250 miles of the coast, abound in 
gold, tin, and copper ; whilst a great deal of land along the magni- 
ficent rivers which water the Territory, such as the Roper, Daly, 
Alligator, Victoria, &c, is well adapted for the cultivation of sugar. 
coffee, indigo, and other tropical products. Within ten miles of the 
town of Palmerston, a large quantity of land is now being cultivat 
for sugar, and some Ceylon planters are engaged at Rurojungli 
about thirty miles up country, in establishing coffee plantar 


Of the metals, gold is the only one which up to the present has 
been worked profitably. It is known to exist in considerable 
quantities over an area of nearly 2,000 square miles. Some valu- 
able gold-bearing quartz-reefs are now being worked, thou 
greater portion of the reefs lie idle for want of capital to devel 
them ; but it must always be borne in mind that in North Austn 
the existence of gold in paying quantities is not, as in India, 
matter open to doubt, but is an establithed fact. Writing wit 
the last few weeks, the editor of the Northern Territory Timet says 
" Our position on the 1st of January, 1882, is very reassuriu 
If the imposition of the gold duty has done nothing else, it has shown 
ns that with a handful of people we are raising gold. On* Awwfo 
and fifteen tlttntmtnrf pound* worth was shipped in 1881." 

Again, writing on the 21st January, he says : " During the pi 
three weeks four Chinese working Griffith's claim on tribute obtain 
four hundred and thirty ounces of gold." Of course, such finds 
the last-mentioned are exceptional, but taking into account the sparse 
character of the population and the immense extent of gold-be; 
country remaining practically untested, no doubt can exist in 
mind of any practical man who has visited North Australia as to 
valuable character of its gold field. At the Extended Union 21,' 
tons of ore have produced an average of five ounces to the ton. 

The actual workings which I saw were, however, for the most 
part on patchy little •• leadere " — very rich, no doubt, but not true 

Xorthcrn Territory of South Amtraliu. 



or permanent reefs. The latter require capital for their proper 
working and development, and as a matter of fact the mines 
have never been worked with capital at all. On surface indica- 
tions appearing these have been followed up by Bmall parties, 
backed, perhaps, with a week or two's credit for provisions at the 
nearest store. From personal observation I can testily that the 
-tuff raised is frequently pounded laboriously by hand in a mortar 
with a "jumper," and then panned off. If £6 per week per man 
cannot be earned in this way, the claim is generally abandoned, 
and the miners seek " fresh fields and pastures new." 

This brings me to the real weakness of the present system. It 
is the want of sufficient battery power. I have seen many places 
where a big battery surrounded by necessary appliances, boring 
apparatus for testing ground, and dam for storing water, would 
n become the nucleus of a thriving town, rivalling if not sur- 
ng the great mining centres of Victoria. In Victoria the 
charge for crushing is 5s. a ton. In the Northern Territory it 
varies from £1 as the minimum to A'2 as the maximum. It is 
found, notwithstanding, that the returns are very remunerative to 
the diggers, even after allowing for heavy cartage on stores, &c, 
and an export duty on gold of 2s. 6d. an ounce. 

At present we find this curious state of tilings. It does not pay 
to crush for a low figure, because the batteries are not kept con- 
stantly supplied with stone. This reacts on the digger, who will 
not continue raising stone because he has no guarantee that the 
will continue to crush. Both parties are hampered by want 

capital, preventing the establishment of works of a permanent 
character for the storage of water and the economical working of 
the ore. Wages are inflated, because uncertain. Land carriage 
and c<>st of stores rise from the same cause. Nothing can remedy 
this but the investment of capital on a large and liberal scale. 

Tin and Copper. 
These metals are known to exist in very considerable quantities ; 
in tiie present condition of the means of transport, it is not 
probable that they could be worked at an immediate profit, owing 
to the heavy cost of carriage. The construction of the northerly 
section of the transcontinental line would give these resources a 
chance of development, and add indefinitely to the trade of Port 

1 have referred to the fact that within a few miles of Tort 
Darwin a considerable extent of land is actually under cultivation 

310 The Northern Territory of South Australia. 

for sugar. The estate is called Delissaville, after Mr. De Lissa, the 
manager. Perhaps a description of this, the pioneer sugar planta- 
tion of the Territory, as I saw it on the 9th January last, may not 
be without interest. On reaching De Lissa's wharf, one glance 
showed the character of the work the sturdy pioneers have had to 
contend with. A broad track has been cut through a dense and 
almost impenetrable belt of mangroves, and a very serviceable 
tramway constructed on piles to facilitate the landing of plant and 
stores. Thence to the settlement, about two miles, a good iron- 
stone road has been made. A half-hour's walk through forest land, 
the most noticeable trees being eucalyptus, iron and stringy bark, 
ami palms, brings onewithin sight of the rising townshipof Deli 
ville, the prettiest as well as the most flourishing-looking place I 
have seen in the Territory. The site is most happily chosen, the 
drainage perfect, while splendid fresh water is available at all times 
of the year. A large space has been cleared around the settlement, 
but, with an artistic appreciation of beauty, the palms and some 
others of the more beautiful specimens of sub-tropical vegetation 
have been spared wherever practicable. These, when viewed from 
the station, form a charming foreground to the long stretches of 
sugar-cane and maize which surround one on every aide. 

After an inspection of the plant and machinery in the refining 
house, the manager showed the way round the cane-fields. Owing 
to the lateness of the season the crop was not so far advanced as 
expected to see it, but it looked very healthy and vigorous. 
year the white ants played great havoc with the cane, but this 
season it is hoped that a more thorough preparation of the ground, 
and the steeping of the young plants in carbolic acid, will prevent 
the ants from doing any harm. There are about two hundred acres 
under crop, and extensive preparations are being made to extend 
the area available for next season. 

The unskilled labour employed is entirely Chinese or native. Tho 
natives are from the Port Essington district, and have somehow 
been persuaded to work systematically and well at the hoeing of 
the ground. This is the only place where I have seen the abori 
gines doing any work more laborious than the occasional and 
perfunctory blacking of boots in PahnerBton. It shows, howi 
that training, kindness, and firmness will do a great deal with 
even a Port Essington black, who, though 

' ' Like the toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head." 

Nearly all the timber used in the buildings, which are of a re 
substantial character, has been cut from native trees — paper-bark 

Vori kun Territory of South Aust. 


iron-bark, pine, ic. In addition to the managerial residence, 
separate house accommodation has been provided for the native 
and Chinese labourers, who are kept apart as far as possible. All 
concerned must have worked very hard to bring about the state of 
advancement at which the settlement has arrived. The wonder is, 
how they have managed to get so much done for the money. I 
it is no secret that the total expenditure has not exceeded 
15,000, including plant and machinery of all kinds, erection, the 

ction of some miles of road, and clearing and cultivation 
of ground. Contiguous to this plantation some 00,000 acres have 
been taken up by South Australians, and should Delissaville 
realise the expectations of its promoters, no doubt a great and 
permanent industry will before long be established. The land is 
what is here called forest country, in contradistinction to the 
jungle land. It is undulating and covered with large trees, the 
soil being of a chocolate colour and rich in quality. 

Experiments have also been tried at the Government plantation 

me Bay, where in 1880 twenty acres were planted with 
different varieties of cane. The crops exceeded all expectations, the 
probable yield of cane being estimated at about two tons of sugar 
per acre. The Meera, Shigaka, and other kinds of dark-coloured 
cane grew well, and were very healthy. Thohght-colouredcaneswere, 
however, attacked by disease, a species of red rust. This has also 
occurred occasionally in Queensland with the light-coloured canes. 
The white ants did not attack the canes at the Government 
nursery, and the jungle country appears to be tolerably free from 
these pests. This jungle country is usually found in patches, or 
running parallel with creeks. The patches are not very exten- 
sive in area, being seldom of greater extent than from 40 to 100 
acres. The soil in the jungle country is dark in colour, and, as a 
role, very rich. A large area has been taken up along the banks 
of navigable rivers for the cultivation of sugar, but the owners 
await for the most part tho result of tho Do Lissa plantation 

investing their capital on a large scale. 

Coolie Labour. 

It need scarcely be added that one of the essential factors of the 
cultivation and manufacture of sugar is an abundance 
of cheap labour. The South Australian Government are fully 
alive to this necessity, and in December last instructed Major J. A. 
Fergueson to proceed to India for the purpose of arranging with 
the Government for the introduction of coohes into the Northern 
Territory. Under date of 17th February, 1882, Major Fergusson 

r :_ 

.-" Bntf JnafMfic. 

bern Territory in AdeL 
rrse of which he detail 
by the Government of India 
A the possible cupidity and 
enough to meet at 
from Demerarn 
tting out for the same place. 
all looked healthy, happy, ini.l 
I fat, mud sesy unlike native children in 
India. I spoke to Kreral of them, in each Hindsstanee as I conl. 
master, and they afl ajuud thai British Guiana was a ve: 
place, and that they had been veil treated on board ship. Bar 
had brought hack a hve of i apnea (£ 10,000) among them, or an 
average of WO nana* a head, a sun which no coolie in India pro 
bahly ever saved. On the other hand, those who were about 
embark loasfd, as a rale, laiawi eUr , half-starved wretch 
were, I aarpeet, the very sn cen in&s of np-conntry bazaars. Th< 
were chiefly from Oade and the Xorth-West Provinces, from 
B e nar e s , Patna. and ab»»»»i>^* god « few from Delhi." 

Major Fergusson entertains a high opinion of the suitability 
coolie labour for the plantations of the Northern Territory, and 
tins subject remarks: •♦The cooties are quiet, patient workers, 
slow and plodding, and antnetimee perhaps rather irritating 1 
their phlegmatic manner ; but they are very easily managed, and 
kindly treated wiQ stick faithfully to their employers. They are 
wanting in ambition, and therefore it is that they will toil mi from 
generation to generation, earning a wretched pittance of Sd. a day, 
with no idea of bettering their condition. Unlike the Chinese, they 
may be depended upon to remain in the service of their employe) 
content if they are earning a trifle more than enough to secure tli 
necessaries of life, and delighted if they can save a small sum 
sides. As far as anything future can be predicted with confidence, 
it may be safely said that coolie emigration is likely to be the turning- 
point in the history of the Northern Territory, and to contribni 
largely to the future wealth and prosperity of South Australia.' 

After describing the mndu* operandi on one of the largest indi 
plantations in India, Major Ferguson says : " I see no reason todespmr 
of indigo being profitably grown in the Northern Territory by • 
capitalist or company possessing the proper machinery. The rain- 
fall, climate, and, so far as is known, the soil, are all favourable, 
and the small rent which the South Australian planter would pay, 
compare J — !± h his Bengal competitor, might nearly equalise tin- 







The Northern Territory of South Australia. 

Wl Lave already in the Territory some 2,000 or 2,500 Chinese. 
There are, in fact, four or five times as many Chinese asEuropenns 
MtUed there. Chinese labour is, however, too dear for plantatu n 
work on a large scale. For the most part, the Chinese turn tbflb 
attention to digging for alluvial gold, in which operation they are 
very successful. They have not as yet taken part in quartz mining 
to any considerable extent. Port Darwin is one of the only ports in 
tho Australian Colonies to which the Chinese are permitted to come 
without let or hindrance, and the question of the desirability or other- 
wife of their exclusion is one which is a frequent subject of debate 
among the colonists. On the one hand, the European alluvial diggers 
complain that any new field is " rushed " by the Mongolians, vim 
■warm to the diggings like ants and clear out all the gold ; and on the 
Other, many of the storekeepers maintain that were it not for the 
trade done by and with the Celestials, the Territory would have been 
unable to struggle through the first few years of its existence as a 
settlement. Their numbers fluctuate very much. In the wet 
season, which is that most favourable to the operations of the 
alluvial miner, they usually come in considerable numbers, and many 
return to Hongkong, which is only ten days' distant by steamer, oa 
the approach of the dry season. Wages are high, averaging for the 
same class of work probably from 30 to 50 per cent, higher than 
in Sydney or Melbourne, but at present the openings for skilled 

(tor are necessarily few. 

Pastoral Land. 

■ and varied as are the tropical and sub-tropical resources of 

thorn Territory, it also comprises waste tracts of land which 

l eminently adapted for the more distinctively Australian branches 

udnatry, namely, the breeding of sheep and cattle. Practically, 

the whole of the country north of the 26th parallel of south latitude 

has been taken up for grazing purposes, though only a very small 

proportion of the whole has been stocked. Here and there, leases 

locks, believed to be exceptionally good, have been put up by 

the Government to anction, in lien of their accepting from the first 

ler the customary annual rent of 2s. Cd. a square mile. The 

result has been most satisfactory to the State, 8,000 miles having 

lately realised nearly £10,000, instead of £1,000, which had hitherto 

been considered a fair annual rental for a similar area within the 

bounds of South Australia proper. 

Cattle and horses do very well in the Territory, their condition 
.dly improving on the natural grasses, but in many 
i Hfnr tin- I'uixt there is a singular absence of saliferous herbage. 

814 The Northern Territory of South Australia. 

and rock, salt Las to be imported to keep the horses in good health. 
Inland, saltbush is met with, and many of the springs are either 
salt or brackish. Sheep are doing well on the Delamere Downs, 
near the sources of the River Victoria. I imagine the climate in 
the extreme north must be of too tropical a character to permit of 
the successful breeding of sheep for wool. If Port Darwin should 
(as many people believe it will) develop into an important station 
for the frozen meat trade, an effort might perhaps be made to breed 
sheep for that special business. They are found to be prolific, 
but the increase is stunted, being only about half the size and 
weight of the southern sheep. 

In December last, when I was at Glencoe station, about 110 miles 
from Port Darwin, there were Baid to bo between 500 and 600 
mixed cattle at that place. Near here, too, I met 250 head of 
cattle, which had just arrived overland from Brisbane ; they were 
generally in splendid condition, and fit for the butcher notwithstand- 
ing their long journey. There were 1,600 mixed cattle and 6,000 
sheep on the Delamere Downs, about 280 miles from the coast, and 
1,800 mixed cattle at Elsey Greek, 300 miles from Port Darwin. The 
annual consumption of fat cattle in the Territory is only about 
1,000 head, but the demand will no doubt rapidly augment with 
the steadily increasing population, and the requirements of the 
Chinese, who are fast acquiring a taste for substantial animal food 
as an addition to the familiar and customary rice. The cattle con- 
sumed in the Territory for the most part come from Queensland, 
and realise from £6 to £7 10s. per head, though I saw one herd 
at Yam Creek for which half as much again was being asked and 

Westward from the Herbert river to within forty or fifty miles of 
the telegraph line, the country is said to be of excellent character 
for grazing, but permanent water is scarce. The land is a va 
plain, without a hill or ridgo. Mr. W. Buchanan discovored acl 
of good waters extending from the Herbert in latitude 19* 
to within forty miles of the Overland Telegraph. He reports th» 
country as being well adapted for the construction of tanks and dame. 
The rainfaU is heavy, probably from fifty to sixty inches, aul 
drought is there unknown. Between Port Darwin and 
Creek, a distance of 600 miles, there is the Newcastle Block, whic 
is well grassed, watered for forty miles, and is estimated by compet 
local authorities to be capable of carrying 8,000 or 10,000 head 
of cattle. Overland travellers from Queensland describe the country 
along the Gulf of Carpentaria on Leichardt's and Gregory's original 
tracks as being on the whole poor, but well watered. Westward of 

The Northern Territory of South Auatral'm. 315 

the telegraph line there is good laud in patches in the neighbour- 
hood of the Victoria river. It is well watered with creeks and 
:igs. Going further south towards the 2tith parallel, there is in 
the neighbourhood of tbo Charlotte Waters telegraph station a large- 
area, of which Mr. Ernest Giles, the celebrated explorer, speaks in 
very high terms. 


Pelmeraton and Sonthport are the only two places surveyed as 
towns. The former is beautifully situated on an elevated plateau, 
and commands fine sea views. The natural drainage is perfect, and 
there is probably no town within the tropical belt, the Bite of which 
is better adapted by nature for the residences of Europeans. An 
ocean breeze is usually perceptible at some time during the day, and 
tempers the tropical heat. There is also an abundant supply of 
excellent water ; bananas, pineapples, and other tropical and sub- 
tropical fruits grow freely. At present the chief buildings are the 
Governor's residence and the Government offices. There are two 
or three stores of considerable size, three banks, and a small church. 
The progress of building has been much checked by the fact that 
the town allotments are chiefly in the hands of persons resident in 
England, who in most cases decline either to sell or let their pro- 
perty, or will only let on short leases. 

Sonthport is the point of departure for the diggings, and is 
situated on an arm of the harbour, about twenty-five miles south of 
Palmcrston. With the gradual development of the gold-fields it is 
likely to become a place of very considerable importance. 


In considering the probable future of the Northern Territory, 
regard must be bad not merely to the rate of its actual progress in 
the past, but to the history of tho growth of the other Colonies. 
What has taken place in Victoria, New South Wales, and Queens- 
land will probably occur in the case of North Australia— that is 
itfter the first few struggling years are past the settlement will 
dop with great rapidity. We see signs of this already, though 
at present the population is but small. At the date of the last 
census (April 8, 1881) the figures stood at 3,347 males and 101 
females, being a total of 8,451, of whom 2,784 were Chinese ; but, as 
I have previously said, the number of Chinese varies very much 
with the season of the year. In addition to these there are a few 
nomadic tribes of aboriginals who are not included in the census. 
The construction of various works, which it is understood the 

"316 The Northern Territory of South Australia. 

-Government have now in contemplation, will doubtless greatly aid 
the permanent settlement of the country. Last year, for the fin 
time, the revenue exceeded the expenditure ; the actual receip 
being about £50,000, or, in round numbers. £10,000 in excess of 
estimate. The estimated receipts for the financial year ending 80th 
June, 1882, are put down in the Parliamentary papers at £44.020. 
but tliese figures have already been much exceeded, owing to tin 
great demand which has taken place for plantation and pasto: 
lands, as well as the impetus lately given to the mining industry 
so that this year tbere will be a large surplus. It must, however 
be some timo before the Northern Territory can discharge the whole 
of its liabilities to South Australia, which has spent from first to 
last £577,015 on the Territory, of which about £400,000 is still 
outstanding. It is the opinion of many persons, that owing to the 
immense distance of Port Darwin from the seat of Government 
will become necessary before very long to form North Australia in 
a separate Colony, with its own responsible government. There can 
be little doubt that such will be the case eventually, unless tb 
whole of the Colonies are merged in one general scheme of Federa 
tion. Narrowing the question of Federation down simply to tin 
Australian point of view for the moment, and without regard to 
the greater and Imperial considerations involved, it will, I think, 
be generally admitted that the matter of customs tariffs will have 
to be settled between the Colonies before any further steps of a 
practical character can be taken to bring about a closer union than 
at present exists. There are many colonists who still believe that 
the establishment of competing tariffs, and the jealousy of rival 
neighbours, tend rather to promote than to check the extension of 
Colonial trade and commerce. Bo far, however, as the people 
the Northern Territory are concerned, their port ia practically 
free one, and for the present the tariffs existing in the sister Coloni 
have little direct interest for them. Their political demands 
chiefly confined to requesting that they may be represented in th 
Adelaide Parliament. This point has been recently brought befor 
the Hon. J. L. Parsons, the Minister responsible for the Territory, 
and he has promised to bring the matter before his colleague: 
They have also urged that the export duty of 2s. Gd. an ouucl- ofl 
the gold raised may be removed. This was originally imposed with 
a view to making the Chinese alluvial diggers pay their fair propor- 
tion to the revenue ; but it has been found to press very heavily on 
the Europeans, so that some other means of "shifting the inci- 
dence " on to Mongolian shoulders will have to be adopted, snch as 
an increased duty on rice, dried fish, opium, Ac. 











Northern Territory of South AuttraUm, 317 

1 1] conclusion, I will express a hope that although the 
ssanly restricted limits of a short paper have only permitted 
vary cursory review of the chief features and capabilities of this 
little known portion of the Australian Continent, yet some informa- 
tion may haTe been afforded to those interested in its progress. I 
see no reason why North Australia, with its great and varied 
resources, should not in course of time prove a most important 
factor in the sum total of Australian trade and commerce. 


Sir AaTinnt Bi.ytii, K.C.M.G. : My Lord, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 
—Probably there is no parti certainly there is no part of the great 
Australian continent, that is so little known as the Northern Terri- 
of the province of South Australia, and therefore my first 
oty — and it is a pleasant one — will be to tender my thanks, and 
the thanks of others here, to Mr. Harry for his interesting paper. 
• are few persons in the world, and probably very few in Lon- 
who could give us any information about this territory — a 
itory which, at all events, has been a subject of great anxiety 
South Australia, and one which has almost unlimited resources. 
I do not know bow it is, but after hearing a paper we generally 
by making some few remarks on the concluding passages of 
paper, and my attention was drawn to that by the short 
ferenco made to the question of Federation. Now Federation, as 
in England about Australia, and as it is thought of by 
people in Australia, are very different matters indeed. I may say 
• yoar by year the probability of the Federation of Australia 
aaatns to me to grow farther and further off in distance. It would 
haps not be too much to say that there is about as much pos- 
sibility of the Federation of Europe as there is of Australia. 
(IdMighter.) The different feelings and laws — and all the Colonies 
have got their own power of making laws — are growing year by 
year wider. Although I agree with the reader of this paper 
that it is very probable that further separation of the Colonies may 
be hastened — for I see no prospect whatever of anything like a 
Federal Union — in the great Colony of Queensland ; the f»rce» in 
that part of the Colony and the southern part are as distinct as 
ey were a short time ago in the Northern and Southern States 
America. The northern part of Queensland, and the northern 
part to which our attention is now directed, have many things in 
common, and it will be probably not generally known that the 
interest in that part of Australia is becoming very important 



The Northern Territory uf South Australia. 

indeed. The amount of sugar produced and the fortunes made by 
6Ugar grown in the northern parts of Queensland are not unknown 
to tbose who are acquainted with the trade ; and the advantages 
of sugar-growing in Northern Australia are by no means inferior 
to the advantages which were given by the best parts of Queens- 
land. In fact, it has been stated that the time for maturing the 
oane in the Northern Territory of South Australia is very much 
less than is required in the northern parts of Queensland. So that 
everything seems to point to a great sugar industry in the Northern 
Territory. That the results there are few is to be lamented, and 
the same may bo said of every other Australian Colony. (Hear, 
hear.) But recognising as I do that population is wealth, I should 
be exceedingly glad to see thousands more aborigines in every pari 
of Queensland. (Hear, hear.) As everything should be done to 
facilitate this trade, we must recognise that in the sugar parts of 
Australia, which are by no means small, coolie or black labour of 
some sort or another is one of the necessities that must be fur- 
nished. (Hear, hear.) It is no use talking about English emigrants 
going out there to grow sugar. The climate is not fitted for them, 
the wages would not suit them, and the markets of supply arc so 
much nearer the great Indian resources that we must constantly 
look — in the northern parts of Australia — to a great influx of black 
labour. It would probably bo not too much to say that there is no 
fruit or vegetable in the world that cannot be grown in Au 
as there probably is no mineral that cannot be found in Australia. 
So that what the future of that great continent may be we may 
none of us live to see, but can all form a general idea. Recollect- 
ing as I can the Colony of Victoria, and which has now nearly a 
million inhabitants, with a capital larger than Edinburgh, with 
nearly 800,000 people — recollecting that as a small place indeed, I 
think we can fairly anticipate that we shall see the population and 
the products of Australia increased and multiplied exceeding!}', 
both in quantity and variety. I think that scant testimony \im 
been borne in this paper to many persons who bore the burden and 
the heat of the day in settling the Northern Territory and con- 
structing the overland telegraph. I would be the last person to 
endeavour to detract in the slightest degree from the labour of an 
old colleague of mine, a well-known Fellow and member of tbo 
Council of this Institute — Mr. Strangways. (Hear, hear.) To 
Sir James Fergusson, when Governor of the Colony in 1870, mainly 
belongs the great credit of inaugurating the Australian telegraph. 
(Hear.) But Mr. Strangways, although he had that idea and 
worked liberally and very fairly throughout, never was a member 

77if Noriktrn Territory of South Australia. 819 



the Government that had anything to do with the construction 
the telegraph ; and I am sorry that an opportunity has not 
n taken to speak of the labours of the then prime mover. 
Captain Hart, and the Chief Secretary, Sir William Milne ; and, 
perhaps more bo, the extraordinary labour shown by Mr. Todd, 
Postmaster- General of South Australia, who cume across that 
continent and constructed that mighty work